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ST D 20D7 lEQbfill T 

^ California State Library 



/?e€eMW NOV 1891 










Vol. XLI.-No. 1. SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 


3, 1891. 


( DEWEY & CO., PuWkhere, 
( Office, 220 Market St. 



Barley as Compared With Corn. 

Many farmers who have come to California 
from the great corn States east of the Rocky 
mountains have probably drawn conclusions 
from their own experience as to the value of 
the barley which they feed in California, as 
compared with corn, the great feed grain of 
their own State. They will be interested in a 
statement of the results obtained by experi- 
ments by Prof. W. A. Henry of the Wisconsin 
Experiment Station. 

The purpose of the first experiment was to 
determine the value of barley in comparison 
with corn for hog-feeding. In the first trial 
10 hogs, 14 months old, were divided into two 
lots of fiye each. To the first lot was fed bar- 
ley meal, while the second received cornmeal. 
The experiment continued eight weeks, during 
which time the first lot of hogs consumed 28.32 
lbs. of barley meal and gained 601 lbs. In the 
game time the second lot of hogs consumed 
3100 lbs. of cornmeal and gained 713 lbs. 
From this we find that: 

Lot I required 471 lbs. of barley meal for 100 lbs. 
gain. 

Lot 2 required 435 pounds of cornmeal for loo 
lbs. gain. 

This shows that it required 36 lbs., or 8 per 
cent more barley meal than cornmeal to pro- 
duce 100 lbs. of gain. In this experimsnt both 
feeds were soaked with water. It was found 
that it required about 3 lbs. of water to prop- 
erly soak a pound of barley meal, while a 
pound of cornmeal required but 2 lbs. of wa- 
ter. The hogs fed on barley :meal |oonsumed 
30 lbs. of water daily with the feed, while the 
hogs on cornmeal consumed 22 lbs. daily. Even 
with this large amount of water in the feed the 
birley hogs drank 2 lbs. extra, daily, from a 
separate trough, while the cornmeal hogs drank 
bat three-fourths of a pound. 

Another experiment was to compare barley- 
meal and sweet skimmilk versus cornmeal and 
sweet skimmilk as food for pigs. The pigs 
were about five months old at the beginning of 
the trial. There were six pigs in each lot. The 
experiment lasted nine weeks, during which 
time Lot I consumed 1993 pounds of barley- 
meal, 2404 pounds of sweet skimmilk, and 
gained 604 pounds. In the same time. Lot II 
consucned 1807 pounds of cornmeal, 2192 
pounds of sweet skimmilk, and'>gained 591 
pounds. 

Lot I consumed 330 pounds of barley-meal and 
398 pounds of sweet skimmilk for 100 pounds of 
gain. 

Lot II consumed 306 pounds of cornmeal and 
371 pounds of sweet skimmilk for 100 pounds of 
gain. 

Again, there is a difference of about 8 per 
cent in favor of the corn. These experiments 
■bowed that when feeding barley care should 
be taken to prepare the food so as to render it 
palatable. Hogs will eat cornmeal in almost 
any shape, dry, wet and even sour; when fed 
barley-meal, their preference calls for consider- 
able soaking in a comparatively large amount 
of water. 

In commenting upon the experiments Prof. 
Henry ntdds : 

Our results show that barley is not quite so 
valuable as corn, pound for pound or laying on 
fat, but we must remember that corn has a very 
high feeding value in such cases as this. One 
prime use for barley is in giving the farmer an 
additional variety of feed. As a rule we have 
too few kinds of feed upon our farms, and we 
rely too macb on corn, a In barley we have a 



feed capable of building up bone and muscle, 
and serving a generally useful purpose on the 
farm. In G<>lifornia it is the almost universal 
horse feed, and no animals have more endur- 
ance than horses raised and fed on rolled bar- 
ley. Barley is the common grain feed of Eng- 
land, and North Europe. 

And from this we infer that when Prof. 
Henry comes to live upon his San Diego county 



Plants as Reagents. — From the resalta 
given it appears that by means of beer yeast it 
is possible to recognize the presence of 0.0005 
grm. of phosphate in one liter of water, which 
corresponds to 5-10,000, OOOths of the weight 
of the liquid. But agricultural plants are also 
reagents of an extreme delicacy and accuracy. 




OUR STATE FLOWER, THE CALIFORNIA POPPY - Eechacholtzia Callfornica. 



ranch he will count that the climate will more 
than make np the 8 per cent deficiency in the 
barley, and that Cilifornia without corn is bet- 
ter than the central west with it. But we an- 
ticipate. 

The Wonders of Nature. — Certain worms 
similar to the tubifex multiply by producing 
new parts. There is one form, known by the 
quaint name of Nais, which will develop in the 
midst of its own body a second head, and jast 
in front of the new head a second tail. Thus 
there come to be, as It were, two worms joined 
together; the front one hat the old head and a 
new tail, the hind one a new head and the old 
tail. By and by the companions separate, and 
the parent body is thus transformed ii.to two 
complete animal*. 



The anthor gives as an example the sugar cane, 
the dominant food of which is calcium phos- 
phate. With the complete manure the cane 
gives a harvest of 57,000 kilos, per hectare. If 
we omit the phosphate, the yield is only 15,000 
kilos. Hence 600 kilos, superphosphate, con- 
taining 90 kilos, phosphoric acid, determine an 
excess of crop of 42,000 kilos, per hectare, 
which represents 70 times the weight of the 
phosphate and 466 times the weight of the 
phosphoric acid. If referred to the 4,000,000 
kilos of vegetable soil covering the surface of a 
hectare, the phosphate represents less than 
1 6.000 part of the weight of the soil and the 
phosphoric acid leas than one forty thousandth. 
The author, George Ville, hopes to fix the limits 
of this method. 



Our State Flower. 

We place upon the first page of our new vol- 
ume a portrait of our new State Flower as 
adopted at the last meeting of the State Floral 
Society. The announcement of this action has 
been followed by approving comment in the 
public press, and in such conversation as has 
come to our ears. This flower of the whole 
year and the whole State, and in Its typical 
species, only of the State, is by common con- 
sent crowned as the queen flower of California. 

Our engraving has a botanical rather than an 
artistic cast. Perhaps at another time we 
may present a prettier picture, but just now it 
seems desirable that our distant readers should 
know just what sort of a flower has been given 
the scepter in California, and this can be best 
shown by the botanist's heartless method of 
analysis. Fig. 1 shows the full bloom, the 
style of the leaf and stem, also the pointed 
seed-pod, which Fig. 2 shows as opened when 
still green, and Fig. 3 presents the pod as it 
naturally opens when dry and mature. Fig. 4 
is the upper part of the seed-pod before open- 
ing. Fig. 5 is a seed magnified and Fig. 6 is a 
section of the same, showing the germ, while 
Fig. 7 shows the germ more highly magnified. 
Fig. 8 shows how the stamens are attached to 
the petals of the corolla, and Fig. 9 is a cross- 
section of the unripe seed-pod. 

In connection with the engraving which will 
introduce our State flower to those who do not 
know It, we cannot do better than reproduce 
the closing paragraphs of Miss Pratt's essay, 
read at the November meeting of the Floral 
Society, which well portrays some of the char- 
acteristics of the flower that entitle it to the 
distinction it has received: 

In choosing a floral emblem for a State, it is 
desirable that the flower should be a native, 
and not only widely distributed but striking, 
so that everybody may thoroughly know It, 
and that it will be among the first to attract 
the attention of the children and so connected 
with their earliest memories, but that it should 
be beautiful, easily represented in paintings, 
carvings or architectural designs; and for this 
State it seems specially desirable that the 
flower should be golden in color. All these re- 
quirements this little blossom fully satisfies. 
The typical flower is found only within our 
borders, though varieties occur as far north as 
Washington and southeast to Texas — about 10 
in all, varying in manner of growth, color or 
both; but the Eachscholtzia, as we know it, is 
never found outside of our State. One has 
only to watch the children coming home from a 
trip to the country to see which flower they 
love best. It is one of their greatest delights 
to pick a whole armful, and the quantities the 
florists gather and bring to the city show that 
the older people fully appreciate their choice. 
No other California wild flower is so widely 
known or so highly prized as this, and surely 
no other has been painted so many times. 

Both flower and foliage are well adapted for 
carving or decorating our buildings or banners, 
and who can describe its color ? All the golden 
emblems of the State combined seem to be 
needed to give this wonderfully glistening, 
brilliant, intense coloring, which after all can 
never be represented, and, like so many other 
wonders, people must come here and see to 
fully{appreoiate. 



2 



f ACIFie t^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 3 1891 



Wild Flowers. 

"lAn essay by M 188 Lilian Howard, of Santa Cruz, read 
at the Sint» Cruz Horticultural Convention.! 

The great maea of wild tl}werB form the un- 
congidered trifles of our fields and plains. Tliey 
owe no thanks to man, for be does cot care to 
perpetuate them, neither have they fear of 
him, for they do not, as a class, infringe upon 
his domain. A few may please him by their 
brilliancy of coloring, as they grow in mas-es 
and blend harmoniously with some pleadng 
landscape; their patches and bands of bine and 
white and their long stretches of gold and 
orange may compel attention and even admira- 
tion. A few may please the casual cbierver 
by the beauty or peculiarity of their forms, as 
in the case of the rose, the lily, the dicentra, 
and the lady slipper. 

A few have become general favorites on ac- 
count of their extreme delicacy of form and 
color, as the baby blue eyes and the lily bell. 
Bat it remains a melancholy fact that the 
popular expression is a cynical smile and a 
suppressed murmur of lueeds, when the eat j set 
is broached. 

Well, there are weeds and weeds. A few 
of onr flowers have become social outoaets, and 
lift their dainty cups rather saucily, without 
receiving an admiring glance, except from some 
misguided botanist, or maybe a sentimental 
but unsophisticated young lady, who is in- 
formed with a covert smile that she may have 
a whole county fall, and welcome, if she will 
only pick them out. The bind weed, red sor- 
rel, and the eo-called yellow heliotrope may 
serve to point a moral and arouse a smile at 
the expense of an enthusiast. 

Weeds? And how different they really are 
from weedf. The real weed is as much of an 
aristocrat as wheat or corn, and usually gets 
the same amount of cultivation. ' He lives by 
his wits, but gets the best the land affords. Of 
course we do not mean the timid one that 
peeps up along the wayside, or in neglected 
fence corners, or takes unto Itself a bit of waste 
land, to be cast out the first time the soil is 
turned by the plow. We mean the kind 
that tries to take the whole farm, wants to 
grow in the mellowest soil, overshadows the 
young crop above ground, and sends out mill- 
ions of little roots to ohcke it cff underground. 
The flowers are inconspicuous, that it may not 
waste its substance in show. Its seeds are 
produced In countless numbers, and of course 
they are ripened and scattered before the crop 
Is ready to be gathered. These seeds are fur- 
nished with quaint devices for preservation 
and dissemination, as burrs to catch the coats 
of passing animals; little hooks to anchor them- 
selves to the ground or other weeds; twisted 
awns with bristles, to cling to the ground; 
down, that will float them far and wide on the 
breeze; and lastly a bitter or nanseons taste, 
or a gummy coat, to discourage the browsing 
propensity of animals. Whatever plan man 
or beast contrives against them, they try to 
meet it in time with a cunning device for de- 
fense, so after a long and relentless war, our 
most troublesome weeds are developed. 

Their vitality has furnished subject for epi- 
gram and moral in all ages, and the longer they 
have contended against man, the more exaeper 
aticg they are. For it is a well-known fact 
that the strong, aggressive weeds of older settled 
countries overtop and thin out the weeds of new 
countries which have not been compelled to 
fight for their lives. 80 weeds are as much the 
reshlt of selection as the giant pansies, rainbow 
roses and Japanese chryeanthemums of the hor- 
ticulturist. Then our flowers being the results 
of modifying circumstances and conditions 
through a long course of years, whatever serves 
as a distinguishing mark in our cultivated as 
well as our wild species is t^o sign to tell the 
story of their lives to him who reads. 

But there are always two sides to a story, 
and if the thistle and the cactus could tell of 
their wrongs, no doubt the story would recon- 
cile us to their prickly skins. If, as I said, imi- 
tation Is the sinoerest flattery, what intelligence 
we must grant some of the wild flowers of our 
hot, dusty plains and hillsides. There grows 
the Mexican poppy, with spines and needles 
that would outstick a Canada thistle, and with 
the same dusty, white downed leaves as its this- 
tle neighbor. A oasnal observer would readily 
mistake it, and it is only when the glory of its 
delicate white blossoms are unfolded that the 
cheat is discovered. Who and what was the 
enemy against whioh the cunning fl}wer fairy 
first armed itsell ? That Its defense is secure, 
the rash investigator can mournfully testify. 

There must have been a wonderfully omni- 
vorous beast of the field prowling these plains 
in those old days, or it must have been a much 
starved one, for this poppy is not the only plant 
which has here thrice armed itself. A species 
of wild sage has adopted the same livery, and 
pushes out its curious long blue corollas with Its 
■almon pink anthers, from a bristling circle of 
prickles that would do honor to any thistle. 
Bine Is the bee-oolor fortunately, and I am sure 
no other creature would willingly face the out- 
post for the sake of the treasured honey. 

The mentzella Is a co-resident of these ad- 
vanced thinkers, and is almost converted to 
their ways; it is not quite so dusty, not so 
prickly and much more showy than its neigh- 
bors. Protection Is their motto, for on those 
wide stretches of dry country, the race is to 
the one who will not be eaten, and to the one 



who will not be killed by thirst; so the object 
of their little lives is to store up their moisture, 
to hide themselves and to be unpalatable when 
found. 

But oar most beautiful wild flowers are found 
in our fields and in the borders of our forests, 
as the popularity of our creamcups, nemophilae, 
gilias and lupines shows. Oar lilybells, too, 
are a revelation in themselves, and an open 
hillside with yellow calochortus, ,lahDny-jamp- 
ups and pink mallows is a feast for all eyes. 

Bat the snowy lilybell is our poem; in color, 
in form and in manner of growth it appeals to 
us, and though usually called by an uneuphoni- 
ous name (harebell), it is still the one treasure 
of our fields most valued. It varies in color 
from a deep, dull crimson to a clear white, 
tinged with pink and green, and the pretty 
balls hang in clusters of from three to ten on 
their slender stems. Then its cousins of all 
colors, the golden lilybell or Diogenen' Lantern, 
the many-colored Mariposa lily, the white 
clustered variety with its long leaves, and the 
pale-lavender variety, are almost as interesting 
as itself, and furnish many a suggestive page 
for the paragrapher, the sketoher and the poet. 

In fact, the lily family is well represented in 
our State, and our fields can vie with our gar- 
dens in presenting this most graceful flower. 
The tiger-lily, the white Washington lily and 
some smaller varieties remind us in a dignified 
way that Dime Nature is still in the race with 
man for horticultural honors. The eagerness 
with which picnic-goers storm the preserves of 
the tiger lily is a lasting tribute to its beauty 
and grace. Bat — alas ! the cows are just as 
fond of it, and only what they cannot reach is 
left for the human flawer-lover. We respect 
the craft cf the thistle now, and wish for 
armor for the lily. 

In our hasty survey, we can pay only a pass- 
ing tribute to the bsautlfnl members of the pea 
tribe which flaurish among us. In richness of 
color and in variety they are surpassed by few 
other fljwers, and as it is always a pleasure to 
see a well- known face in a crowd, so we are 
glad to come across the familiar butterfly petals 
in a wilderness of new plants. The lupines, 
yellow, white and all shades of blue and purple, 
with occasionally a pink stranger, the clovers, 
the vetches, thermopsis and a host of kindred 
with most unsocial names, are among the gems 
whioh brighten our fertile land, 

Oq the subject of names let me present a 
brief plea. One is debarred, of course, from 
speaking of the scientific names; they are set- 
tled, and as far as one can judge, well settled. 
But the local names, the home names, are in- 
sufficient and 80 loosely applied that it is simply 
exasperating to try to verify many of them. 
There are a number cf pretty names aiS oat which 
are applied to many flowers, as blue belle, wild 
pauby and wild forget-me-not, and there seems to 
be no particular flower that can prove its claims 
to the name. For instance, the name wild helio- 
trope is given to several widely varying plant", 
and there Is a true heliotrope, rather insignifi- 
cant in size, but even the least has a right to 
its name. 

In one case I saw In a widely advertised col- 
lection of wild flowers, a flower-cluster nearly 
three inches long, bright scarlet in color, la- 
beled with the name burr-clover. Of course 
one does not wish to be too particular, but the 
line must be drawn somewhere, and a reason- 
able amount of accuracy la not to be despised. 

Many of our beautiful and effactive plants 
have no common English names, audit is so easy 
to prefix wild to some familiar name and so 
hand it down — a delusion and a snare to all bo- 
tanically inclined students. Most of our native 
flowers probably have Spanish names and musi- 
cal ones, too, given, by the people who have 
lived with them, have seen, with a poetic eye, 
their many charms, and have had many tender 
associations connected with them. These names 
we should preserve as far as possible, for they 
are usually pointed, pictureeque, and perpetuate 
the traditions of the soil. Our madrono and 
macziDlta are good examples of this class of 
names, and they seem to be popular; others, as 
chicolote, yerba buena, and yerba santa, are 
fully as pleasant to the ear. 

Leaving aside these flowers as deniz3n8 of the 
field and of the wood, and viewing them In the 
sacrilegious light of transplanting, our query is: 
"Which of these are suitable for cultivation?" 
This question has been answered for us in a 
great measure, for in many catalogues of Eist- 
ern growers our flowers are well represented. 
Among them are the California poppy in Its 
yellow and gold and its developed cardinal 
cousin, the nemophila, in all shades and sizes, 
the llmnanthes and the Mexican poppy, which 
has recently become a favorite, while the Rom- 
neya Coulterii, with Ite great orepe-like white 
blossoms, has won a lasting reputation for 
itself. 

The tiger lily, the czUea, the rhododendron, 
where it will bear transplanting, the spirea, the 
clematis and the scarlet gooseberry, under the 
ambiguous name of coral plant, have already 
enriched our gardens, and where one can with- 
draw himself from the worthipof varying forme 
of onr common garden flowers, he will find these 
most charming companions. They give a wild, 
saucy air to a garden, but it must be acknowl- 
edged that they look as if they felt degraded 
and longed to escape. 

The salmon berry, with its red flowers and 
luscious-looking fruit, seems to be challeuging 
one to a. feast worthy of the gods; maybe the 
gods could eat them, but at present they are 
rather sour for the human palate. Culture 
ought to do something for them. 

In our forests grow trees and ahrabi that 



would lend themselves favorably to artistic 
gardening, as the chinquapin, with its gold- 
lined leaves, the Oalifornia nutmeg or yew, and 
even our common buckeye with heavy blue- 
green foliage, would prove invaluable If prop- 
erly managed. The madrono, the tree-like 
manzinita and the laurel have already been 
tried and have been heartily approved. They 
belong to our climate and can be disposed of in 
landscape gardening with as much grace and 
relief as the foreign trees. 

For a long time it was the style to adore wild 
flowers, but a careful observer could see that 
all who adored them chose the largest and 
brightest or those moet easily obtained; the 
true flower lover then as now guarded his treas- 
ures with a somewhat jealous eye. 

The popularity our flowers enjoy in other 
places may be only another proof of the old 
proverb, "A prophet is not without honor," 
but the interest shown In the recent field flower 
contest among the pupils of our county proves 
that we do not need to hear from abroad before 
learning to value onr home treasures. 



<She jStock 'Y'^'^^- 



Packing-House Projects. 

The return yesterday from Ohioago of Peter 
E. Her, who baa been one of the chief pro- 
jectors of the big stook-yard at Biden, revives 
interest in that and similar enterprises about 
this city. While he has been away, little has 
been done on the Biden scheme, but another 
similar project on the bay shore near P.nole 
has been pushed on very rapidly. The comple- 
tion of these stock-yards and packing-houses is 
of much local interest, for the industry prom- 
ises to be of great value to San Francisco, Mr, 
Her says of the Biden project that before 
actual operations of large importance are be- 
gun, four companies will be organized and in- 
corporated here. These will be an abattoir 
company, a stock-yards company, a land com- 
pany and a banking company. These will be 
organiz9d abont the 1st of January on the ar- 
rival of K. ,1. Martin, the legal representative 
of Armonr (fCo., and of Albert Veeder, who is 
with Nelson Morris. As soon as these compa- 
nies are organizsd and directors elected they 
will go ahead rapidly with the Improvements 
decided upon. By early spring they will have 
large forces of men at work and many build- 
ings will be going up. 

Travelers on the trains between here and 
Port Costa cannot but have noticed the many 
changes wrought recently in the appearance of 
things near Pinole at a little station known aa 
Tormey. It is on the bay shore about 25 miles 
from this city. Up to within a few months 
nothing marked the locality in any distinguish- 
ing manner except when a venturesome cow 
from the many grazing herds became mired in 
the swamps that extend from the low bills to 
the beach. The land near was used only for 
grazing or for raising hay, Now there Is a fine 
three story hotel of artistic design, some 15 
acres of land have been graded, several acres of 
sheds, floored and shingled, have been put up, 
and a long side track extends from the main- 
line road up to the yards. A sign announces 
that all this work has been done by the Union 
Stock-Yards Company of San Francisco. Sev- 
eral Eistern men are interested with local cap- 
italists In the project, among them K. A, Har- 
ris and Silberhorn & Co. of Chicago. 

The hotel and sheds are not yet completed, 
but over 200 men are busily employed, and are 
making time tell on the necessary labor. The 
hotel is 170 feet long, 60 feet wide, with an L 
45x136 feet. It is to be lighted by electricity, 
as are all the yards and buildings. In the 
stockyards, covering over eight acres, are 45 
cattle-pens, each holding from ."^O to 50 animals, 
Stout partitions of planking divide each pen, 
and all are floored with 2-inch planks. All are 
well drained, with convenient arrangement for 
watering and feeding. Around, between and 
above the pens are railed passageways, so that 
the cattle can be conveniently inspected. In 
among the oattle-pena a weighing machine, 
capacity 100,000 pounds, is to be set up. Near 
the cattle-pens are corrals for sheep and hogs. 
The two packing-houses that will soon be com- 
pleted will be the pride of the company. If 
the two can be built Inside of $700,000, the 
managers will be glad, but the estimates call 
for more than that amount for these two build- 
ings alone. The lateit devices of labor-saving 
machinery will be included in the equipment. 
Eich house will cover an area of about 300x 
500 feet. Ice machines, lard-tanks, can ma- 
chines, beef-chilling apparatus, offal driers, 
fertilizer converters and various other devices, 
designed to be both dexterous and economical, 
will be set up in the various departments. 

The cattle that ever since the days of the 
Spanish ranchos have grazed over these hills, 
have seen these improvements being pushed 
along with very little interest. That these new 
packing-houses are going to be fitted to pack 
and can, and stow away for future use eaoh 
day, at least 1000 cattle, 2000 sheep and as 
many hogs, ia a fact not calculated to arouse 
much enthusiasm among the quadrupeds whose 
pasturage has been invaded. From the build- 
ings a track connecting also with the siding 
will be run to the bay and out upon a wharf 
about 2600 feet long, to deep water. It is cal- 
culated that at this wharf ships that sail abont 
the world may take aboard the products here 
to be packed and prepared for the demands of 
far-away oommunities. — Euening Bulletin. 



(She ]E{iEi»B. 



Hops in Washington. 

The WaMngton Farmer says the crop year 
of ISOO has been one of surprise aa well as of 
disappointments.. Promising at first to be the 
heaviest on record, the yield was finally cut 
down to the usual average by the prolonged 
drouth and attack of vermin combined. Start- 
ing out at extremely low prices, the value 
moved steadily up from 12J cents per pound 
for the earlier contracts to 40 cents paid for a 
few in the bale. Unfortunately for the grow- 
ers, large blocks of the crop were contracted 
at comparatively low prices, the bulk of which 
has gone forward to dealers and consumers and 
now depress the open market for the remain- 
ing portion of the crop unsold. We estimate 
the Washington crop yield at .SS.OOO bales, and 
which may possibly reach 40,000, of which 
there are now left ab'jut 8000 bales. The 
Oregon orop yield estimate Is now placed at 
20,000 bales, of which no more than 3000 bales 
are lett in the State, making a total stock in 
Che two States of 1 1,000 bales, 

A Large Hop Farm. 

The Washington Farmer also gives the fol- 
lowing description of the famous hop ranch of 
the Snoqualmie Co. This is the largest hop 
ranch in the world. It is owned by a com- 
nany, incorporated, with a capital stock of 
8120,000. Over $200,000 has been expended in 
improvements. Ttie principal stockholders are: 
Richard Jeff) of White River, Pres.; Geo. W. 
Gove, V. Pres. and Mansger; H. Dotard of 
Sm Francisco, Treas. ; G. K. Baxter of Seattle, 
H. E Levy of Victoria, B. C. The company 
began operations here in the spring of 1885. 
That year they planted 200 acres to hops, and 
they now have 310 acres of the finest looking 
hops that mortal eyes ever rested on. 

From appearances now, this ranch will har- 
vest this year 3000 bales of hops of 200 pounds 
each. Buyers generally come to the ranch and 
contract for the crop. List pear the product 
sold at eight to nine and a half cents. Hops 
are now worth 40 cents; and the 600,000 
ponnds that the ranch will turn out will com- 
mand at present prices the neat little sum of 
$240,000 Capt, Geo. W. Gove, the manager 
of this immense plantation, sayi that from his 
experience, and in fact from the most authen- 
tic statistic*, the best time to sell hops is at 
the time of picking, when a great many buyers 
from different directions are vying with eaoh 
other. Capt. Gove says that on old and new 
contracts over 20.000 bales of this year's orop 
in this State have been contracted, at an aver- 
age of 14 cents. By " old " contracts is meant 
those contracts made previous to this year. 
Some growers contract several years ahead. 
The Snoqualmie hop ranch ia situated In a 
natural prairie surrounded by a dense forest. 

The soil is a deep loam. The Snoqualmie 
river flows through the hopfieldr, and in by- 
gone ages, before the barrier of rock over 
which leaps the great falls was reduced to its 
present level, the site of this ranch was evi- 
dently a lake. The day after our arrival, Cipt, 
Gove hitched up a double buggy team and 
drove us three miles through the plantation, 
which extends almost to the new town of South 
B^nd on the east. We viewed the splendid 
fields and the improvements with delight. We 
found 15 hophouses, two of which are double 
and five are triple, making on the whole 27 
kilns, each 24 feet equare. Twenty sheds are 
distributed at convenient points on the planta- 
tion for shelter of Indian pickers. A dozan 
houses are occupied all the year by Indian 
families employed on the premises. On the 
railroad ia a warehouse 60x80 feet, in which 
the baled hops are stored tor shipment. Lead- 
ing from this warehouse Is a nicely turnpiked 
driveway to the hotel standing on the ranch. 
This hotel is a three-story building, situated in 
the midst of the orchard, and surrounded by a 
charming lawn, handsomely landscaped and 
adorned with beds of lovely flowers. 



What About E-iparcet? 

Editors Press :— Alihough the Pacific Rural 
Press is brim lull of useful inform ition ol the kind 
its patrons are likely to require, yet we are always 
wanting something more; so I would like to inquire 
through its columns about " esparcet " — a kind of 
forage like clover. I have heard thit it will grow 
well on very dry land, needing but little moisture, 
like cactus and sagebrush, and tlial it produces an 
abundance of good feed lor slock. 

1 have a few acres ol very tine soil but it lays so it 
is difficult to irrigate, therefore want to grow some- 
thing of value on it needing but little moisture. If 
among your army of readers there are any who can 
tell me the best thing to grow there 1 shall be great- , 
ly obligc-d.— C. P. W11.COX AVr//; Y.ikima. W.isk. 

E»parcet (Onohrychis ^atioa) hi- been pro- 
claimed as a dry-land forage plant quite widely 
and hundreds have planted the seed. It is 
time now to gather the results of these trials, 
and we hope tvery reader who has grown the 
plant will write us briefly his results and con- 
clusions. Oar own observation is that the 
plant has not proved as valuable as was ex- 
pected and that we are still in search of an all- 
around arid-land plant. Let us then hear from 
all Interested readers in answer to oUr corre- 
spondent's points. 



The Mexican G ivernment will grant no 
more subsidies to roads and is buying np those 
already granted. 



I 
( 



Jan. ^, 1891.] 



pACIFie F^URAlo PRESS, 



3 



J^ORTICULTURE. 



Walnut Soil and Climate. 

There is a great diversity of opinion as to 
soil and water suitable for the profitable cult- 
ure of the walnut, and almost everywhere that 
the walnut does well is considered by the 
growers of that particular locality to be the 
only section of country where walnut culture 
is a complete success. The fact is we have a 
large area from Santa Barbara to San Diego 
suitable for its cultivation, where the soil and 
water supply differ greatlv in many respects. 

In Santa Barbara and Ventura counties are 
many fine old walnut orchards paying large 
dividends, where irrigation and the surface 
stream of water is from 50 to 100 feet from the 
surface of the ground. I am also credibly in- 
formed that there is a very fine and profitable 
walnut orchard in Ventura county over 26 
years old, where it is only four feet to surface 
water, and none of the trees have ever drowned 
out from sour sap or too much water, while 
Col. Heath of Carpinterla, this last spring, lost 
some exceedingly fine trees from sour sap, 
where the surface water is 30 feet below the 
top of the ground. This was undoubtedly 
caused by overflow from the higher lands 
which lie on the side of his place. I think, by 
proper drainage facilities, this could be 
avoided. 

The soil of these two counties, where the 
walnuts are grown, is mostly of a made char- 
acter from the mountains and very rich in all 
the qualities which go to make up a desirable 
spot for the walnut. 

The next place where the walnut is success- 
fully grown is in the San Gabriel and Los Nie- 
tos valleys in Los Angeles county. There we 
find splendid orchards growing on a sandy soil 
where the surface water is from six to twenty 
feet from the top and irrigation is freely prac- 
ticed by many, while others have good success 
in growing the walnut without employing wa- 
ter at all. 

The Santa Ana valley, in Orange county, is 
rapidly coming to the front as a walnut-pro> 
ducing country. Here we have the walnut 
growing on adobe, heavy clay sediment, light 
sandy and sandy mixture soil where the water 
is from four to one hundred feet below the sur- 
face. Irrigation is practiced on the dry soils and 
the amount of water used depends greatly on 
the character and water-holding qualities of 
the soil. We had a few trees which were 
drowned out last winter (an unusually wet sea- 
son) on lands ten to fifteen feet above surface 
water. Where they died the land was over- 
flowed from a creek, the water standing there 
for a month or more. 

The famous walnut orchards of Capistrano, 
in the southern part of this county, are on 
adobe soils with enough sand washed in to cul- 
tivate well. Here the surface water is from 
six to twenty feet, and irrigation is a decided 
success, though it is reported that several of 
the trees were drowned out last winter through 
overflow. 

San Diego county has as yet done little to- 
ward the planting of the walnut, although 
there is plenty of good land there for its snocess- 
ful cultivation. 

Trees planted out three years ago near San 
Luis Ray are now bearing well without irriga- 
tion. 

The theory that the surface water is too close 
to the surface or not close enough for successful 
cultivation is not borne out by the facts. If 
you have good, rich soil, with surface water 
situated at any distance from four to one hun- 
dred feet, and can keep off the overflow so the 
water will not stand for weeks around your 
trees in the spring, or your soil can retain suffi- 
cient moisture either by thorough cultivation 
or irrigation, you can grow the walnut with 
profit and the best of success. 

The walnut is one of the easiest trees to 
transplant, and can be reset at most any age; 
indeed, trees have been successfully trans- 
planted at the advanced age of ten years. 

Most growers prefer a three-year-old tree to 
set in orchard, and of the improved soft shell 
variety. Three years after transplanting, if 
proper care is taken of the trees, the orchard 
will be paying from $100 to 1150 per acre, and 
will increase at tha rate ol 50 per cent for a 
good many years to come. 

My orchard is planted 40 feet apart, though 
50 feet is preferable by putting an additional 
tree in the center of every four; this plan will 
give 32 trees to the acre, and when the center 
tree gets to crowding its neighbors it can be 
readily removed. The additional tree will pay 
for itself many times over in stovewood, be- 
sides the hundreds of pounds of nuts it will 
yield. 

The demand for walnuts is the same as that 
for California oranges —it is getting better 
every year. There are millions of people in the 
East who have never eaten a Ciilifornia wal- 
nut, and who would rather give five or ten 
cents more on the pound for the production of 
California than the best qualitv of walnut 
which can be raised in Soutnern Europe. The 
improved soft-shell variety, whioh is now at- 
tracting so much attention in the Eistern mar- 
kets, is the favorite with the Coicago trade, 
where the bulk of onr crop is marketed. The 
improved soft shell comes into bearing at four 
years from the seed, and at six years yields a 
good-paying crop, while the old hard shell or 



Madeira nut takes eight or ten years, and at 
fourteen years does not bear any more than a 
six-year-old soft shell. — Oeorge W. Ford, in 
Santa Ana Blade. 



(She *V"ijmeyard. 



Condition 



of Southern 
Vineyards, 



California 



In Expert Dowlen's report for November, he 
reviews the condition of the vines in all the 
counties of the Los Angeles district, and finds 
the outlook quite encouraging, so much so that 
many of the vineyardists in the worst infected 
sections are proposing to replant their de- 
vastated vineyards. Following is the full text 
of the report : 

Since the last report a number of journeys 
have been made to the vineyards in the neigh- 
boring counties of S»n Luis Obispo, Santa Bar- 
bara, Ventura and Orange, all of which are in- 
cluded in the Los Angeles district, 

In'San Luis Obispo county viticulture can 
only be reckoned as one of the smaller indus- 
tries, though it is very probable that this pro- 
portion will be altered considerably in the 
course of the next two or three years. The 
greater number of vineyards are small, and 
vineyardists have hitherto been discouraged by 
the low prices obtainable for both fruit and 
wine. In addition to tbic, the means of transit 
by rail are limited, but it is probable that this 
will be remedied in the near future. The va- 
rieties generally grown are the Mission, Zin- 
fandel and Muscat. Everywhere the vines 
seemed to be particularly healthy, there being 
abundance of wood and foliage, and, where the 
fruit had not been oicked, a full crop of grapes 
of good quality. The vines are almost entirely 
free from disease of any kind. Mildew was 
reported as not giving much trouble. With 
respect to the Anaheim disease, a few vines 
were noticed which showed some of the peculiar- 
ly marked foliage. Except for thin, the vines 
were apparently in perfect health; but owners 
reported that similar features had always been 
noticed upon the vines, in some years hardly 
showing at all, in others appearing to a greater 
extent, but never doing any damage. In this 
county the vines had not suffered from heat as 
they had farther south. In view of the ap- 
proaching increased facilities for transport, 
many people were preparing to set out vines 
in the coming year, and in all probability there 
will be within the next two years a great in- 
crease in the acreage devoted to viticulture, 
for the practice of which large areas are appar- 
ently well adapted. 

In Santa Barbara county, a comparatively 
small amount of attention appears to be given 
to viticulture. Here also, low prices and lim- 
ited means of transport have operated to check 
the industry; moreover, where the vineyards 
are within reach of the sea air, as is the case 
with many of the older vineyards, the fruit 
produced cannot compete in quality with that 
raised in more inland districts. The vines, 
even where they have been quite neglected, 
had made a vigorous growth and had borne a 
good crop. No signs of the Anaheim disease 
were seen; mildew was reported, and in the 
vineyards near the coast, the foliage was much 
spotted with the ordinary grape-leaf blight. 
Farther inland the vines were in better condi- 
tion, both foliage and canes being much cleaner 
and brighter. 

In Ventura county viticulture takes a more 
prominent position, though it has by no means 
received the same amount of attention as other 
industries. In the Ojai valley the larger and 
older vineyards are found in the upper valley. 
The vines were in excellent health and had 
borne a large crop of fruit. The varieties 
mostly planted are the Mission, Zinfandel, 
Black Prince, with smaller lots of Mataro and 
Trousseau. In one vineyard a number of other 
varieties of wine grapes are being experimented 
with. There are also a number of smaller lots 
of table grapes. Black Morocco, Black Prince 
and Telame Tokay. In the lower part of the 
Ojai valley the vines are mostly young, the 
Muscat being the variety chitfly planted. 

At Sespe and the neighborhood, the vines are 
chiefly of the Muscat variety, the fruit being of 
very fine quality. At present it is sold both 
for table use and as raisins. The vines through- 
out the county were in excellent condition, and 
in all places a good crop had been produced. 
Mildew was the only disease reported; no signs 
of the Anaheim disease were found. 

In each of the above three counties the inten- 
tion was generally expressed of making consid- 
erable plantings of vines during the coming 
year, raisin grapes receiving more attention 
than wine grapes. 

In Orange county the districts around Santa 
Ana, Anaheim and Orange have been visited. 
Here, too, there is an improvement in the con- 
oition of the vines. Here and there may be 
found vines, which have lived through all the 
attacks of the Anaheim disease. In one vine- 
yard some seventy acres of vines have been 
saved. These do not show so much disease as 
they did last year, and in addition, they yielded 
this year a large crop of fruit of good quality, 
both of raisin and wine grapes, Anolher in- 
stance of survival is where a number of vines of 
eastern varieties had been trained to form an 
arbor. These vines became diseased, and by 
the end of the summer of last year they seemed 
to be almost dead, having produced but a small 
amount of growth and no fruit. The owner, 



however, did not like to cut them down, and 
was rewarded this year by seeing his vines 
again putting out good growth and producing 
fruit, the vines now showing little if any dis- 
ease. 

In some places new vineyards have been set 
out. Most of these are of small area, though 
on one property 56 acres have been set out. 
The oldest of these new vines are three years 
of age; the youngest were set out this year. 
Nearly all of these now vines are Muscat. Be- 
sides these a few Mission vines have been 
planted. The older vines show, in places, a 
little disease, but by far the greater propor- 
tion of those set out this year show no disease. 
Some plots are entirely free; they are appar- 
ently in good health, having made a fair 
amount of growth and the canes have ripened 
properly. In common with all the vines of 
this section, they show the effects of the extra 
heat and dryness of the past season, and they 
had also suffered from the effects of a hot wind 
storm whioh visited the locality a few weeks 
since. 

From the above statements it will be seen 
that in Orange county the Anaheim disease is 
evidently not so virulent as in past years, and 
that, though the trouble has by no means 
passed away, the outlook for viticulture is 
much more hopeful than it was 12 months ago, 
and also that there is as yet no reason for al- 
tering the opinion expressed in the earlier re- 
ports of this year that there has been an im- 
provement in the condition of the vines through- 
out the Infected areas. The improvement is 
such that in Orange county, where the Ana- 
heion disease has done most damage, and 
where, in consequence, the greatest precaution 
would be exercised, many people are looking 
forward to again settlne out vines during the 
coming season. Ethelbert Dowlfn, 

Drc. 1 IS^ifi. 



time to make the best stock for dry hillsi^ 
It has proved a disappointment, as it snckc 
terribly, and also does not unite readily with 
the scions of the vinifera. The Californica, onr 
native wild vine, is not fully resistant, although 
highly lauded a few years ago. Its roots are too 
soft, and it will hardly grow on dry soils. 

Having thus discussed the question of stocks, 
I will defer the description ot the mo'lus oper- 
andi and of the best varieties to be used for 
scions, for another issue. — George Husmann, 
in Napa Register, 



Grafting the Grape. 

Having practiced grafting the vine since 1852, 
and always with an eye to the easiest and most 
successful methods, I have naturally picked up 
some experience, and will sum up the gist of it 
for the benefit of those readers who may want 
to practice it. either for regrafting better va- 
rieties or grafting on resistant stocks. 

Grafting in the house or shop, which is suc- 
cessfully done with the apple and other fruits, 
and then planting in nursery rows in spring, I 
have not found successful, as but few of them 
grew, and even those few did not make a satis- 
factory growth. I know that it is still upheld 
and followed by some, but I cannot recommend 
it. I have always had the best and most uni 
form success in the vineyard on vines strong 
enough to hold the graft firmly, and when the 
sap was in rapid motion, say in our climate in 
April and May. Of course the scions should 
be kept dormant, in a cool, shady place, buried 
in sand or light soil to their full length, with 
the cuttings reversed, that is, the upper buds 
downward and the lower buds up. The object 
in this is to prevent the upper buds from start- 
ing too early, as it is from these we expect the 
new growth on the graft. It makes no differ- 
ence, in my experience, how much the young 
growth on the stock has started already, al- 
though after May the season for the growth of 
the graft will be so much shorter and it would 
be difficult to keep the scion in a dormant state. 
The Best Stocks. 
Of course I refer to resistants only, in discuss- 
ing this question, although where the phyllox- 
era has not appeared yet it may be advisable to 
graft inferior varieties of the vinifera with 
choicer ones. I will return to the subject later 
on, when discussing varieties. 

The best resistant stock, all things considered, 
I believe for all moderately deep, rich soils, to be 
the Riparia, or sand or river grape, a native of 
nearly all the Middle States— Missouri, Illinois, 
Kinsas, Nebraska, etc.— where it is found on 
all the larger streams. It propagates readily 
from cuttings, is a strong but rather thin, 
straggling grower, unites readily with the graft 
and is entirely resistant, as shown by an experi- 
ence of over ten yeSirs in Sonoma county, where 
the vineyards of Messrs. Dresel and Gundlach 
had been entirely devastated by phylloxera and 
were replanted with Riparia. They are now in a 
flourishing condition again, and produce fane 
crops cf superior grapes which were grafted on 
them For dry, calcareous soils, I should prefer 
some varieties of the Aestivalis, or Summer grape 
of the East. The Lenoir has given good satis- 
faction generally, but Is somewhat more diffacult 
to propagate from cuttings than Riparia, In 
my location (Chiles Valley) I prefer the Rue- 
lander and Louisiana, which grow from cutting, 
very easily, make a strong, stocky vine, and 
take the graft readily. I believe, however, 
that all of the Aestivalis are more particular 
about the soil, and will only flourish m perfec- 
tion where they find certain ingredients. On 
this point we have yet a great deal to learn. 
The Riparias are more apt to root at the sur- 
face, as they make roots at every joint or node, 
which grow horizontally, while the Aestivalis 
make but few, but very strong roots from the 
lower buds which grow downward and will 
find moisture at a greater depth. The Herbe- 
mont is also a good stock in certain localities, 
while in others it has proved unsuccessful. All 
of the Aestivalis varieties make a ready junction 
with the graft, and do not sucker so much as 
the Riparia, making also stronger and more 
stocky vines. , _, . « , 

The Rnpestri", or bush grape of Texas, Ar- 
kansas and S. W. Missouri was supposed at one 



The Future of the Grape Interest, 

Editors Press : — I have read with interest 
the article in your issue of Dec. 6tb, by Nelson 
Ward, also Mr. Wehner's article referred to by 
Mr. Ward. In this valley — San Bernardino — • 
the planting of the grape for wine-making has 
about all been discontinued, with the exception 
of those who are directly interested in the man- 
ufacture of wine, and even they are extending 
their planting but moderately. Those who had 
the Mission here with few exceptions dried 
them the past season, as the winery only offered 
$11 per ton delivered. Second crop Muscat 
lound their way in part to the winery at $10 
per ton, prices which scarcely more than paid 
for the picking. To predict what will be the 
future of the wine industry, of course, is out of 
the question, but to take present prices as a 
criterion, when we consider the extreme youth 
of the wine industry and the wine-grape pro- 
duction, surely it does not look very encourag. 
Ing, and as Mr. Ward aptly saye, when we take 
into consideration the amount of temperance 
education going on in the county among the' 
youth, the increasing numbers of clenched fists 
and earnest, stern faces that are being set against 
the drink traffic — to say these movements will 
not have any perceptible effect on the use of 
wines seems to me very short-sighted. I have 
watched the temperance movement throughout 
the county with a good deal of interest for the 
past ^0 years. We have all seen first the one 
and then the other prop give way before the 
cold logic of facts produced by the advocates 
of temperance. We have watched first with 
curiosity then with admiration, mingled with 
pride, the solid onward march of the continu- 
ally increasing columns of the W. C. T. U., 
burying and trampling under foot obstacles 
that seemed but yesterday unsnrmountable, 
besieging State and National legislation from 
prohibitory laws, aiming always a deadly vol- 
ley hundreds of thousands strong. In one direc- 
tion, at the overthrow of the drink evil. We 
have watched the rise and fall of the Prohibi- 
tion vote, steering its course seemingly through 
the unsnrmountable breakers, with eyes all 
looking in one direction — the overthrow of the 
saloon. We watch the declaration of principles 
which find their way into the platforms of the 
different political organizations as workingmen's 
and Farmers' Alliance, condemning the traffic 
in liquors and laying at itx door in part the 
cause of their depression. The pulpit, which 
has until lately been so silent on the question 
from a political standpoint, begins to ihunder 
its destruction. The old political parties are 
so nearly cornered on the subject that to lose 
the saloon Influence means death. With all of 
these signs so plainly passing before our eyes 
each hour, and Increasing in magnitude like a 
mammoth snowslide, and then not take warn- 
Ine, means we are not good observers of the 
signs of the times. 

I, like Mr. Ward, can't help but say it seems 
to me the wisest thing to do is to plant a grape 
that can be dried, canned or pat to some other 
use. There probably is no question but the 
markets of this county can be so filled with 
raisins as to materially reduce the profits; still, 
as a rule, that has not in the past been the re- 
sult with a commodity that the people demand- 
ed. What we seem to need now for a raisin 
grape is one that will combine the good quali- 
ties of the Muscat and Seedless Sultana, of the 
size of the Muscat and seedless like the Sultana. 
I think If some of our Intelligent horticulturists 
will cross the one with the other, say the Mus- 
cat with the Sultana, carefully protecting the 
bunches so fertilized so as to exclude the bees, 
the seedling from these fertilized grapes would 
bring about most happy results. The party 
that can produce a grape filling the above 
requisites, and as early as the Sultana and hav- 
ing all the good qualities of that variety, would 
deserve a bonaLzi and I believe would find 
one. Oould the craze in intoxicants be wiped 
out and the rivers of wealth turned toward the 
purchase of the necessaries of life, this and the 
preceding generation would find It a difficult 
matter to overstock the markets with the raisin 
or any other fruit products, which would mean 
paying rates for healthy necessaries and luxu- 
ries that are not harmful. I. C. Wood, 
Ontario. Cal. 



Railroad Building ok the Year. — Statistics 
compiled by the Railway Age show the con- 
struction during 1890 to be about 6080 miles, 
as against 5200 miles lasHyear. Over 2000 miles 
of road under construction are in the Southern 
States and over 1000 in the Southwestern 
States. The Northwestern shows 1057 miles, 
due largely to active bnlldini> operations of the 
Northern Pacific and great Northern roads. 

The number of winter passengers for Europe 
is something unprecedented. A few years ago 
the steamers crossed with barely a handful of 
first-class passengers, but this winter they 
have been running with nearly full lists. 



4 



f ACIFie (^URAb f RESS. 



[Jan. 3 1891 



j^ATROfJS Of J^USBAJ^DF^Y, 

In OUT Rural Press Official Grauge Edition, issued 
every week, will be found additional matter from 
this and other jurisdictions, o( interest and import- 
ance to Patrons. Any subscriber who wishes can 
change free to that edition. 



Begin the Year Well. 

Patrons, be sure to tarn ont to the initial 
meeting of the new year. Encourage your Uf w 
oiHcers-elect with your presence, kindly greet- 
ing and asearances of your support. Try and 
start some new methods for making your meet- 
ings more interesting, agreeable and profitable 
and to all — old and yoang. At each meeting 
arrange some exercises to make the next at- 
tractive and worth coming to. 

If storms or other hindrances have prevented 
election of officers at the proper date, let it dis- 
courage none. In sach cases, each member 
sbonld feel the necessity of greater individual 
responsibility and effort nntil a meeting is 
secured and your Grange brought into line for 
the best year's service for a long time. 

There is time yet for the seel mwn years ago 
to fruit. In many parts of the Uoion it is a 
well-acknowledged fact that " hayseed is risin'." 
Shall California be behind in the race? 

Surely there is much to encourage the broth- 
ers and sisters of California to stick closer 
and strike harder for their cause than ever be- 
fore. 

For farmers outside the gates the new vear 
is a good time to hand in their petitions to join 
^he Grange army of workers for the advance 
ment of the rights and social, educational and 
material interests of agricalturiste and their 
families. No safer associations can be formed 
for the children of Matrons and Husbandmen of 
our rural districts. Try it ! 

Farmers' Institute Held at Corvallis, 
Oregon. 

Editor.s Pkks.s : — The Institote, held ander 
the auspices of Carvallis Grange, at Corvallis, 
Banton Co., Oregon, was a marked success 
from first to last. 

The Institute nnened with an evening session 
on the ISib of December, and closed on the 
evening of the l!):b. 

At the first session fully two hundred and 
fifty people were present, and a larger nnmber 
on the following evening. The day sessions 
were not so largely attended, yet there were 
more farmers present, and a lively interest 
manifested in the cUscussions. There was not 
time enough for as much discussion as would 
have been profitable. The papers were quite 
lengthy but not tiresome in the least, as shown 
by the interest manifested in the audience. 
One or two papers at most, upon topics of 
practical interest to the farmerr, are enough 
for each session ; this gives more time for dis- 
cussion, which brings out the most important 
features of the subject. 

The question-box was the means of bringing 
several very interesting and important snhjects 
up for discussion. Among other questions 
asked were the following: Can tile be used for 
irrigating purposes ? Will it pay to build sheds 
for manure ? The balance of argument was in 
favor of some protection for the manure-pile. 
Another question which was discussed with 
much interest wa^ one asking if it would be 
wise legislation to appropriate S250,000 to de- 
fray expenses of an Urpgon exhibit at the 
Columbian Exposition. Every one who spoke 
U|^on this subject thought this too much ; and 
some went so far as to say $10,000 sufficient. 
These are only a few of the most important 
questions discussed, but they are enough to 
show that the question-box becomes one of the 
most interesting features of an Institute. The 
same feature will work first rate in a Grange. 

Everything pnt on the program was carried 
out, except tbesabject of "Breeding Cattle." 
The essayist was not present. 

Aside from those who came a distance of 10 
or 12 miles to attend the Institute, were Bros. 
Boise and Voorheea of Marion county; also 
Hon. T. T. Geer, who addressed the Institute 
on Friday evening. 

The addresses and papers were full of in 
straction and interest throughout, hence I 
would not undertake to give a synopsis of them 
had I the power to do them justice. It wonld 
fill several columns if only the most important 
points were mentioned. 

The exhibit of vegetables, dried and canned 
fruits, fresh fruits, grains and flowers attracted 
much attention. One of the most Interesting 
features of the exhibit was a display of the 
practice sewing done by the girls in the domes- 
tic economy course at the college. 

A large number participated in the picnic 
dinner on Friday at the Grange hall, evincing 
that thia feature of the Institute was not an 
entire failure, as some of our less enthusiastic 
brothers predicted. 

The Institute closed with a feeling that all 
bad enjoyed the meetings, and that much had 
been gained both socially and intellectually. 
It is safe to say, I think, that in attendance at 
least, this Institute has been as sncceasful as 
any held in the State. H. T. French. 

CorvaUii, Dec. S2, 1800. 

The meetings of the Executive and other 
committees called for Dacember Slst, we hope 
will be well attended, good plana devised and 
the Patrons of the State led on to important 
knd aacoeasful work. 



The Master's Desk. 

K. W. DAVIB, W. M. 8. O. OY CALIFORNIA. 

Why not Join 
An Order that in politics is always non- 
partisan, in religion non-sectarian; in educa- 
tion always progressive; in morale unsurpassed; 
in sickness a constant friend; in all things pro 
gressive and in nothing sectional? 

The Grange believes in equality before the 
law; believes in restraining the strong and in 
defending the weak. It believes in distribut- 
ing the burdens of Government justly, and that 
noue but capable and honest men should hold 
public (ffice. The Grange is the oldest Agri 
cultural Secret Order, and aa such, is entitled 
to respect and veneration. We are all taught 
to respect age. The Grange a«ks farmers to 
come and affiliate with those who are ready 
and williog to help them. Come to the Order 
that will assist you mentally, morally, politi 
cally, financially, socially, and in a thousand 
ways make your life and your home more 
cheerful than they wonld otherwise be. The 
year 1S91 is sure to mark an epoch in the his- 
tory of soil-tillers. Every farmer and his fam 
ily ought to come to the front and j -)iu in the 
financial, legislative, political and mental con- 
tests that are soon to be fonght. Every one to 
his arms now. Farmers, help yourselves, if 
you would have others help you I 



can well afford to listen to any one who talks 
good, solid sense, even though we may not 
agree with him. Any subject that is not worth 
investigation better be ignored entirely. Get 
the truth. To do that, one must work. It 
will pay you every time to get at the " other 
side," as well as your own side of a proposition. 

The following very pleasing letter, from a 
gentleman not a member of the Grange, was 
recently received. It shows the respect the 
Grange has won (from one very competent to 
judge of snob things) for its steady, honest, 
progressive, yet conservative, conrse. The 
Grange is not parading all or many of its vir- 
tues before the public. But it it going straight 
along, growing, elevating its members, and 
helping, in a quiet but successful way, to purify 
politics and educate and assist the farmer. 

Dc-.jr Sir: I acknowledge, with thanks, the re- 
ceipt of Journal of I'roceedings of the Slate Grange 
of Patrons of Husbandry. I beg leave to say, what 
every impartial raan must admit, the proceedings 
are characteristic of high mental training, and all 
through is manifest a desire to improve and elevate 
the condition of man; to enlighten his mind; to im- 
bue him with proper conceptions of his duties, his 
capabilities and his opportunities; to strengthen the 
feeble; uphold the weak; and to encourage the de- 
spondent. May its sun never pale and its shadow 
never be less is the wish of, respectfully yours, 
Forestville, Dec. 2j. Geo. E. Jevvett. 



How many subordinate Granges have a Seal ? 
Evidently a great many Secretaries forget to 
use the seal. With the new year, begin the 
use of the seal on every communication that 
comes from your Grange. Don't send any peti- 
tion or resolution to your member of the State 
Legislature, or to yonr Representative in Con- 
gress without first affixing the Seal. R.-mem- 
ber the Seal and seal the sealed communica- 
tion before you stamp the foot or the envelope. 



With the new year comes the new word. 
Pay dues and then yon will get your due — the 
annual word for 1S91. 



Are you good at gueasing? Then gaeas the 
A. W. 



No motion should be considered, or atated by 
the Worthy Master, unless the mover rlsea and 
addresses the Chair. This law ought to be 
strictly enforced. 



The courtesy of the Chair may at any and all 
times be extended to a Past Master or visiting 
Master. Do you do so in your Grange ? If 
not, why not? 



The Grange believes that political parties are 
for the people and the people are not, neces 
sarily, for the party. The people may own 
parties, but political parties do not yet own 
the people. 



By the time these lines are read, the new offi- 
cers of State and county will have been in- 
stalled. Let 08 watch, with eagle eye, to see 
how many farmers are appointed to positions. 
California politicians cannot afford to ignore 
the farmer vote. If thoy do, the day will 
come when something may be heard to — come 
from above — "drap." 



Watch, by day and night, the vote of yonr 
Senator and your Assemblyman. The Legis- 
lature soon convenes. P^very man will have a 
chance to do something — at least to vote — for 
the farmers. If your repreeentative fails, note 
that fact and let him have a lasting vacation as 
soon as the aeasion closes. Do it snre ! 



If you will reorganize a dormant Grange the 
National Grange will pay you §2 50 and the 
California State Grange will add materially to 
the sum. For further particulars, " ask anil 
ye shall receive, seek and ye shall find." 



" No Grange, if true to its obligations, can 
discuss partisan or sectarian questions, nor call 
political conventions, nor nominate candidates, 
nor even discuss their merits in its meetings." 
(Grange Declaration of Parpoaea.) 



" Yet the principles we teach underlie all 
true politics, all true statesmanship, and if 
properly carried out, will tend to purify the 
whole political atmosphere of our country. For 
we seek the greatest good of all, ' (Declaration 
of Purposes.) 



The study of politics (which is but another 
name for the science of Government) is of itself 
all right. It is the duty of every one to give 
the snbjeot much thought. But the practice 
of politicians is quite another thing. Keep 
company with the first named, but beware of 
the last named. 



Has anybody heard of a farmer being ap- 
pointed to office? The papers of late have 
given the names of many appointees who are to 
take offioe Jan. 5, 1891. Who has seen the 
name of any farmer in the list? Is it possible 
no farmer in California is competent? Or is no 
one willing ? Or, to the point, has no one been 
asked ? 



Do you know that certain people refaae to 
read an article or to listen to a speaker unless 
the opinions expressed coincide exactly with 
their opinions ? A greater mistake could hardly 
be made. You never know how strong a case 
ia till you get both sides of it. Therefore we 



Bro. Cressey in New Hampshire. 

Editors Press: — Bro. C. J. Creasey of San 
Jose, Treasurer of the California State 
Grange, was in attendance at the annual ses- 
sion of the New Hampshire State Grange, 
on Deo. 17 th, and gave a practical and very 
earnest address. He came direct from the 
Maine State session, and although sick and 
weak, he appeared before the Patrons of New 
Hampshire, after an abeence of 45 yeara, and 
was warmly received and his address was 
greeted with storms of applause. He alluded 
to the great accomplishments of the Order in 
the Golden State and warmly complimented the 
Patrons of the Granite State for their achieve- 
ments. 

The last annual exhibition of the N. H. 
Grange Fair Association was eminently success- 
ful, notwithstanding it was held in the middle 
of the longest storm of which the present gen- 
eration has any knowledge. All bills will be 
paid in full and a good sum left in the treasury, 

The N H. Grange Fire Inenranoe Company 
is increasing its business and has thus far been 
very fortunate in not having any large losses. 

The annual session of the .State Grange at 
Manchester, now just closed, was one of the 
most interesting and profitable in the history of 
the Order. The attendance has annually been 
Increasing and this year was about 20 per cent 
greater than last year. The interest was un- 
abated and the reports of the officers and com- 
mittees were excellent. Fraternally yours, 

Manchester, N. H. Geo. R. Drake. 



Appropriations, 

During this, the short session of Congreaa, 
the most important work that is expected to be 
done is that of passing the appropriation bills, 
by which the different departments of the 
Government may be able to secure the sinews 
of war; and immediately following, the esti- 
mates for 1891, as contained in the bills to be 
acted on within the coming two months. 

To keep them in good running order, I have 
been looking up some of the figures, past, pres- 
ent and prospective, and from a farmers' and 
Patrons' standpoint I find some of them full of 
interest, containing some pointers that should 
set farmers to thinking and acting. 

We now have eight regular departments of 
the Government, the heads of which form the 
President's Cabinet. To these may be added 
the legislative, meaning Congress, all of which 
are supported by the apDropriations made from 
year to year. I will give the figures of the ap- 
propriations made for each for 1890 : 

1890. 1S91 

State Department $ 2,477 636 $ 1,DS1,435 

Treasury lS0,eAl,369 1 7.030.989 

War 38,608,626 47,052 073 

Navy ... 24,347,220 ?6.440.1.'->9 

Interior 112,784,818 117,054,420 

Hostotfica 2,072,229 9,119,131 

Dept. of Justice 4,816,002 4.800 700 

Dept. of Agriculture. 1,089 037 1.2i 8 4S0 

Legislative (Congress) 0,368,042 C,4-29,5S3 

There is plenty of proof for study and 
thought in these figures. Over tevenly times 
aa much spent in the army and navy as for ag- 
riculture at a time when we are at peace with 
all the world, so strong within ourselves that 
no nation on earth dare attack us. Six times 
as much spent for the months Congress is in 
session as for the great industry which is at the 
foundation of all onr greatness, and that feeds 
and pays for rnnning all the machinery of Gov- 
ernment, manufactures and commerce. Study 
the figures carefully, and see if you don't come 
to think that in this, as in matters of tax- 
ation, finance and tariff, we should still insist 
noon "equality before the law." — Farmtrt' 
i^ritnd. 



[The above letter from the Secretary of the 
New Hampshire State Grange will be gladly 
read by the members of the Grange on the Pa- 
cific Slope. Separated as we are by the entire 
width of the United Stater, we are glad to hear 
of the growth and prosperity of the Order in 
the old White Mountain State and the other 
New England States. We know that every 
Patron will join us in our thanks to Bro, Drake 
for bis subscription to the RL'R.\b Press and 
kindnesa in writing, and to the different 
Granges and Patrons Ktst for their kindnesa to 
our Worthy Treasurer, Bro. Cressey, for " in 
him " we are all received. — Eds ] 

A District Union Installation. 

There will be a joint installation of Grange 
officers belonging to the sixth district at Wat- 
sonville, Jan. 3, 1891. Past Master I. C. 
Steele and District Deputy will do the honors 
of the occasion. All officers and members of 
the sixth district are particularly invited to be 
present, and a cordial invitation extended to 
other Patrons in the State. 



To All Granges about to install officers, the 
Rural sends a hearty greeting. May all elect 
be present in strength for a year of excellent 
service, and success and happiness finally 
crown their sincere effirts. Let every brother 
and sister strive to aee who can best assist their 
chosen aervants to increase the membership 
and good standing of their Grange. 

All Patrons are invited to the installation 
of Eden and Temescal Grange officers, at Odd 
Fellows' hall, Oakland, Jan, 3i, at 10 A, M, 
Worthy Master Divis will be present, and we 
hope also a good number of other able Grange 
speakers, and visiting brothers and sisters. 
Bros. Amos Adams and Rav. A. T. Perkins are 
the W. M.'s elect. 

Eighteen Hundred and Ninety-one finds 
the Grange in California in harmony, with 
greater numbers and more funds now than at 
the beginning of any year within a decade. It 
should make good and substantial advancement 
within the 12 months. It is for all members 
unitedly to determine what that progress 
shall be. 



Sensible Talk, Anyway. 

The inaugural message of Gov. Tillman of 
SDuth Carolina covers considerable ground. It 
is the message of a man of the people who haa 
atndied the needs of the people, fie says in 
reference to education that the Military School 
sbonld be wiped out and its appropriation used 
for a girls' school. This girls' school should 
teach nseful things. There would be no place 
in it for oil paintings and the ologiec; but there 
would bs a large place for cooking and other 
branches of housekeeping, and a place for 
telegraphy, phonography and other branches 
which fit girls to earn their own living. He 
proposes to put a stop to lynch law if he has to 
remove every sheriff in the State, He is going 
to have speedy trials, and to have one fair trial 
end a case. That trials may be fair, he will do 
away witb profeesioual jurymen and drnnken 
justices. To make these reforms possible, 
there must be a new Constitution, The present 
one, he says, was framed by "carpet-bag vam- 
pires and baser native traitors." He will have 
a Constitution nnder which the two races can 
live together in peace. S >uth Carolina haa for 
many yeara been ruled by the aristocrats, mostly 
of the land-owning class. Tillman is a msn of 
the people, who two years ago was an every- 
day farmer. Ha is a man of force and charac- 
ter, and with four-fifths of the voters at bia 
back may lift the Ssate ont of the ancient rut 
it has run in so long. — F. Call 



A Gala Day in Prospect. 

Editors Press : — We expect to have a grand 
time Installation Diy, Jin. 3. We have in- 
vited all the Granges in our district to join us 
in a general installation in our hall at Watson- 
vllle, and we hope they will all accept. We 
are going to depart from our old-time cus- 
tom of having onr Harvest Feast in onr 
hall, and are going to have it in a hotel 
kept by one of our brothers, Conrad Jes- 
sen. We are going to march down the 
street in a body, with our regalia on, and our 
banners flying to wooing bretzsa of the broad 
Pacific, 

We are getting a nnmber of proposals for 
membership, and all indicacicns are good 
for another prosperous year for Wataonville 
Grange. 

Wishing and hoping that yon and many 

others of the State officers may be with ns on 
Jan. 3, 1891, I remain, 

Yonrs fraternally, 

George E. Abbe, 
Sec'y Watsoovillu Grange. 

Wat.sonville will no doubt have a glorious 
reunion on Jan. 3d — the Granges in San Ben- 
ito, Santa Cruz, and the northern part of Mon- 
terey county being invited to join in a unirn 
installation of officers. Past Master I. C. 
Steele will cfficiate on the occasion. He can 
always be depended upon for an interesting and 
elevating address. IJis noble and generous 
aots for the Good of the Order are an inspira- 
tion for love and labor for its welfare and prog- 
ress. It aeems entirely fitting that Bro. A. P, 
Roaohe should again assume the gavel in hia 
own Grange, for which he has done so much 
and ao well. 



Jan. 3. 1891.] f ACIFIG f^URAb f RESS. 



Farmers' Alliance. 



SuBBCRiBSRS who are members of the Farmers' Alli- 
ance can have their names changed to the Orange Edi- 
tion of the Rural Prbss free, much to their advantage. 



Alliance and Institute. 

Two Important Meetings to Be Held at 
Hanford. 

Hanford will enter upon the new year with 
two Important conventions, and both should be 
well attended. 

The first of these is the Farmers' Alliance, 
which will convene at 10 a. m. on Wednesday, 
Jan. 7, 1891, and every Alliance in the county 
is requested and urged to send delegates, and 
the Register hopes that every Alliance in the 
county will do so. It is probably too late to 
begin work for this Legislature to consider, but 
it is not too early to begin movements for the 
people and Legislature to consider two years 
hence. Nothing can be gained in politics ex- 
cept through organization and determined 
effort. The farmers of California can govern 
California if they will. Will they ? 

On Tharaday, Jan. 8tb, at 1 f. m., there will 
be held, also at Hanford, a session of the Farm- 
ers' Institute of Tulare county, and we hope 
that this, too, will be well attended. We are 
looking forward to a time when Farmers' In- 
stitntes shall be held all over California, and 
not only held, but well attended. These In- 
stitutes are especially needful in a county like 
Tulare that is just entering upon a business 
new to most of us and which requires a high 
degree of intelligence and skill to make suc- 
cessful. 

The subject for discussion will be, " What, 
where and bow to plant," a continuation of the 
dieonssion begun at the Tulare meeting. 

This subject is timely and Important. Every- 
body invited to attend the meeting and every- 
body should go. — Tulare Register. 

[We do not see why the present Legislature 
should not help the Farmers' Institute, but 
many reasons for fairly establishing the system. 
Eds. Press.] 

An Encouraging Outlook. 

John S, D.)re, member of the State Alliance 
Executive Committee, writes the following in- 
spiriting letter to the Fresno Republican: 

Editor Republican: The Farmers' Alliance 
has been thoroughly organized in Fresno coun- 
ty for several months, Sub-Alliances were 
formed early last summer in West Park, Wal- 
nut, Fowler, Selma, Malaga, Chicago, Lone 
Star, Iowa, Franklin, River Bend and Reedley, 
and the Fresno Oounty Alliance was fully or- 
ganized, elected of&oers and received its char- 
ter from the National Alliance nearly six 
months ago. 

It had three representatives in the first an- 
nual session of the State Alliance in San Jose 
last November, At that time there were al- 
ready 14 counties organized in this State, with 
a membership of nearly 8000, Since the State 
meeting several counties and many sub-Alli- 
ances have been organized, and the work is 
steadily going forward, there being to-day over 
10,000 members in the State, 

Mr, J, L. Gilbert of Reedley is the State 
Lecturer and has the authority to organize Alli- 
ances anywhere in the State. I would refer all 
who may be desirous of having Alliances organ- 
ized, especially in any part of Fresno county, 
to Mr, Gilbert at Reedley, or Mr. J. W, Webb 
of Fresno, who is also duly commissioned as an 
organizer. 

The meeting of the County Alliance at Fow- 
ler on Friday, Jan. 2, 1891, has several Import- 
ant matters to consider, among which will be 
the selection of some paper as an official organ 
of the Alliance in Fresno county, and the ap- 
pointment of a business agent, A large attend- 
ance at that meeting is expected and desired. 

The meeting of the Executive Committee of 
the State Alliance at San Franoisco on the 12t;h 
of January next is for the purpose of auditing 
accounts, and such routine work as properly 
belongs to such a committee. The social and 
business features of the Farmers' Alliance are 
nut less important than the influence that may 
be exerted upon the action of political parties 
where the farmers' interests are in jeopardy. 

So far as I am concerned, I want the true 
aim and work of the Farmers' Alliance under- 
stood, and then it will stand or fall on its 
merits. Yours respectfully, John S. Dore. 

West Park, Dec. 2S, 1890. 



If Jay Gould had not owned the wires, and 
through them controlled the Associated Press, 
and through the Associated Press controlled 
the daily papers, he could not have so readily 
used his mighty wealth to hurt nearly every- 
body else in America. Bat for the matter of 
that, were it not for his grip on the wires and 
the press. Jay Gould and a few others of his 
sort would not own half so much wealth. Do 
you see It? — Texa^ Stockman. 

The Farmers' Club. — Tne Lakeport Farm- 
ers* Club was organized last Saturday. The 
following were the officers elected: R. D. Mer- 
ritt, President; Frank W. Gibson, Vice-Presi- 
dent; Thomas Porteus, Secretary; Wm. Gess- 
ner, Treasurer, The next regular meeting will 
be held in the office of McCraney & Son, on 
Saturday, Jan. 3, 1891, at 2 p. M.—Lake Co. 
Avalanche. 



Thirty Million Dollars, 

Jay Gould made $30,000,000 the other day. 
It is spoken of by the press in about the same 
way as it would speak of a man selling a house 
and making |500. Jay Gould made thirty 
millions of dollars the other day! How? 
While making it, did he contribute anything 
to the wealth and happiness of the people ? 
If the farmer succeeds in making any profit at 
all, he at the same time does something that is 
valuable to the community. If the manufac- 
turer makes even an unreasonable profit, be 
helps to make others rich and more comfort- 
able. But is there one man, woman or child 
on the face of the earth, outside of the Gould 
family, who has been benefited one iota by Mr. 
Gould's accumulation of another $30,000,000? 
Mr. Gould made $30,000,000 the other day! 
What did he do that was so immensely prof- 
itable ? Well, he did this: 

Concluding that he would like to possess 
himself of certain railroad properties, he went 
into Wall street with his peculiar methods and 
ran down the price of stocks, which in many 
cases were held by men and women who be- 
lieved that they were good investments be- 
cause the roads in question were doing a good 
business, and because there was no good 
reason why they should not continue to do a 
good business. They had invested their 
money in these stocks as a legitimate business 
transaction, Gould wanted the stock; he 
wanted it at a low figure, and so with his 
immense fortune he began to depress the 
price. In plain, unvarnished language, Jay 
Gould sought to possess himself of property 
to'which he had no more moral right than the 
pickpocket has to the pocketbook and Its 
contents which be has taken from the pocket 
of his victim. When he had succeeded In 
getting the price down as low as he wanted it, 
he bought the stock. 

Jay Oould made $30,000,000 the other day; 
and that is the way he made it. It is not so 
very difficult to make money by such a method. 
It principally requires gall and an easy con- 
science. Other men have made a good deal of 
money from time to time, A New York bank 
cashier made a few hundred thousand dollars 
the other day. It was easy. He simply took 
the money belonging to other people and went 
to Canada. Young Ward, of Grant & Ward 
notoriety, made a large sum of money the 
other day. He robbed Gen. Grant and every- 
body else with whom he came in contact. 
Harper made a big profit the other day, but 
every cent he made was a forced loan from 
somebody else. 

Old Shylock is regarded with contempt 
simply because he wanted his pound of flesh. 
But the bond gave it to him. His debtor made 
a contract. There is no contract to warrant 
Jay Gould in whetting his knife for the 
purpose of carving his victim. He simply 
strolls forth and lays his hands on what he 
wants; and this sleek, cunning, audacious 
plunderer, with one hundred millions of other 
people's money in his possession, has been per- 
mitted to go unwhipped of justice for all these 
years. It seems almost incredible; it would 
appear to be unimpeachable evidence of the 
utter stupidity and idiocy of this American 
people; and it is unquestionable evidence of 
the fact that well-clothed, brazen dishonesty 
passes as the spirit of enterprise in this country, 

And now it is further announced that the 
dark conspirator against the people means to 
form a railroad trust, through which to rob the 
people perpetually. He means, if possible, to 
do with the railroads as he has done with the 
telegraph, make them a weapon for the bri- 
gand to use. Will the people stand It? We 
do not believe It, and if the government per- 
mits this man to go on with the accomplish- 
ment of bis designs, it will find that there will 
be a much larger political rumpus in this 
country than the McKinley bill is supposed to 
have caused. — Western Rural: 



Tax the Net Value. 

The whole trend of public opinion is in the 
direction of levying taxes only on what a man 
is really worth, and not what he seems to be. 
There is no question whatever that this is the 
just and equitable method, and if some plan 
that is certainly feasible shall be evolved, we 
do not doubt that legislation will soon be enacted 
to put the theory into practice. 

"Many of our farms are heavily mortgaged, 
and it is gross injustice to collect a tax on the 
full valuation of property when some rapacious 
money lender holds a claim against it for half 
or two-thirds of Its worth. Clearly such claim 
ought to be deducted from the valuation of the 
realty, and the mortgage itself be made to 
bear its share of the burden of taxation. And 
further, there is great injustice in the fact that 
hidden property may escape all asssessment. 
Our tax laws discriminate against the farmer, 
bringing him to account for possessing property 
which he cannot put into bank vaults, and 
allowing the bondholder, the speculator and 
stock gambler to secrete their wealth beyond 
the reach of the tax-collector. Will either of the 
chief political parties of this nation, having as 
they do heavy capitalists for their leaders, ever 
lift these burdens? To look for such a thing 
would be to expect the impossible." 

Thus speaks the Rural New Yorker on this 
subject, and it but echoes the universal senti- 
ment of the agrionltnral press of the oonntry. 
But we may safely look for such a thing if 
farmers continue to acquire and wield political 



influence. It will take long and diligent study 
to formulate and put into effect tax laws which 
will relieve the farmer of the disadvantages 
under which he now sufi'ers by shifting from 
his shoulders a portion of the burden that be- 
longs to others. But when once all are aroused 
to the necessity of it, it will be done, — Journal 
of AgricuUure. 



Farmers' Alliance. — P, T, Durfy of Monte 
Vista, who was a delegate to the Farmers' 
Alliance meeting at San Jose, thinks the future 
of the organization depends mostly on main- 
taining its purity of elements and of purpose. 
One of the great troubles is to keep the mem- 
bership confined strictly to farmers, to those 
who are directly interested in the cultivation 
of the soil in some shape. The great success of 
the organization is attracting attention, and all 
sorts of combinations seem anxious to get into 
the new Orde.r. Many labor organizations are 
coming to the door to make inquiries as to 
terms of affiliation, and the Nationalists are 
asking for direct admission. While the labor 
people are practical, their interests are not by 
any means identical with those of the farmers, 
and the Nationalists are mostly theorists. To 
let in all sorts of people means to complicate 
the aims and workings of the organization. 
Antagonisms and divisions, misunderstandings 
and strife will ensue. As it is desirable to 
keep the membership free from entangling alli- 
ances, so Is it to preserve the Order from the 
interferences of the old political parties, — Santa 
Rosa Democrat. 



Arizona Notes. 

Editors Press: — 'Tis time to write the Ru- 
ral a line. Twice lately I penned quite length- 
ily to the Rural, but on reading over after it 
had gotten cold, fearing an attack of land 
agents, I backed off. I have not forgotten till 
yet being published as a " hired liar " in the in- 
terests of Northern California, when 17 years 
ago I wrote up Southern California. 

Our favored portion of Arizona is weathering 
the surfeit of land speculators slowly. For 
three years have these parasites sat on our facil- 
ities, and time and interest and taxes have 
shaken their firm grip a little. 

Some 15 families from the East have bought 
in and around Tempe, and will plant out fruit 
trees and vineyards on land that heretofore has 
been devoted to alfalfa and bronco and steer. 

Since the silver legislation several of our 
stagnant mines have begun operations, which 
gives oar town of Tempe new life. 

The olden-time jerk liner, with his long 
string of worn wagons and mulee, is busy 
about our railroad depot. 

Jake and Joe have lately stumbled on to a 
Mr, to their names since they have sold out 
their mine, and now have a fat bank account 
and own the cottage down on the avenue. 

Our two English boye, Dick and Sam, have 
struck it rich out in the Lacatone mountains, 
and so they have no time to prune the viae 
this winter, so some one else can get their 
former contracts while they attend to another 
calling, superinduced by the Silver bill passed 
by our late Congress, 

While OUT enterprising people have been 
busy in our various lines of trade and specula- 
tion, a heathen Chinee came in above our 
town and offered $5 per acre rent for a certain 
piece of alfalfa of 20 acres. He had a terrible 
time to plow up the alfalfa, but finally whipped 
the fight, planted to potatoes and in November 
was offered $100 per acre for the crop in the 
ground before digging, but John's almond eye 
couldn't see it. Well, who wants to imitate 
the heathen ? He has no trotting horses, nor 
does he take an active part in party politics, 
nor does be run a long bill at the grocery store 
as we do and pay up with beef at a cent and a 
half, and ship over the railroad at fancy prices 
per car. 

The weather is exceptionally fine, so much so 
that if it runs along in this style for two weeks, 
the busy bee will be working on the willow and 
maybe the peach-bloom. On an average, Ari- 
zona is at par, or a little above, Tempe has 
quite a lot of tourists sojourning for the week 
with us, and all things are In shape to make an 
impression, Geo. Kav Miller. 

Tempe, Arizona. 



Our Public Schools. 

Editors Press: — 1 mail you a copy of the 
Fourteenth Biennial Report of the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction. An examina- 
tion of the statistics will show that the increase 
in the number of census children in the State 
during the past two years was 10,382, The in- 
crease in the average number belonging to the 
public schools for the same time was 15,714. 

The increase in the daily average attendance 
was 14,362, thus showing that the daily average 
attendance was increased by 3980 more than 
the total increase in the census rolls for the 
same time. 

During the past two years 381 new school- 
houses have been erected, the total number in 
the State now being 3121, of which 115 are of 
brick. Increase in number of teachers, 496; 
increase in number of teachers graduates from 
Normal schools, .328; increase in number of 
volumes in school libraries, 77,050; increase in 
number visits by oounty superintendents, 831 ; 
increase in number of teachers attending in- 
stitutes, 631; Increase in numbT of school visits 



by trustees, 3930; increase in number of schoc 
visits by parents and friends, 32,116; increat 
in value of school property, $3,060,363; total 
value of school property in the State, $13,- 
627,143, 

In retiring from office, I desire to express 
my sincere thanks to you and the public press 
of the State generally for the cordial courtesies 
which you have extended to me during the past 
four years and the encouraging, friendly help- 
fulness which you have given to all engaged in 
promoting the Interests of the public schools. 
Ira G. Hoitt, 

Supt. Public Instruction. 



6|NTOJVIObOQICAU> 



, Insect Pests in Ventura County. 

Editors Press:— The Horticultural Associa- 
tion of Ventura county met at Union hail, 
Ventura, Saturday, December 13th. The 
conven-tion organized with N. W. Blanchard 
of Santa Paula, Chairman, and M. E. Isham, 
Secretary. Messrs. Sharp, Hill, Prince, 
Rice and Decker were chosen Business 
Committee by Chairman Blanchard, who 
then opened the convention by a few pithy .re- 
marks about the object of the meeting and the 
necessity of taking concerted action against in- 
sect pests which are already In the county. He 
thought something should be done to prohibit 
the bringing Into Ventura county, in future, 
pests from other portions of the State. It has 
been demonstrated that the Australian lady- 
bug cleans out white scale effectually. Mr. B. 
considered the red scale the next worst pest 
here. 

Near Santa Paula, In the orchard of W. 
Easly, last season Mr. B. found a few codlin 
moths. He thinks they came from fruit im- 
ported from the East. As this pest is supposed 
to be gotten rid of if the season's fruit could be 
destroyed, a discussion was entered into by the 
convention as to the feasibility of purchasing 
fruit where this moth has been found and de- 
stroying the same, as it is not yet widespread. 

In Mr, Hodson's orchard near Ventura can 
be found a few Sin Jose scale — the worst scale 
which infests our deciduous fruit trees. This 
scale is pretty well distributed throughout the 
county, not in great numbers, but in the differ- 
ent orchards of the county, and we have got to 
exterminate or fight it. Mr. Blanchard stated 
that it would be worth hundreds of thousands 
of dollars to us if it could be gotten rid of. 

Mr, Rice of Santa Ana considers San Jose 
scale the most important thing to look after in 
the county, as it affects fruit as well as trees. 
Thinks there is no orchard six years old here but 
what is infested with this scale. He has found 
Red scale at the Ojai. 

Mr, Sharp of Saticoy said his experience with 
pests had ^een limited, but had at one time a 
few trees infected with Black scale, 

Mr. Decker of Cienega had pear-tree scale, 
but used kerosene wash and eradicated it en- 
tirely. 

At the afternoon session, the subjects treated 
and discussed by members of Horticultural 
Convention were as follows: 

Ist. Codlin Moth. 

2d, San Jose Scale. 

3d. Bees and Fruit. 

4th. Bast Means to Eradicate Fruit Pests, 

There were about 30 members present, and 
the discussions showed our fruitmen alive to 
the Interests of their business and that brain- 
power was not lacking any more than muscular, 

Messrs. Blanchard, Rice and Isham were 
elected Board of Horticultural Commissioners 
of Ventura Co., to make inquiries and report 
at the next convention. 

It has become evident that decided action 
must be taken here to protect our orchards, and 
it is hoped that the laws already passed may be 
enforced for their protection, and that means 
may be voted by the supervisors to carry on 
all necessary work. M. E. D, 

Dee. 16. 1890. 

Rosin Wash for the Orange Red 
Scale. 

R. C, Kells, J. C, Gray and H. P. Stabler, 
Horticultural Cammiseioners of Sutter county, 
recommend the Immediate and thorough use of 
the following wash on orange trees infested 
with red orange scale. This remedy is known 
as the rosin wash. It has been indorsed by 
the State Board of Horticulture and has been 
used with great success against the red orange 
scale in Southern California : 

Eighteen pounds rosin. 

Five pounds caustic soda — 70 per cent 
strength. 

Two and a half pints fish oil. 

Water to make 100 gallons. 

Boil the rosin, caustic soda and fish oil In 
about 20 gallons of water. Be sure the in- 
gredients are thoroughly dissolved, then add 
water to make 100 gallons. This wash, used 
on orange trees, will in a great measure rid the 
trees nf the red cange scale, but it must not be 
expected that one application will entirely 
eradicate the pests. It will require several 
thorough sprayings to accomplish that result on 
badly infested tree<< 



Senator Pettiorew favors the total extinc- 
tion of the seal. He says they eat up more 
good, nutritious codfish every year than their 
hides are worth. 



6 



f AOIFMS ^URAlo jpRE8S>. 



[Jan. 8, 1891 




The Forsaken Farmhouse. 



Against the wooded hills it stands 
Ghost of a dead home staring through 

Its broken lights on wasted lands 
Where old-time harvests grew. 

Unplowed, unsown, by scythe unshorn. 
The poor forsaken farm-fields lie, 

Once rich and rife with golden corn 
And pale green breadths of rye. 

Of healthful herb and flower bereft, 
The garden now no housewife keeps; 

Through weeds and tangle only left 
The snake, its tenant, creeps. 

A lilac spray, once blossom-clad. 
Sways bire before the empty rooms; 

Beside the roofless porch a sad 
Pathetic red rose blooms. 

His track, in mold and dust of drouth, 
On floor and hearth the squirrel leaves 

And in the fireless chimney's mouth 
His web the spider weaves. 

The leaning barn about to fall 

Resounds no more on husking eves; 

No cattle low in yard or stall. 
No thresher beats his sheaves. 

So sad, so drear ! it seems almost 
Some haunting presence makes it sign; 

That down yon shadowy lane some ghost 
Might drive his spectral kine I 

—John Greenleaf Whillier. 

Mrs. Hawes' Twins. 

Mrs. Hawes had returned to her work of 
looking over old ooata and trousers with a view 
to makiog them into rugs. She remarked to 
herself and to the cat that it " wa'n't no 
manner of use to watte her breath calling when 
folks didn't want to hear." 

.She" stood tearing off a strip from an old-time 
Sunday coat belonging to her husband, when 
the door opened quickly and a girl about six- 
teen years old walked in with an air as if she 
had been running. 

" Here I am, mother!" she said. "What 
is it you want? " 

Mrs, Hawes glanned up. 

" 'Twas Marthy Jane I was calling," she said. 

"I'mMarthy Jane. mother, when will 
you know me 1 " 

The girl threw back her head and laughed, 
Mrs. Hawes dropped the coat skirt, gazed a 
moment and then laughed, too, but with a 
vexed air. 

"That comes of having twins to contend 
with," she remarked. " I thought by the way 
yon broke into the room 'twas Jane Marthy. 
She's liable to come through a door as if she 
had been shot out of a gun. Where've you 
both ben ? " 

'• Down to the brook. The wind blew so we 
didn't hear you when you first called. Did 
yon want anything particular ? " 

The girl tried to speak patiently, though she 
was longing to go back and resume making a 
swine between the two cider apple trees. 

" Miss Lawler'a jest b^n here," Mrs. Hawes 
announced, 

"Oh, has she?" 

Martha Jane clasped her hands as she put 
this question. Her face flushed and her eyes 
sparkled with interest. Her mother partially 
ripped a sleeve bafore she spoke again. Then 
she continued: 

" She's decided to have thpt mnsic party — 
mnsikari, she calls it — next Wednesday even- 
ing. That German Herr Rickerstruther or 
Bomethin' can come then — sooner'n she ex- 
pected. She invited both you girls. She said 
it won Id be finer'n anything you've ever heard. 
Mies Dalrymple from Boston's goin' to sing. I 
thought yon like to know right off. That's 
why I called, though I knew yon was bavin' a 
gor^d time at the brook," 

Martha Jane turned and walked to the win- 
dow. From there she asked : 

" Yon said we both were invited ? ' 

"Tobesnre, I'm afraid you'll have a hard 
time decidin'," the mother answered, anx- 
ionaly. 

"There's nothing to decide," said Martha 
Jane. " it's Jenny's tarn; I went to the church 
fair last month, you know." 

She came from the window and stood be- 
fore her mother. She flung oat her bands 
with a quick gesture as she exclaimed, passion- 
ately : 

" I do wish we had more than one dress! 
It does seem sometimes as if I couldn't bear 
it!" 

" Yon don't wish so any more'n I do," said 
Mrs. Hawes. "Y'on know jest how 'tis; we 
keep havin' doctor's bills to pay for my sick 
spells, 'n now it don't look as if we could ever 
afford for you each to have a nice dress. I 
s'pose we ought to be thankful you c'n have 
one, 'n so swap round 'boat goin' to places, 
bein' jest of a size, 'n as like's two peas uny- 
way. I wish 'twas diff'rnnt, but I can't help 
it," she sighed as she ran her knife across the 
gtitcbes. 



Martha Jane was moving restlessly about the 
room. 

"P'raps Jane Marthy'd give you her 
chance," suggested Mrs. Hawes, more to see 
what this daughter would say than for any 
other reason. 

"I shouldn't wonder," was the response. 
" She's twice at good as I am, bat she wants to 
hear that matic as much as I do. She loves it 
just as well. No, it's her turn. She must go 
and I must stay at home and envy her. It's 
horrid to be so poor !" 

The girl tried to keep the tears that rushed 
to her eyes from falling on her cheeks. She 
saw her mother's lips tremble. 

" I'll be good about it after a little." Martha 
Jane said, in an unsteady voice. "Only give 
me time to think it over and get the upper hand 
of myself." 

She hurried out of the room and up the steep 
stairs to the chamber under the roof which »be 
shared with her sister. She sat down on the 
bed, crying out in a whisper: 

"I rather hear Miss Dalrymple sing than 
anything else in the world." 

'Then justice compelled her to add: 

"So would Jenny, and it's her turn." 

In ten minutes she came down the stairs. 
She opened the door and tried to speak with 
brave cheerfulness. 

"All right, mother! I don't mean to be a 
mean wretch this time." 

She ran at the top of her speed down to the 
brook, where her sister was now trying the 
new swing, dreamily "letting the old cat die" 
in the soft, sweet air. 

Mrs. Hawes left her work and watched the 
youog figure as it bounded along. 

" They couldn't either of 'em be mean 
wretches to save their lives," she said aloud, 
with a kind of norrowful pride. 

But Martha Jane had n"t yet fully got "the 
upper hand of herself." When she told Jane 
Martha of the invitation, and said "It's your 
turn, yon know," she felt rather bitter. It 
seemed to her that her sister's turn always 
came at the best things. 

There was silence for a moment. Then Jenny 
said, as if speaking to herself: 

" Oaly to think of hearing Miss Dalrymple 
sing! " 

'These twin girls were gifted not only with 
the musical temperamtnt, but with rarely 
sweet singing voices. Not to be able to im- 
prove these gifts under competent instruc- 
tion had been one of the great trials of their 
poverty. 

Martha did not speak. She felt very hard 
and disagreeable. She recalled the resolves 
just made in the little chamber, but the recol- 
lection did not do her much good. She knew 
she was yielding to evil. She felt her eyes 
burn and snap. 

The two girls sat in the broad seat of the 
swing, which barely moved. A red-shouldered 
blackbird came into one of the apple trees over 
them and sang out his delicious melody. 

At the first note Jenny turned town'd her 
sister. She knew instantly all that Martha 
was feeling. She had a moment's fight with 
herself, then she said: 

" You shall take my turn, and I'll have the 
next two turns at our gown. That'll be fair, 
won't it? " 

Martha had spoken truth when she had said 
that Jenny was better than she was. She 
knew in her heart that she had often taken ad- 
vantage of that aelf-sacrificing spirit, and she 
bad had many a "crying fit " of remorse be- 
cause she had done so. Now she was tempted 
again and almost ready to yield. She shrugged 
her shoulders violently. "No ! " she said, with 
emphasis, " it wouldn't be fair. You know as 
well as I do that this chance is worth all we 
may have in a year." She made a great effort, 
and added, "and I won't take your turn, so 
there ! " 

She kept bravely ta her resolve all through 
the three days which followed. It was Jenny, 
the lucky one, who went p bout her work in a 
perturbed state of mind. She kept looking for- 
lornly at her sister. 

It was only on the morning of the Wednes- 
day she appeared to cheer up somewhat. She 
had a private consultation with her mother, 
who constantly interrupted her with the ex- 
clamations, "The land's sake 1 it'll never do ! 
it's jast a crazy idea!" But she laughed as 
she uttered these intei jections, and finally 
said: "Well, p'raps there's no harm in it, but 
don't ask me to help you'n'n if you get into any 
trouble, but blame nobody but yourself." 

" There's no trouble to get into," responded 
Jane Martha, confidently. "Nobody 'II ever 
know anything about it anyway. I'll go up to 
the village now and call at Mrs. Hardy's. 1 
know she'll be willing," 

It was noj: half an hour later when Mrs. 
Hardy, who lived just across the street from 
the tall verandahed bouse which was MissLaw- 
ler's home, opened her front door to find one of 
the Hawes twins waiting. 

"Come in," she said cordially. Of course I 
don't know which 'tis, but you're welcome all 
the same." 

"It's Jane Martha," replied the girl, step- 
ping into the cool hall. 

When she was seated by the kitchen table, 
whereon Mrs. Hardy was rolling pie-crust, she 
hesitated and blushed a good deal before she 
really announced her errand. When she had 
done so, however, she went on easily enough, 
and laughed with the good-natured lady who 
listened to her. 

" Mother finally told me I might," she said, 
" if yon were entirely willing." 



"Just as willing as I can be," was the 
answer. "There'll be a great time at the 
Lawlers' to night. Very select, too. Only 
musical people goine. I sunpose Miss Lawler 
thought you and Martha Jane was musical, 
and so you are." 

When at a quarter before eight that evening 
Jane Martha timidly went up the path leading 
to the great Lawler house, she saw through the 
windows how brilliant the rooms looked, and 
how lovely were the flowers in them. She felt 
very small, but still very eager. 

Miss Lawler herself, a tall lady in thin, shim- 
mering silk, was coming through the hall when 
the servant let in the twin. She smiled on the 
shrinking child, and Jane Martha collected her 
wits. 

The first thing the lady said was what every- 
body said when Martha or Jane was met alone: 
" Which is it? " and when the girl had told her, 
"I'm sorry you could not both come. I'll put 
you in a good place where you can see and 
hear." 

Jane, in the pretty, light-colored cashmere 
which belonged to her and her sister, was 
placed in a chair near the door, where she 
could see the piano and every one who played 
or sang. She looked at the open door and 
breathed a sigh of relief. Then she prepared 
to enjov herself. 

The German Herr, as she called him, played. 
She had not known that a piano could sound 
like that, but still she waited for the singer. 
She knew that the slender girl in white, who 
had at her throat a cluster of oarnation pinks, 
mn«t be the one. 

Yes, it was she; and at last she sang. It wan 
only in dreams that Jane had ever heard such 
tones, but she had dreamed of them often and 
now it had all come true. The notes pene- 
trated and thrilled Jane's heart until she could 
bear no more. She had unconsciously pressed 
her bands to her bosom, and as the last high 
notes soared and soared in pure sweetness, 
Jane, still not knowing what the did, rose from 
her seat and leaned forward. 

Miss Dalrymole, turning when her song was 
done, saw the figure and met the vivid glance 
of the eyes. 

Hardly noticing the applause, she turned to 
her hostess and said, " That child can sing," 

Miss Ltwler looked at Jane, who was now 
shrinking back. 

"Indeed she can. You shall hear her. She 
loves mnsic so well, I think she will not even 
be afraid to sing now." 

" Let me ask her." 

The next moment Jane Martha felt a hand 
on her shoulder. She looked up adoringly into 
Miss Dtlryrople's face, and that lady felt that 
she had never given morn pleasure. 

"Will you sing for me?" she asked. 

"Now ?'' whispered Jane. 

"Presently. Y'ou shall stand close by me, 
and I will play for you. Yon shall sing what 
you please. Are you willing ? " 

"O, yps, for you ! " answered the girl. 

Miss Dalrymple smiled down upon her and 
took a small, cold hand in her own. 

So it happened that Jane's fresh, unsullied 
soprano voice, full of suggestions of power, 
was heard at Miss Ltwler'a musicale. 

Miss Dalrymple listened in admiration. 
She rose from the piano and said, so that every 
one could hear, " I could not do nearly as 
well as that when I was the age of this child. 
It would be a shame if such a talent should be 
wasted." 

Then there was a bustle of movement and 
compliment, and "the Herr" was going to play 
again. 

Jane went back to her seat quite dazed by 
what she had done, and by what Miss Dal- 
rymple had said. No one noticed her now, and 
she could listen undisturbed. 

It was not until nearly an hour later, after 
cake and coffee and ice had been handed among 
the guesti, that Miss Dalrymple again re- 
membf<red the girl. There she was in her cor- 
ner. She was eating an ice. The lady walked 
toward her. 

"I want you to sing once more," she said ; 
"I have a plan in my mind. Perhaps I can 
give you a couple of hours a week for the next 
two months. I shall live here with my friend 
until winter." 

The girl clasped her hands and began to 
tremble. She seemed bewildered. 

"What, you are afraid this time, are you ? 
It was really a treat to hear yon before, or I 
would not ask you when so many are present," 

"Y'es, I am afraid," said the girl, "but 
■ince you wish me to try, I must," 

Miss Dalrymple was sorry for the child when 
she bad placed her by the piano again. The 
small face was white and the lips almost ptiff, 

"Take heart," whispered the lady. "You 
did so well before. What shall it be?" 

When at last the song was selected. Miss 
Dalrymple looked at her companion in sur- 
prise. 

" Do you know In what key that is written ? " 
she axked. 
" Yes." 

" But can you sing as low as that ? " 
" O yes." 

The other stood in amazement with the sheet 
of music in her hand. 

" I don't understand it," she said. 

The girl gazed pleadingly at her, but was 
silent. 

In a blind way the accompaniment was be- 
gun; but when an untutored but rich contralto 
voice commenced the song, there was a disr'ord 
among the keys of the piano, and Miss Dal- 
rymple wheeled round and stared at the girl 



beside her, who trembled so that she could 
scarcely stand. 

There was entire silence among the people 
present. 

" What does it mean ? "cried Mils Dalrymple, 
looking about her in wonderment. " It cannot 
be that this child has two distinct singing 
voices — one very high and the other very low. 
She is a phenomenon." 

Judge Lawler, in the doorway, began to 
chuckle audibly. He had seen a slight figure 
steal out and soon return, and now he thought 
be understood. 

The girl at whom everybody was looking 
tried twice to speak before she ponld say a 
word. Then the burst out shrilly: 

" Oh, if you please, I am the twin ! " 

"That explains," cried the Judge, and he 
began to roar with laughter. All the company 
joined in, and the " other twin " stood in the 
midst, blushing, and finally laughing, too. 

" You are not the one who sang first? "she 
was asked. 

" No, ma'am. That was my sister Jenny. 
It was her turn with the dreta — " 

Martha Jane stammered, then was silent, 
growing more painfully red than ever. 

She had waited across the way at Mrs. 
Hardy's for her sister to leave the party. 
Then the two had changed frocks so that both 
should have a share of the music. This had 
been .Jenny's little plot. In the hurry of chang- 
ing she had not told that she had been obliged 
to sing. 

"No matter about the dreu, now," said Miss 
Dalrymple with ready tact. "Let us finish the 
song." 

The distressed young face appealed to her 

depply. 

Afterward, sitting by the child, she beard 
why the twins were obliged to "take turns 
in everything nice," as Martha Jane expressed 
it. "But," said the girl, "it did seem as if we 
could not both give up hearing you. It was 
Jenny who thought of the plan." 

The next morning Miss Dalrymple returned 
to Bonton. As she left the phaeton, in which 
Miss Lawler had driven her to the station, she 
saw two young girls in plain gingham gowns 
and broad hats, hurrying down the road. They 
were the twins, and they brought two lavish 
bunches of roses which tbey shyly offered. 

It was Martha Jane who spoke for both. 
But all she was able to say was, " Miss Dal- 
rymple, we could not help coming to see yon 
off — and to thank you." 

The singer kissed each young face as she 
took the flowers. She thought she had never 
received homage so sweet as that she saw in 
their eyes. 

The train was coming. " I shall remember 
the lersons I am to give you," she said. — M. L, 
Poole in YoutVs Comptnion. 

Kitchen Experiment Stations. 

In Printing House Square, one of the busi- 
est places in New ^'ork City, one sees a 
stone drinking trough with these words cut 
deep into its sides: " Drink, patient friend.'' 
A clea» stream of water gushes into the 
trough and the weary dray horses stop to 
take long draughts. On many a liquor 
saloon in the neighborhood one might im- 
agine he re.-id the same words, " Drink 
patient friend;'' but the human creature that 
takes whatever is offered him is not to drink 
to his refreshment and increased working 
power. And over many of the restaumnts 
would be a not inappropriate motto " Eat, 
patient Friend;'' for we know how submis- 
sively the average clerk of the region will 
take his seat on the high stool and eat of 
grease-soaked meat, soggy potatoes and saw- 
dusty bread, topping off with fhe national 
pie and doughnuts. 

To the hundreds of thousands of us who 
" eat what is set before us asking no ques- 
tions," it seldom occurs that we have actual 
cause for envy in the condition of our friend 
the horse, whose food has been studied by 
learned men as to kind, quantity, and pro- 
portions, and with such success as can be 
seen on any fine stoek farm. 

There are few of us who do not love a 
horse and cattle show, but we would appre- 
ciate it still more than we do, could we com- 
pare these beautiful racers and sturdy draught 
horses, these Ayrshires and Jerseys and 
Guernseys, with the horses and cattle in use 
among us one hundred or even fifty years 
ago. Would that the hum.in race could 
show in a half century any such improve- 
ment in its physique! 

Of course not all this improvement is due 
to the scientific study of food, but that is 
confessedly the largest factor, the animal al- 
ways responding to improved food by greater 
effectiveness, whether in flesh forming, milk 
giving, or working power. 

It is scarcely half a century since the first 
Agricultural Experiment .Station was erected, 
and they now number over one hundred in 
Europe alone. 

Now is it not time that there were experi- 
ment stations for the study of a person's food, 
and especially for the proper preparation of 
it? The German scientists have informed 
us in the "standard dietaries" just how 
many oimces of bread, beans, and other foods 
are necessary to sustain a human being 



Jan/ 3, 1891.J 



f ACIFie I^URALd f ress. 



7 



daily. But that these foods may yield to us 
their full analyzed amount of nutriment, how 
shall they be cooked, Mein Herr? Shall 
our beans be boiled, or Boston baked, or 
shall they be prepared in some way known 
only to the Fatherland ? Surely a link is 
missing here. 

For those who think that cookery has 
reached tolerable perfection as an art or even 
may be numbered among the sciences, this 
question will have no interest; but most of 
us think that not only is the science of nu- 
trition in its begining stages, waiting, as it 
must, on the growth of chemistry and physi- 
ology, but that the knowledge already avail- 
able has been but little applied to the prep- 
arations of food. 

Numberless questions throng upon us of 
the greatest economic importance, not to 
speak of their relation to hygiene. 

How shall the cheaper cuts of meat be 
cooked so as to make available all the nutri- 
ment and to develop all the flavor? Then 
there is the life of our most valued and least 
understood house plant, the yeast, and not 
less important, its death in the oven, a study 
of temperature from beginning to end, and 
only to be fitly conducted thermometer in 
hand. A hundred other questions in animal 
and vegetable cookery are waiting for answer. 

When we come to cooking utensils and 
methods we are indeed in an unexplored 
country. The kitchen range was long ago 
pronounced dirty, wasteful and not easily 
controlled, but what is to take its place only 
careful experiment will decide. That coal 
will not be the fuel of the future is more 
than probable, but when we talk of gas, gas- 
olene, or petroleum, and their application 
to different cooking utensils now in use, we 
meet questions of relative expense, safety 
and availability; and what housekeeper's 
opinion on these points is supported by well- 
observed facts "covering the whole ground.' 
How many, for instance, know or have any 
means of determining how many cubic feet 
of gas are necessary to boil a gallon of 
water.? 

At the Agricultural Stations extensive ex- 
periments are made on ensilage, the soften- 
ing of vegetable fibers by acids developed 
in the process. Does not this suggest much 
needed experiment of softening of meat 
fiber by hanging? And if it is well to study 
commercial fertilizers, made foods for grains 
and grasses, shall we not know with more 
certainty about the growing list of prepared 
foods for human beings ? 

"The modern feeding of pigs, its influence 
upon the formation of the skull and denti- 
tion,' is no doubt a useful study, but it sug- 
gests one that would perhaps be of equal 
value, the food of children, with accurate ob- 
servations as to the effect on "growth and 
development. 

Some one says, "Oh yes, these are all im- 
portant matters, but why an experiment sta- 
tion ? Cooking is the business of the cooiv, 
let her experiment in the kitchen." No 
doubt there were people fifty years ago to 
say, "Why an agricultural station? Every 
farm should be one." But it was found that 
the farmer with his planting, his mowing 
and his reaping, his stock feeding and his 
fence mending, had little time to experiment 
on silos and cross-fertilization even had he 
possessed the necessary training and facil- 
ities. 

And so it may be found that the making 
of clothes, the care of children, and the 
thousand duties that come to the mother of 
the family possibly may forbid her becom- 
ing an ideal investigator. It wo".ld seem 
that she who now bears the blame of our 
national failures in cookery has had more 
than her share laid upon her. Considering 
all that is required of this remarkable per- 
son, is it fair that we should ask her to turn 
her kitchen into an experiment station ? It 
would be difficult to name any other manu- 
factory that is expected to do the work of 
a laboratory in the same four walls and with 
the same utensils; and the kitchen is a man- 
ufactory where the daily output must not 
fail. If the housewife learns and applies 
what some one else with all the needed facil- 
ities has discovered, she will do as much as 
we expect of the farmer, the manufacturer, 
or he who follows any other business. 

Intelligent women know that home hy- 
giene together with the whole subject of 
food and cookery is in an unsatisfactory 
condition. There are many reasons for this, 
but none that would not melt away before 
intelligent study. 

A Kitchen Experiment Station would be 
a center for such work; it should have its 
laboratory or a connection with one already 
existing, and its practical work should begin 
with a study and comparison of cooking 
methods and utensils. A modest beginning 
at this work has been made at the New 
England Kitchen on Pleasant street, in Bos- 
ton, but it is still too early to say what re- 
sults it can offer us. — Mary Hiiiinan Abel 
in Chautauquaii. 



Y'OUJVJG JE[oLKS' QobUJVlN. 

Mabel and Billy's Journey with the 
Lapwing. 

(Written for the Rdrai, Press by Alice Kinoeburt 

COOLKT.] 

Once apon a time there was a little boy and 
girl Bitting under a tree in what waa a beantiful 
garden in aummer-time. 

"It's real nice sitting here and having the 
pretty red and yellow leaves falling in a shower 
on one, for they make one think of gathering 
Data and having a good jolly time," said Mabel, 

"That's 80," said Billy, "but I think when 
people plant trees, they might think aomething 
of other people's comfort; what fun we could 
have if this was a nut tree, hickory or walnut; 
I oould climb np " 

" But you might tear your pant«, Billy," in- 
terpoaed Mabel. 

" Pshaw ! Don't you think I can climb?" re- 
tortfd Billy. 

•• Yea — but— oh ! what ia that ?" exclaimed 
Mabel, aa a bird fell at their feet. 

" Ob ! the poor little thing, I believe ita leg 
ia broken," 

Billy picked it up. 

"Yes, it is ; I wonder how it happened. I 
didn't heai*a gun go off, did you ?" 

"No. Obi I'm BO sorry. Can't we do some- 
thing for it ?" 

" Yes, I think I can ; you hold it while I 
Whittle this stick smooth — there." Two pieces 
were aoon ready. "Now about the bandage." 

" Take thia ribbon," said Mabel, removing it 
from her hair; " but what kind of a bird is it, 
Billy ?" 

" Don't talk till I get through," he replied. 

The bird lay still as if it knew something was 
being done to help it. The operation was neat- 
ly performed. 

" I wonder if it can stand," and Billy placed 
it on his finger carefully. The bird stood on 
one leg and turned his head knowingly. 

" What ia it called, Billy ? " persisted Mabel. 

" Let me think — lark — nc, linnet " 

"Lapwing," exclaimed Mabel triumphantly. 

"So it is," said Billy. "Isn't there some 
fable about it being able to discover hidden 
aprings ? " 

" You're both right," piped the lapwing. 
Billy nearly dropped the bird, he .waa so 
startled. 

" O— h 1 " was all Mabel said. But her 
eyes were round aa saucers. 

" You are both surprised, but why shouldn't 
1 talk as well as the parrot? But as you have 
both been so good to me, I'll show you some of 
the wonders Inside the earth, that i;, if you are 
not afraid to follow me." 

"I'm not afraid if Billy goes," cried Mabel. 

" I'll go, I'm fond of adventure; besides, a 
bird can't hurt us," he said in an undertone. 

" Quick Billy, boost me up, we can't stop to 
go to the gate," and Billy boosted her, then 
climbed the wall himself and let her down on 
the other side, then he got down. They had 
to cross a little brook to follow tbe lapwing, 
which they did in time to see it boring a hole 
with its beak in tbe aide of tbe steep hill oppo- 
site. It whirled round and round, juat like a 
pin-wheel on the Fourth of July. 

" Follow me, but don't talk," it aaid, and 
diaappeared in the opening. 

" How can we follow through that little 
hole?" cried Mabel. "Let's make it larger, 
quick," and Billy opened his jaokknife and dug. 
away energetically, and Mabel did the same 
with her nails. 

" Let's squeeze through that, Billy, and see 
where the bird is." 

" All right, I'll go first," and as his feet were 
disappearing Mabel called, " Is it very dark in 
there?" 

But Billy kicked his foot for her to hush, 
then helped her through, and they found them- 
selves in a sort of cave. It waa filled with a 
mysterious light like that from a glow-worm. 
The lapwing flaw slowly before them. 

"There it is," cried Mibel, but the bird 
quickly turned its head and Billy gave her 
such a nudge that she nearly fell off the ledge 
on which they were walking. 

"Ohl"«he uttered, then slapped her hand 
over her mouth and on they went. Soon they 
beard a tinkling Eound and all of a sudden 
they beheld a group of the funniest little fat 
men, who were hammering, smiling and nod- 
ding, but never a word came from their lips. 
The most musical sounds came from their work. 
The children paused and watched them. What 
queer little men they were 1 big eyes, bare 
pates, great smiling mouths and dumb. 

"Tinkle, tinkle," sounded as their hammers 
fell, and aoon one of the little men held up ad- 
miringly a great gold st<tr. It glittered like a 
gem from the Southern Cross. 

" Ob, how pretty 1" cried Mabel, butsudden- 
ly all the stars, made and unmad<>, fluttered up 
through the roof of the cave and disappeared. 
The queer little men had all vanished, the 
tweet sounds had ceased and all waa silence. 

" Stupid 1" cried Billy. 

" I couldn't help it," said Mabel. This not 
being allowed to talk took all the pleasure from 
this mysterious journey. 

Again strange musical sounds were heard, 
and aoch a sieht greeted them — a group of 
men so tall and slender that, shining in the 
light, they looked like part of their strange 
work — they were making moonbeams 1 As 



they raised their long arms and their hammers 
fell, the sweetest sounds echoed through the 
cave, and the long, glittering beams trembled 
and sparkled. The tall men scanned their 
work with raised eyebrows and puckered 
mouths, shaking their heads, but not speaking 
a word. The beams were about finished when 
they broke into a a perfect chime, playing the 
rarest tunes, Mabel could restrain herself no 
longer, but cried, "Oh ! Oh ! 0— h ! " and the 
moonbeams trembled and shivered, and shook 
themselves clear through the roof and soon 
were shining down upon the earth, frightening 
the people nearly out of their senses. 

" Where's the moon ? " they cried, and looked 
behind church steeples, but no moon could they 
see. "There's the beams, but where's the 
moon ? " and they hurried home and hid their 
heads in the bed-clothea. 

The tall men were so angry at this turning 
nature topay-turvy that they looked so aour 
that all the milk on the doorsteps waa clab- 
bered. Then they seized on to the ends of the 
beams and diaappeared into space. 

" Stupid!" cried Billy, with a atill sharper 
poke in her rib;, but poor Mabel began to cry, 
so he repented and tried to comfort her. Soon 
all ill-temper was forgotten in wonder at the 
gigantic pillars, sparkling with every color of 
the rainbow, and the huge, fantastic heaps of 
crystal, and all so beautifully lit up with the 
wondrous light. 

" Isn't it beau — " but Mabel stopped 
suddenly and Billy looked black and the lap- 
wing shook its head. On they went, the light 
ever increasing and the beauties of the cave be- 
coming more resplendent. Suddenly such a 
sight burst upon their view that they stood 
perfectly bewildered; there lay the great, big, 
laughing moon flat upon its back, and a lot of 
round, laughing moon-men pounding and ham- 
mering it with all their might, but what deli- 
cious music the hammering madel 

" This must be the music of the spheres," 
thought Billy. They stood on a slight eleva- 
tion, so could look down upon the moon, and 
there was the big face all upon a grin and one 
eye was half shut and seemed to be winking 
at them In such ^ comical way that Billy for- 
got all caution and cried, "Oh, my!" and burst 
into such a fit of laughter that he broke some 
of his buttons off. 

" Stupid !" cried Mabel triumphantly; then 
all the round, fat moon men, with one eye 
closed in a horrible wink, gave the moon a 
little hoist and away it went wabbling up 
through the cave, the moon men clinging to its 
horn, and that's what makes the moon not quite 
round when we see it rise big and red and bat- 
tere'l some nights. 

"Now who is stupid?" cried Mabel, almost 
in^tears, for the cave had become suddenly 
dark. 

"You can talk now," piped the lapwing, 
" fpr you've done all the mischief you can; but 
follow my voice and you will soon be able 
to see." 

A faint light now appeared and they saw 
that the beautiful cave had changed into a 
long, narrow, irregular passage like a level of 
a California mine, and yes, there were the little 
Brownies they had heard about digging away 
for dear life. Mabel and Billy walked along, 
not daring to speak a word. At last they came 
to a little hill with quite a hole above through 
which the sky shone. 

They now noticed a good-natured looking 
Brownie picking up stones and rolling them in 
balls of hard clay, then throwing them through 
the opening north and south and east and 
west. 

" What is he doing ?" whispered Mabel. 

"I don't know," answered Billy. 

"Mister — will — you — please tell us — what 
you are doing?" asked Mabel. 

"Aha! BO von want to know?" answered the 
Brownie. "Well, this is where we supply the 
pretty ladies with their sparkling jewels. See, 
this is a ruby; how grand it will look in the ear 
of some dark beauty;" all the while he was 
wrapping it in ita covering of clay ; " thia one 
goes to Ceylon, and will save a lovely lady from 
being poisoned by a rival ! " Then he ran up 
to the opening and threw it with all his might 
to tbe east. "This diamond goes to the mighty 
Amazon, and will free a poor slave finding it, 
who will never cease thanking the Great Father; 
then a young bride will own it, whose faith 
and love for her husband will make her happy, 
until — but there, I can't tell you all their his- 
toriea, or you would have to come down here 
and live to hear them." 

" Oh, please a little more," pleaded Mabel. 

" Well, perhaps you will prizs the little 
stones if you know something about them. 
This emerald is just like the one worshiped in 
tbe idol in Peru long ago. It goes to the In- 
dies and saves a dear little boy from being bit- 
ten by a terrible serpent, that becomes petrified 
on seeing this stone, so fails to strike the little 
fellow, who — but that is enough." 

" More, please," from Mabel. 

" Well, do yon see this pretty turquoise " 

" That's the stone for the month I was born 
in, ma told me so I" cried Mabel. 

" Djn't be talking so much," grumbled 
Billy. 

" This one is going far away and will make 
a poor young man happy who is breaking his 
heart over a pretty girl, and — but I can't tell 
you all their history," ho said, throwing the 
turquoise into the stream that ran past tbe 
opening. "But here's a present for you— a 
necklace of the pretty stones — and you must 
keep it forever." 

" Oh, thank you, Mr. Brownie," cried Mabel, 



"and here's my neck ribbon to remeii 
me by." 

"That's nice," aaid the Brownie. "We ha 
no silk under here." 

"If you like it so, take my necktie, too." 
aaid Billy. 

" Wei), you are both kind children " 

" That they are," said the lapwing; "they 
mended my broken leg." 

"Ah, well, well!" and the Brownie filled 
their hands from his capacious pockets with 
priceless treasures, then gave them a fine 
diamond for their mother. 

" For bringing you up so kind," he said. 

" He has forgotten pa, "thought Mabel, " but 
I'll divide with him." 

"Now, good-by, for you muat go," aaid the 
Brownie, helping them through the opening 
into a little boat that waa in the stream out- 
side, 

" Good-by ! " they shouted, and away they 
went, past waterfalls, trees, flocks of sheep 
and climbing goate; then they went slower, and 
the scene became familiar, the lapwing had 
disappeared, and there was their house in tbe 
distance. The boat stopped and they got out. 

" I don't like to leave the pretty boat," said 
Billy, looking at it wistfully. 

"It can't go any further," said Mabel; " let's 
hurry home," so they did, and rushed to their 
mother all out of breath. It took some time 
to tell their story, but their mother said: 

" It'sNew Year's and you've been dreaming." 
But when they showed her their presents and 
gave her the diamond, she thought sht must be 
dreaming. 

Billy hurried away to call after the boat, but 
could not find it, and many a day afterward 
they climbed the big hill, but never could dis- 
cover the hole made by the 'lapwing or tbe 
stream, or the Brownies, and at night they 
would try to discover the sour-looking men 
hanging on the horn of the moon, but the moon 
laughed at them as of old, and the beams 
danced upon the waters and the stars sang to- 
gether for joy, but Billy and Mabel never bad 
any more wonderful adventures as long as they 
lived. 

708 Fulton St . S. F. 



X)0M£STie QCOJJOMY. 



Excelsior Yeast. 

Ei)iTOR.s Press:— This preparation is* made 
as follows: One handful of hops, one teacup 
of corn roasted to a cinnamon brown, four 
large potatoes, one pint of flour. Boil hops 
and corn (put together in a bjg) three or four 
honra or until the corn is soft to breaking. 
Boil separately the peeled potatoes until soft 
and mash fine, adding to the liquid (a full 
quart) the potato and flour rubbed to a smooth 
paste in a little cold water. To this add one 
teacup of sugar, one-half cup of salt and one 
tablespoon of ginger. Finally, add a full 
quart of the corn and hop liquid and cook all 
together until it thickens. When cool, add 
rising, and after 12 hours' fermentation, jug 
and keep in a cool place. This yeast, owing 
to the fine flavor given to bread and its long 
keeping qualities, ia specially adapted to 
country-house use and warm climates. 

C. E. Kinney. 



Good Cookies. — Oae cup of molasses, one 
cup of sugar, two eggf, two teaspoonfuls of 
soda, three tablespoonfuls of vinegar, flour to 
roll soft. Nice for children's school lunch. 

Hash on Toast.— Take small bits of cold 
meat, one pint of hot water, thicken with two 
tablespoonfuls of flour, a good-sized piece of 
butter, pinch of salt. Turn over toasted bread 
and serve immediately. 

Soft Gingeebread — Oae pint of molasses, 
two tablespoonfuls of butter, one cup of sour 
cream, one teaspoonful of soda in the cream, 
one teaspoonful of cream tartar in one cup of 
flour, one tablespoonful of ginger, and enough 
flour to make an ordinary cake batter. 

Apple Charlotte Pudijino.— Butter a pud- 
ding dish; line bottom and aidea with alices of 
bread one-half an Inch thick, buttered and 
dipped in cold water. Fill dish with sliced, 
juicy apples, one cup sugar, one cup cold 
water, little spice. Cover with slices of but- 
tered bread, cover and bake very slowly four 
hours. 

Grape Jelly. — Heat ripe black grapes over a 
slow fire, stirring and mashing them until they 
burst and the juice rune out. Strain through 
a thin muslin bag without pressing them. Re- 
turn juice to the fire and boil rapidly 20 min- 
utes, then stir into it two heaping teacupfola 
of white sugar to three cups of joice. Boil 
briskly 15 minutes after adding the sugar, 
skimming carefully and stirring it while boil- 
ing. Remove and pour into glasses before tbe 
jelly begins to cool. 

_ Rice Pdddinu.— Put two tablespoonfuls of 
rice and two tablespoonfuls of sugar into one 
quart of new milk, stir until the sugar disBolver, 
add a grating of nutmeg, and if you likr, one- 
half cup of raisins. Place the pan in the oven 
and cook very slowly for about IJ hours, stir- 
ring the pudding every ten minutes until the 
last half-hour. If the oven is too hot the pud- 
ding will be too thick. Probably the reason 
why your pudding settled to the bottom was 
that you did not stir it. This constant stirring 
makes them creamy and well mixed. 



f ACIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jan. 8, 1891 




W. B. EWEK, 



A. 1. DEWET. 

PubUshed by DEWEY & CO. 



Ofiee,220MarUtSt., N.E. cor. FrontSt.,S. F. 
gr Taire the JSlevaUrr, No. It Front St.'Wk 

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SCIENTIFIC PRESS PATENT AQESCT 
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T. DIWBT. W. B. KWRR. 8. H. 8TO0I 



Our latest /orms go to press Wednesday evening. 



rteglstered atS. F. Post Office sb second-olass mail matter. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 3, 1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS. Our State Flower; Barley as Com. 

pared with Corn, 1 ; Tlie Week; The Weather; The 

Marysvi lie Citrus F.alr; .Japan Persimmons, 8. 
ILLUSTRATIONS.— Our State Flower— the Cali- 
fornia Puppy, 1. „ 

FLORIST AND GARDENER.-Wild Flowers, 2, 
THE STOCK. YARD.— Packing-House Projects, 2. 
THE FIELD.— Hops in Washington; Wliat About 

Esparcet, 2. ,. „ 

HORTICULTURE.— Walnut Soil and Climate, 3. 
THE VIlmBYARD — Condilion of Southern Call 

fornia Vineyards; (itafting tiie Grape; The Future of 

the Grape Interest, 3. 
PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY.-Begin the Year 

Well; Farmers' Institute Held at Corvallis, Oregon; 

Tlie Master's Desk; Appropri»tions; Bro, Cressey in 

New Hampsliire; Sensible Talk, Anyway; A District 

Union Installation, 4. 
FARMERS' ALLIANCE — Alliance and Institute; 

An Kncouraging Outlook; Tax the Net Value; Farmers' 

Alliance; Our Organl/.er at Work; The Farmers' Club; 

Miscellaneous, 5. 
EN'rOMOLOGICAL. — Insect Pests in Veutura 

Countv; iiosin Wash for the Red Scale, 5. 
CORRESPONDENCE. — Santa Barttara County 

Notes; Arizona Notes. 5. 
THE HOME CIRCLE.— The Forsaken Farmhouse 

MrB Hawes' 'I w ins; Kitchen Experiment Stations, 6 
YOUNG POLKS' COLUMN.— Mabel and Billy s 

Journev with the Lapwing, 7. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Excelsior Yeast; Sun 

dry Recipes, 7. 
QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Cotton in Los An- 
geles County; Perfume and Drug Farming; Fruit 

Driers; Clotii e, 8. 
FRUIT MARKETING.— Bogus California Dried 

Fruit in the Eastern Markets, 9. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES. -From the Various 

Counties of California, lO. 
MISCELLANEOUS. -Census Changes, 9; Agri 

culture in Mendocino County, 11. 

Business Announcements. 

• [NEW THIS ISBDR. I 

Nursery Stock— Felix Gillet, Nevada Ci'cy. 
Nursery Stock— Fanch^r Creek Nursery, Fresno. 
Roses— The Storrs & Harrison Co., Paineaville, Ohio. 
Roses and Seeds- Diugee & Conard Co., West Grove, Pa 
Stump Puller— Gen. Harvey. 
Seeds- Bartcldes & Co , Denver, Colorado. 
Fence— .ludson Manufacturing Co. 
Dividend Notice— San Francisco Savings Union. 
Fruit Trees— Ingles'de Nursery, Sacramento. 
Grape Vines — Stcplien Hoyt's Sons, New Canaan, Ct. 
Trees and Plants— Aloha Nurseries, Penryn. 
Poultry— T. D. Morris, Agua Caliente. 
trSee Advertisiw) Columns. 



The Week. 

We go to preei one day earlier than naual to 
allow our force to participate in New Year's 
feetivitiea and rejoioingi, 

Monday night and thli (Tnesday) morning 
brought rainfall varying from a small fraction 
to a whole inoh at different pointa. It was, as 
a rule, a quiet storm and not such a lively 
shaking up of the skies as we hope will soon 
follow. 

Thus far, the rainfall for the season is at 
most place! but one-quarter to one-tenth as 
great as last year up to this date, but of course 
last year was unusual and excessive beyond all 
needs or desires. Still we need much more 
than we are receiving, and must look to Janu- 
ary to make a record. 

Next week the new State officers will take 
charge and the new Legislature assemble. It 
behooyes all who have honest interests to serve 
or to protect, to keep their eyes upon public 
affairs during the next three months. 

The gas flow for the Court House at Stockton 
is 60,000 feet per day. 



Please Remit. 

The beginning of a new year is a good time to 
settle up the debts of the old ones. We are obliged 
to remind those who owe the Rural on subscrip- 
tion account, that it will be a great convenience to 
us if they will soon remit what is due. Those who 
can also pay in advance will also do us timely and 
well-appreciated favor. We are doing our best to 
present a very valuable paper, divested of all feat- 
ures deleterious to the interests of the most carefully 
guarded households. To do this we deprive our- 
selves of some of the most lucrative lines of patron- 
age available to the average newspaper. The cash 
in advance price of our paper is low compared with 
its size and quality, and we wish to keep it so. By 
paying as promptly as possible, friends, you will 
greatly encourage us in our sincere efforts to favor 
you and the best interests of your calling. 

The Weather. 

Another'area of local rains has covered con- 
eiderable portions of the State, and still fur- 
ther relieved apprehensions of a dry year. This 
year, as ever before, fear and confidence have 
alternated, according as fog or raindrops filled 
the air. The mind naturally turns from one 
extreme to the other with, perhaps, slight rea- 
son for either extension. Daring the last week 
there has been much published in the news- 
papers around the bay abont land fogs as ob- 
served by a farmer living on the east side of 
the bay, and by him taken as a warrant that 
the year will be dry, and consequently he will 
proceed with seeding of low lands, which in a 
season of ordinary rainfall would be too wet 
for early sowiug. When suoh land fogs oc- 
curred In previous years, he did this, and 
made much money from his low ground, and 
proposes to do it again this year. Now it is 
the part of wisdom in a farmer to be observing 
and to draw conclusions from his experience, 
but we fear that the publication which has 
been given to one man's oonolnsions may be 
given undue weight. He may be right and he 
may be wrong this time; therefore his policy 
and practice should not be followed blindly. 

We notice that Sergeant Barwick gives the 
Record Union some notes on this subject which 
seem to us to be conservative, andjfperhaps 
calculated to restrain people from dra^ng 
weather prophecies from insufficient data. We 
quote as follows : 

These long-oontinned land fogs may be re- 
garded as a pretty sure sign of what we may 
consider as a dry season, I took charge of this 
station in March, 1881, since which time — and 
In fact from the first opening of this station in 
July, 1877 — the records show but one spell of 
foggy weather that in any manner compares 
with the present, and that one was far ahead 
of this, as the following record will show : 

That foggy period was in theyear 1881, oom- 
mencing as early as November, and prevailed 
from the 9th to the 17th. £ich morning was 
foggy, although the sun did make its appear- 
ance each afternoon on almost every day dnriog 
the nine days of November fog, but in the De- 
cember following there were 11 continuous 
days of fog and clouds that obscured the sun. 
This foggy spell began on Dec. .5th and ended 
on the 15th, making a total of 11 days; and, 
counting the nine days in November, gave us a 
total of 20 days of fog, as against about 15 
foggy and cloudy days, combined, for the pres- 
ent month. 

The records of this office show that the sea- 
son of 1883 and 1884 was not a dry one by any 
means, for there waa precipitated 24.78 inches 
of moisture — 5 inches over the average. The 
amount that was deposited before Jan, 1, 1884, 
was but 2.91 inches, as against 3.70 inches for 
the present season to date. 

From the above comparisons, it is not desir 
able to give positive advice to the farmer to 
plant his low-lying ground earlier than usual 
for fear he might lose his seed and labor also. 
That Contra Ooita farmer, who proposes to sow 
low laud earlier than usual, ought to know by 
this time that the most unreliable thing in Cal 
ifornia is to judge the future weather or rain 
prospects by the past. I had a sad experience 
in that respect, for, by all rules of judging 
the future weather by the past, last winter 
should have been an exceptionally dry one, 
but instead it was an exceedingly wet one, 
there having been over 33 inches of rain meas- 
ured. 

The better and safer plan for the farmers to 
follow is to take no stock in the coming season 
being a dry one simply because there has been 
so much foggy weather during the present 
month, but rather to wait and see for them 
selves and sow and plant at the usual time. 

The deduction from this plainly Is, that we 
have not yet reached a point when the weather 
can be definitely foretold for any considerable 
period ahead. It seems likely that we shall 
have a ye?T of less than usual rainfall, and 
yet there may be very heavy downpours which 
might render disastrous any marked departure 



from usual times of sowing different classes of 
lands. There may come rains so placed that 
there may be large crops, although the season's 
aggregate may be less than usual, and in such 
amount that all good soils, except in the dis- 
tinctively arid regions of the State, may prove 
profitable this year. Therefore, it behooves 
the farmer to get his work along as sharply as 
he can, but not to make any sharp departures 
from methods which have served him well, 
merely because another man in another district 
feels himself warranted in a certain course. 



The Marysville Citrus Fair. 

Preparations for this fair are progressing 
favorably, anS indications are for a splendid 
display and satisfaction to visitors. The fol 
lowing excursioDS and excursion rates have 
been arranged for by the Marysville Citrus 
Fair Association : 

Oroville excursion. Leaving Oroville at 
10:30 a. m., Wednesday, January 14th, and 
returning leave Marysville at 11 f, m. Fare, 
SI. 50. 

Sacramento excursion. Leave Sacramento 
about 10:35 A. M., Saturday, January 17th, and 
returning leave Marysville at such hour as may 
be desired. Fare, $2 50. • 

San Francisco excursion. Leave San Fran- 
cisco at 7:30 A. M., Saturday, January 17th, 
and connect at Davisville with the Sacramento 
special. Tickets good on regular and special 
trains as above retnrniug on regular trains of 
Saturday, Sunday or Monday, the 17th, 18th 
and 19th. Fare, $4.10. 

From Dutch Flat, Red Bluff, Oroville, Sac 
ramento and intermediate points to Marysville 
and return, tickets will be sold good on regular 
trains going from the 10th to the 17th, return 
ing from the 12sh to the 19th, Inclusive, at 
two-thirds the regular round-trip rates. 

Fare from Woodland and return will be 

.50, and from Moore's Station and 
turn, $1. 

As will be seen, the Sacramento and San 
Francisco excursions will be run over the 
Knight's landing road and the fare for the 
round trip from the latter place will be $4.10, 
the regular fare for one way. This should in- 
duce a large attendance from the vicinity of 
San Francisco. City people ought to know 
more of the development of the industrial inter' 
ests of the interior. 

Japan Persimmons 

This fruit, so highly esteemed in the Orient 
and so highly praised by travelers, has not be 
come as popular as expected on this coast, 
though its future must be regarded as promis 
ing. Its slow advance in popular esteem is 
probably due, lo part at least, to lack of knowl 
edge as to its manipulation to bring ont its lus 
ciousness. 

At a fruit-stand in Berkeley we found the 
fruit packed in pasteboard compartments, like 
those of an egg-case, and each one wrapped in a 
soft paper wrapper upon which this was 
printed : 

Bllwood Japanese Persimmons. 

The great value of this fruit is as yet not fully 
known. When unripe and not properly cured it is 
astringent and exceedingly unpleasant to the taste, 
But when ripe, it is highly nutritious, luscious, and 
for delicacy of flavor is unequaled. 

Directions. — Place on shelf or sideboard or 
table for ornamentation until it becomes soft. It 
will shrink somewhat and turn a darker color; if it 
ripens properly will be uniformly soft in every part 
—must not be eaten until it is— then peel from the 
top. The skin is very thin and will leave the pulp 
readily. Eu-WOOD COOPER 

Satitii Barbara, N(n>. i, /Sgo. 

The grower is the well-known president of 
the State Board of Horticulture, and he is do- 
ing public service by thus placing his frnit up 
on the market. 

The Chino Sooarie. — Conaerning the 
tablishment of a beet-sugar factory at Chino, 
the Pomona Progress says : " The main build 
ing to be constructed at once will be 300 by 
100 feet,' and the outbuildings, including the 
refinery, will be on a corresponding scale, 
The works when in operation will have 
capacity of 1100 tons of beets per day and will 
require for fuel from fifty to seventy-five tons 
of coal per day. Mr. Gird will plant at once 
5000 acres to beets, and has ordered a 50-horse' 
power Best traction engine and the necessary 
gang-plows to prepare the ground. The factory 
is to be ready to begin work by August 1 
1891." 

Bee-Keeper-s' Meeting. — The Southern 
California Bee-Keepers' Association will meet 
in Los Angeles, at the rooms of the Chamber of 
Commerce, on Thursday, Jan. 8th, at 1 o'clock 
A large attendance is expected. 



Queries aj^d 3!J,eplie8. 

Perfume and Drug Farming, 



Editors Pre.ss:— Do you think the cultiva- 
tion of lavender, peppermint, poppies and 
plants that might be utilized by chemists would 
pay ? Sheep have been our industry, and 
though still very profitable as a business, the 
Government land on which they grazed has 
been taken up by settlers so that we have been 
obliged to take them to less civilized parts. 
We have some fruit trees planted and are farm- 
ing also, but I thought you could inform me if 
there are any wholesale chemists or laboratories 
in the city where we could dispose of such 
produce. We have been readers of the Press 
ever since we came from England in '76, and 
know that all kinds of improvements and ag- 
ricultural interests generally are discussed in 
its columns. — Reader, Monterey Co. 

This proposition has been advanced several 
times and some enterprises have been started, 
but none, so far as we are aware, have realized 
as much as their projectors hoped. We have 
always thought that some of these industriea 
might be made successful here, and believe that 
with proper management they will be. But 
one must remember that in such undertakings 
there is much time required usually to find a 
market for the produce, as it comes into com- 
petition with supplies long known to the trade 
and which thus have an advantage. Capital is al- 
so required, and skill, for these special products 
require special training in manipulation. We 
believe that patience, perseverance, experience 
and research will win in this line, but we can- 
not encourage any one to undertake it nnless 
he is ready to give all of them to the under- 
taking. We shall be glad to hear from readers 
on the subject. 

Cotton In Los Angeles County. 

Editors Pre.ss:— Last spring I procured 
some cotton-seed from yon, and according to 
promise, I beg to report results: 

The soil is a kind of adobe or stiff loam, the 
ordinary mesa soil of Los Angeles. The ex- 
cessive rains followed by dry north winds 
made the land cloddy and hard to work, but it 
was got into pretty fair tilth. The seed, soaked 
as directed in the pamphlet, was planted April 
14th. The weather remaining dry, some of it 
never sprouted, but what did come up grew 
slowly, evidently needing more moisture. It 
was cultivated once in June. It grew from 
two to four feet high (one plant only reaching 
the latter dimension), and blossomed in two 
colors, some being pink and some yellow; and 
I noticed that the plants bearing pink blossoms 
were the larger and had more flowers. The 
bolls opened-in due season and were pronounced 
very good cotton by those who had seen cot- 
ton before. I placed some in the exhibit of the 
Chamber of Commerce in Los Angeles, but 
most of it was carried off by children as a 
curiosity. 

The last season was a bad one to test any- 
thing, but I judge that cotton would prove a 
paying crop in this locality, and on mesa land, 
provided means were at hand for irrigation. 
Without water it would hardly be a suocesa, 
— W. F. Brat, Santa Fe Springs. 

Fruit Driers. 

Editors Press:— Having noticed in your num- 
ber of this date a cut and plans of a spraying 
apparatus. 1 have been requested to ask you to 
publish simple but explanatory diagrafns of the 
various fruit evaporators of considerable capacity, 
such as are in use in California. This would be a 
matter of much interest and utility to our horticul- 
turists here, for we have as yet no machine that is 
satisfactory. Especially would we like to see the 
plan of one owned and operated by Mr. Blowers of 
Woodland, Yolo Co. This would be well received 
here and be of great use; if they are patented, you 
could say who owns the patent. Respectfully, John 
■Simpson, Eugene, Or. 

The task of illustrating and describing the 
fruit driers claimed to be in successful operation 
in California would be too great for us to un- 
dertake. The best thing we can do is to pub- 
lish our correspondent's full address, so that 
the parties having patents or machines for sale 
may submit descriptions and testimonials to 
him. 

Cloture. 

Editors Press: — What is the meaning of the 
rule cloture, a<! used in the English Parliament? — 
Oi.D SuBSCRinER, Stockton. 

Cloture or closure in parliamentary practice 
is a method of putting an end to debate and se- 
curing an immediate vote upon a measure before 
a legislative body. It is similar in effect to 
" the previous question." It was first intro- 
duced into the British House of Commons in 
1882. The French word cloture was originally 
applied to this proceeding. 



Free Corn for Mexico. — The President of 
Mexico has approved the bill recently passed 
by the Congress of that republic admitting 
corn from the United States free of duty. 

Street Trees. — TheRedlands Hortioaltnral 
Society has adopted Acacia Melanoxylon and 
Grevilleas as leading street trees. 



Jan. 3, 1891.] 



pACIFie I^URAId f ress. 



9 



KlUIT (IiAK.KETING. 

Bogus California Dried Froit in the 
Eastern Markets. 

(The following important document was presented at 
the meeting of the State Horticultural Society, Doc 26.] 

To the Officers and Membe.ri of the State 
Horticultural Soeitty; In accordance with a 
reaolation adopted at the State Fruit-Growers' 
Convention held at S»nt» Oruz, Nov. 20, 1890, 
I transmit to yon a report of the remarks made 
there by Professor Chas. H. Allen, late super- 
intendent of "California on Wheels," on his 
observations o( the condition of Oalifornia 
dried fruits as he found them in the Eastern 
market, and a copy of the report of the com- 
mlttee appended thereto, as follows: 

Prof. Chas. H, Alien of San Jose: I ac- 
cepted the position of superintendent of "Cali- 
fornia on Wheels" chiefly in the Interest ,of 
fruit-growing; I wanted to know something of 
what our fruits were doing East, and I will 
briefly give you the result of some of my ob- 
servations. I joined the exhibit train in 
Northern Wisconsin and at the various places 
visited I got leave of absence and visited the 
Iruit dealers in the locality, particularly those 
that were wholesale dealers where the place 
was large enough, and inquired of them what 
fruit they were selling, where they got it, what 
prices they realized, what their criticisms were, 
if any, upon California fruit. I made it a 
point in each place to get as much detailed in- 
formation as I could of that kind. This side 
of Chicago our fruit, in most of the places I 
visited, was well known and the market prices 
and the sale of the fruit seemed to be satisfac- 
tory, and as Mr. Buck very tersely stated, the 
aale is increasing immensely. The world is 
very large; I come to that conclusion after go- 
ing over there and seeing the amount of fruit 
that is wanted, and the demand that is coming 
on and will continue to come, and I come back 
with no fear of overproduction. I had had 
some fears of overproduction, but I am satis- 
6ed now that there is no danger of that. 

When I got east of Chicago, I found it con- 
siderably dififerent; our fruit is almost an un- 
known quantity to the consumer in Intermediate 
places east of Chicago. We went down on the 
Baltimore and Ohio, stopping at all those little 
hamlets and towns of from five to twelve and 
fifteen thousand inhabitants, and very few 
there knew California fruit, I mean our dried 
fruits; they knew something of our green fruits. 
I found the green fruits on fruitstands every- 
where in all thoee little towns ; not of the best 
quality, but a vast amount of it sold, such as I 
had hardly expected. There were a dozen 
fruitstands in every town covered with Califor- 
nia fruit. Bat the dried fruit in most of them 
■was almost an unknown quantity. They would 
come through the car and would look at our 
samples of dried fruit (no better than we are 
exhibiting here and putting up all over the 
State), and would come back to me and say: 
"Where can we get that kind of fruit ? We 
have never seen anything of the kind." They 
came not by ones or twos or scores even, but 
by the hundreds, and said : "Why don't you 
people get your fruit out here ? " I found that 
all the way, east of Chicago; every little place 
that was the cry, all the way through, and 
until we got into Wheeling and Pittsburg, 
where I left the train. Pittsburg, I believe, 
is the greatest dried-fruit market in the world, 
from reasons a gentleman gave me. He said : 
"Our people are all mechanics; your dnied fruit 
does not sell to bankers and merchants and 
that class, because they can afford to buy your 
canned and fresh fruit ; it does not sell to the 
farmer because they raise a little fruit of their 
own; but here we are all mechanics, as a 
whole, from Wheeling clear through to Pitts 
burg, and they live on dried fruit, and here is 
where your market is, and we are anxious to 
learn all that can be learned of your fruit, and 
to know where it can be had and where we can 
get such quantities as you are exhibiting here." 

I fonnd, as I suppose one might expect to 
find, knowing the peculiarities of human na- 
ture, a good deal of fruit sold as Oalifornia 
frnit that was never nearer Oalifornia than Chi- 
cago. I found some exceedingly inferior fruit 
marked " California Dried Fruit." I went into 
one large and thriving city and went to a whole 
aale dealer and in my ordinary way gave 
him my card and told him what I was doing. 
We were made very welcome everywhere; 
they didn't look upon us as drummers at all, 
but they wanted information; they were anxions 
to learn. I asked him: " What fruit are you 
selling from California ? " 

He said: " We can't sell California fruit; 
it is poor stuff. I have got a hundred boxes 
upstairs and they bring it back." 

I said: "May I ask permission to look at 
the fruit?" 

" Yes," he said, and he went up with me to 
the loft, called his man in charge and took 
down some boxes marked " California Spanish 
Prnnes." 

I said: " That is an unknown term so far as 
I know; I know California pretty well, but I 
do not know any Spanish prnnes. Will you 
have your man open one of these boxes?" 

He opened the boxes and they were, I should 
judge from appearance, dried Damson plums, 
all bone except a little skin drawn over, and 
when you could get anything better, entirely 



nofit even for swine. I could not see that any 
body would ever buy anything of that kind, if 
they had tried it once. He had a hundred 
boxes of those that had been sold to him for 
California fruit. I found that duplicated in a 
number of places where I looked at the fruit, 
and knew that it never came from California. 

Question by Mr. Adams : Is that distrib- 
uted by any well-known dealer in California 
fruit ? 

Professor Allen : It had a name on the out- 
side of the box that I am familiar with. 

Question by Mr. Adams: What was it? I think 
we are entitled to the information; whose name 
was on the box ? 

Professor Allen : The man who bought it 
can give it to you. No, gentlemen, I should be 
sorry to believe that the brand on the outside 
of those boxes was put on by the men who 
deal in that fruit. I believe it was a forgery, 
I do not believe that Porter Bros, sold frnit 
that was never raised here and palmed it off 
for California fruit. I do not believe they did 
it, and yet their name was there, and I give it 
with that statement because I know the gentle- 
men. I believe that the forgery occurred 
farther East than that. I believe that is where 
the fruit is put up, and that the fruit is sold all 
the way through there in that way, spoiling our 
trade, for anybody who would get one of these 
boxes would never want any more California 
fruit. It seems to me there should be some 
way that we could secure a guarantee that our 
fruit is genuine, because such practices are 
largely injuring the trade not only in our dried 
fruit but in our green fruit. They have con- 
stantly sold there an Egg plnm for the Silver 
prune. I found boxes packed by a drier and 
marked " Egg prunes," and they are selling 
them as a sweet prune. 

I asked a gentleman : " How does the Silver 
prune sell ?" He said : " It is so sour that 
nobody wants it." I said : " The Silver prune 
is a sweet prune." He said: "Ob no, it is 
the sourest thing you ever tasted." 

He had bought a large quantity of dried Egg 
plums which are sour enough to suit anybody, 
and bought them as "Silver prunes," and sup- 
posed he was dealing in Silver prunes. That 
sort of thing is spoiling the demand for Cali- 
fornia fruit. They do not know what our fruit 
is, and if in some way we could remedy those 
things, get this fruit that is well prepared and 
is suitable for table, and could put it on the 
market, and in some manner suppress the 
other, we could not do a better thing for our 
California fruit industry. Whether this organ- 
ization can do anything of that kind I do not 
know, but I did feel very much interested. I 
felt indignant that we were thus swindled; 
that we were having palmed off as our Califor- 
nia fruit, fruit that was neither grown nor pre- 
pared here, and I could see that it was work- 
ing an injury, so that for years there will 
be no demand for Oalifornia fruit in such 
places. 

Question by Mr. Adams: Do yon think that 
that evil of adulteration or fraudulent practice 
is sufficiently extensive to call for any ex- 
pression of opinion or any action from any 
horticultural body in this State, or is it merely 
a trifling matter which occurred in one or two 
instances ? 

Prof. Allen: It was pretty widespread. I 
will give this as a suggestion, and perhaps a 
wiser man can work it out. It seems to me if 
there could be a little pamphlet prepared giv- 
ing an accurate description of the various 
brand! — not personal brands now, but kinds 
of fruit — that the dried Prune d'Agen was so 
and so in appearance, tasted so and so, and the 
Silver prune was so and so, and the Egg plum 
and so on, a general description of our dried 
fruits either with or without cuts — and I do 
not think cats would be necessary — if that 
could be generally distributed throughout the 
East, it would help to mitigate the trouble. 

They seem to be exceedingly anxious, par- 
ticularly the wholesale dealers there in Pitts- 
burg, to get into closer connection with the 
grower. They said: " We do not want to go 
through all this manipulation; why don't you 
have some organization there so that we can 
buy direct and not through the brokers and 
middlemen?" They say: "Of course we 
can't buy from individual growers; we don't 
know you." I returned the compliment and 
said, "We do not know you." "No," he 
said, "but you can go to Dunn's Commercial 
Register and you can find out all about us, and 
we can't find out anything about you. If we 
buy of you, we have no guarantee at all. If 
you can get any organization to give us any 
guarantee that we can buy direct your Ctli- 
fornia fruit, yon will get all our trade." That 
is one point that may work. 

Qaestlon by Mr. Adams: I would like to 
ask the Professor if he thinks they scratch off 
the names on the boxes. 

Prof. Allen: I found boxes that obviously 
had every trace taken off of the box that was 
put on by the grower, and nothing that we 
grow, nothing that my friend Mr. Morrill 
grows, nothing of that kind that we have sup- 
posed was getting a little reputation there, had 
any name or any traces of any on. They do 
not know where they come from. All that I 
found east of Chicago had all been removed 
and a new stamp put on. I had vainly hoped 
we would get a little reputation, but there was 
not anything of that. It was not so in 
Chicago. I attended the fruit sales in Chicago 
and I fonnd Mr. Back's and Mr. Block's fruit 
sold green with their stamp on; but when we 
get east of there, the dried fruit is not so sold— 
it is the name of the broker. 



Remarks by Dr. R. H. Clafflin of Riverside: 
I wish to state on this subject that the orange- 
growers of Riverside have endeavored to solve 
this problem in this way, by organizing a fruit- 
growers' association, adopting a trademark, 
having it registered and having the trademark 
placed in such a way that when it is placed 
upon a package, the package cannot be opened 
without disturbing the trademark. On that 
trademark is a statement of the place where 
the fruit is raised and packed, so that any per- 
son buying packages with that trademark on 
will have the guarantee that it is raised and 
packed there. With that trademark which is 
established under the signature and authority 
of the Board of Trade, guaranteeing the relia- 
bility of the frnit which is covered by that 
trademark, it seems to me that that might be 
done in any place. 

Remarks by Mr. Adams: I believe from 
what Prof. Allen has told me at other times 
that it is one of the most Important subjects 
that could engage the attention of the fruit- 
growers here, and I am utterly opposed to 
bringing up these things and talking about 
them without trying to do something, and I 
move that a committee of three be appointed 
to consider this subject and report thereon. 
Adopted. 

In accordance with the motion, the following 
were appointed on said committee, viz.: Ed- 
ward F. Adams, D. M. Laoke and Oeo. Hus- 
mann. The committee, after due considera- 
tion of the snbjact, presented the following re- 
port, which was adopted unanimously, to wit: 

The Committee's Report. 

Mr. President: Your committee, to whom 
was referred the subject of frifhdulent sale of 
Eastern or inferior California dried fruits, 
under the names of our well-known and first- 
class products, have had the same under con- 
sideration, and beg leave to report as follows: 

As to the facts in the matter, our only definite 
information has been the statemputs of Prof. C. 
H. Allen, made to the convention yesterday, of 
facts which came under his personal observation 
while at the East in charge of the State exhibit, 
known as " California on Wheels," which state- 
ments will form part of the records of this con- 
vention, and need not be fully repeated here; 
in snbstanco. Prof. Allen stated: 

1. That he saw a sour and almost worthless 
product which he believed to be Eastern dried 
Damson plums, marked and sold as " California 
Spanish Prunes," a name of course entirely un- 
known in this State, and properly representing 
no fruit of which we have knowledge. In this 
case the mischief was increased by the fact that 
the boxes in which this fraudulent fruit was 
found bore the brand of a firm whose connec- 
tion with the fruit-shipping interests of this 
State has been such as to warrant Eastern fruit 
dealers in supposing fruit sold under their brand 
to be real California productions, true to 
name. 

In this connection your committee recommend 
that the Secretary of this convention send a 
verbatim report of the remarks of Prof. Allen 
on this particular matter to the firm named by 
him, with the suggestion that they address to 
the State Bjard of Horticalture, a letter asking 
whether they are selling at the East any dried 
fruit under the name of "California Spanish 
Prunes," and if so, to accompany their letter 
with a sample of such product. 

2. That he saw dried Egg Plums sold as 
"Silver Prunes," and heard ttiem loudly and 
properly denounced as sour and unpalatable, 
instead of a aweet prune as had been represente 1. 
The casual onversation about this convention 
leads your committee to believe that this form 
of fraud is in general practice in the trade, to 
the very grave Injury of the producers of that 
excellent fruit, thegennine Silver Prune. "Egg 
Prunes " is another name by which this very 
sour plum is sold. 

3. That from what he saw it is his belief 
that brands of producers are habitually re- 
moved and replaced by the brands of brokers, 
thus rendering it impossible for the careful and 
conscientious producer here to obtain any credit 
for his careful and conscientious work. 

Your committee respectfully suggest that 
frauds of this kind are to be expected to the in- 
jury of any business which becomes successful, 
and that the only possible remedy is the simple 
one usually adopted in other lines of business, 
of promptly exposing the swindlers and warn- 
ine the people against their practices. 

Your committee is using this language ad- 
visedly, as more closely than any other express- 
ing their precise meaning; whoever sells some 
unknown product, as " Oalifornia Spanish 
Prunes," instead of giving the product its true 
name; or calls " Egg Plums " " Egg Prunes," 
when there is no prune called the "Egg Prune;" 
or knowingly sells Egg Plums nnder the name 
of " Silver Prunes," is a deliberate swindler; 
and no custom or competition can any more 
justify such practices than the custom of other 
criminals can justify them in committing the 
crimes to which they may be addicted. 

Your committee suggest that the proper 
remedy for this state of things la publicity. It 
can probably be stopped by maintaining stand- 
ing yearly advertisements, for a year or two to 
come, in the leading newspapers of the princi- 
pal Eastern sections, calling attention to these 
frauds and warning the people against them. 
Any experienced business man can very soon 
put a stop to the business if the fruit growers 
will give him the money to do it. If not pre- 
pared to put up the money to pay for exposing 
the rascals, the matter may as well be dropped* 
We can no more get rid of these pests without 



expense than we can exterminate without cos 
the burrowing gophers whom they resemble. 

Touching the practice of erasing producers' 
marks and substituting those of brokers, the 
only remedy is by advertisement, to educate 
consumers to demand dried fruits in original 
packages with producer's name, and to mark 
the packages by actual branding or other indel- 
ible mark. The organization of the California 
Dried Fruit Union, which is apparently not 
likely to prosper as a shipper of fruit, might be 
utilized by employing it to adopt a trademark 
and sell the branded box ends to members only, 
the association protecting itself by accepting as 
members only those who were properly vouch- 
ed for as honest men and who would in ad- 
dition give written pledges of strictly comply, 
ing in their packing with specified rules. 

Rigid integrity and fair dealing is certain, if 
steadily pursued, to bring Its proper reward ; 
so is the opposite ; and as no matter who it is 
that sells bad fruit under our name, the Oali- 
fornia producer is certain to get the discredit of 
it, it is of the utmost importance that we take 
all steps necessary to protect ourselves. As 
this work can be properly done only by a per- 
manent body, your committee recommend 
that the secretary of this convention be in- 
structed to transmit to the State Horticultuial 
Society, a copy of the remarks of Prof. Allen, 
and of this report, with the request of this con- 
vention that the society investlgat'e the subject 
and take such measures in relation thereto as 
the facts may appear to demand. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Edward P. Adams, 

D. M . Locke 

George Husmann, 

Committee. 

In accordance with the recommendation in the 
above resolutions and action of the convention, I 
have addressed a letter to Porter Brothers, of 
Chicago, in which these facta have been fully 
set forth, and expect very soon to receive from 
them an explanation, which I will lay before 
you at your next meeting. 

Respectfully submitted, 

B, M. Lelong, 
Secretary State Board of Horticulture, and of 
State Fruit-growers' Convention. 

This matter was presented at the meeting of 
the State Horticultural Society on Dacember 
26:;h, and elioited discussion. Finally a com- 
mittee composed of A. L. Bancroft, E. F. 
Adams and J. L. Mosher was appointed to con- 
sider the points advanced, and to report con- 
cerning action desirable by the State Hor- 
ticultural Society. 



Census Changes. 

A recent bulletin from the office of the Com- 
mission of Census shows that the relative stand- 
ing of the different States has been changed 
from 1880 as follows : 

Illinois has advanced from 4tb to 3d; Massa- 
chusetts from 7th to 6th; Texas from 11th to 
7tb; Georgia from 13th to 12ch; Wisconsin 
from 11th to 14th; New Jersey from 19th to 
18th; Kansas from 20th to 19:h; Minnesota 
from 26jh to 20tb; California from 24th to 22i; 
Arkansas from 25th to 24th; Nebraska from 
.30th to 26th; West Virginia from 29th to 28tb; 
Colorado from 35th to 3l8t; Florida from 34th 
to 32d; Washington from 42d to 34th; Montana 
from 45th to 44th; Idaho from 46 sh to 45th. 

Ohio has dropped from 3 j to 4th place; Indi- 
ana from 6th to 8th; Kentucky from 8th to 
11th; Tennessee from 12th to 13th; Virginia 
from 14th to 15tb; North Carolina from 15th 
to 16'^b; Mississippi from 18th to 2lBt; South 
Oarolina from 2l3t to 23d; Louisiana from 22d 
to 25th: Maryland from 231 to 27tb; Maine 
from 27th to 30th; Connecticut from 28tb <o 
29th; New Hampshire from 3l8t to 33d; Rhode 
Island from 331 to 35th; Vermont from 32d to 
36th; District of Columbia from 36th to 39th; 
Oregon from 37th to 38;h; Delaware from 38th 
to 42d; Utah from 29 th to 40th; New Mexico 
from 41at to 43d; Nevada from 43d to 49tfa; 
Arizona from 44th to 48th. 

Dakota, which ranked as 40th in population 
in 1880, has been divided, and South Dakota 
now ranks as 37th and North Dakota as 41st. 
Oklahoma has been created a Territory and 
now ranks as 46th. New York remains at the 
top, and the State of Nevada drops to the foot 
of the ladder, having fewer people than the 
Territories of Arizona, Utah, New Mexico and 
Oklahoma. 

More than half the railway track in the 
world is on this continent, and nearly half of 
the whole is in the United States, "rhis pro- 
portion may or may not be kept up, as Asia 
and Africa are beginning to shorten their long 
distances by using steam horses on the iron 
track. In the past four years 40,000 miles of 
track have been laid in America, and in the 
United States 30,000 miles of this, while all 
the rest of the world built only 24,000. Rail- 
roads In Europe cost an average of $115,000 
per mile. Here the average cost is $60,000, 
and this is about the rate elsewhere. Rates of 
fare are, however, lower in Earope than here, 
the denser population and lighter expense for 
running the roads more than offsetting the dif- 
ference in their original cost. 



It is claimed by reliable persons on the 
ground that there are more than 30,000 desti- 
tute people in Oklahoma. 



10 



Js>ACIFie I^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. S, 1891 



JUgricultural JJotes. 



CALIFORNIA. 
Amador. 

Olives. — Jaokaon Ledger, Dec. 20 • L. 
Forter githered hia crop of olivea )aet week 
sod manoUotnred them into oil. The two 
treei which he has on bis ranch have this year 
yielded about 150 pounds of fruit. However, 
a grtat many of them were pickled, and the oil 
extracted from only 50 pounds, as a mere ex- 
periment. The result was very satisfactory. 
The olives were crushed in an old-style wooden 
roller grape-crusher, it beine so set as to break 
the berry but not the pit. The pulp was next 
placed in a jute-sack, and that into a wine- 
press. After the first pressing the sack was re- 
moved, hot water added, and after standing 
for several hours, again pressed. The yield of 
oil was about the same each time, but the latter 
proved of inferior quality. The oil readily 
separates frrm water and sediment by placing 
the liquid in tin vats and allowing it to stand 
for some days. Mr. Foster secured something 
over a dozen large-sized bottles of excellent oil. 
The flavor is equal to the finest grades of im- 
ported oil, and the color about the same. The 
pickles put up are green, such as are seen in the 
markets. The ripe olives are too delicate and 
perishable for a commercial article, though 
much superior in quality. Mr. Foster and 
Mr. Holsinger, who own adjoininfi ranchep, 
will each put out between 1500 and 2O0O cut- 
tings in .January. 

Kern. 

Incbkasino Cultivation ok the Okamje. — 
Bakersfield Cali/omian. Deo. 27: Branches of 
orange trees loaded with the golden fruit were 
extensively used in our Christmas decorations. 
They came from liiflFerent parts of the valley, 
frequently from places where we had not sus- 
pected the existence of oranges before, indicat- 
ing that there has been more experimental and 
widely extended culture of this fruit than was 
generally known. The oranges were of a 
superior quality. 

IiOB Anseles. 
Okanoe Sales. — A.lhambra Review, Dec. 20 : 
A few of oar orcbardiets have sold their or- 
anges at a good price, but the majority appear 
to be in no haste to dispose of their frnit. It 
seems to be generally expected that prices will 
rule higher here than last year. 

Monterey- 

MoNTBBBY Cocnty Cotton. — Salinas City 
Index, Die. 25: A sample of cotton raised in 
the Gabilan foothills, bordering the Silinas 
valley, near Gonzales, was presented to the 
Index by ,1. R. Hebbron. The bolls are of fair 
size and the quality is pronounced by experts 
to be excellent. It is among the possibilities 
that cotton-growing will become an important 
industry in Monterey county. 

Napa. 

Hop-kaisino — St. Helena Star: The hop- 
raising industry is not one of very great im- 
partanoe in Nipa valley, the low prices making 
it unprofitable and it having almost entirely 
given way to the wine industry. But there 
are still a few hopyards left, and should the 
prices rise to a good figure the industry may 
yet be one that will encourage others to en 
gage in it. In 1865 A. Clock, one of the early 
settlers of St, Helena and a man of thrift and 
enterprise, planted the first vines near D«vid 
Cole's place on Pope street, tie was successful 
in the iniinstry and his yards were very fine, 
as were his hops. In 1876 he sent a sample 
to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia 
and received the firet prize, the hops being con- 
sidered of a very exoellent quality and far 
superior to any on exhibition. As time rolled 
on and the industry became less and less pro- 
fitable, and as that of wine sprang prominently 
before our people, vines were pulled up, the 
poles sawed into stovewood, vineyards set out 
and wine-cellars built. At present there are not 
more than fifty acres of hops within several 
miles of St. Helena. Those, however, are 
healthy and yield about 2000 pounds per acre, 
and when prices are good it will readily be seen 
are paying pieces of property. The fact of 
there not be'ng many hopyards in the valley 
does not signify that the land and climate are 
not suitable to that iodnstry ; on the contrary, 
the soil along the banks of Napa river is ex- 
ceptionally fine for that purpose and none bet- 
ter oan be found anywhere in California. 

Nevada. 

ExTEN-siVE Trbe-Plantino.— Grass Valley 
Tidings, Deo, 26: Recently an agent of the lar- 
gest and oldest established orchard in Oregon, 
at Woodburn, sold between 8000 and 10,000 
trees to growers in this county, of wt<ioh 5000 
or 6000 were delivered at the Gras" Valley de- 
pot Thursday and 3000 or 4000 at Nevada City. 
It is claimed for these trees that they were 
raised in a colder climate than here and hence 
are hardier, and that they bear no injurious in- 
sects, neither scale nor codlin moth being known 
in Oregon. The bulk of the importation is made 
up of pearl, apples, peaches, plums and prunes; 
also apricots, nectarines, cherries, chestnuts, 
walnuts and almonds; and in addition are 
strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, 
currant and even cranberry plants and bashes. 
Several thousand trees coming from other nur- 
aeriea will also be planted. 

Placer. 

MoBE Grain Seeding.— Auburn, Dic. 25: 
Roseville farmers are all plowing and say they 



never had a better season than thia for that 
work. The acreage already sowed is as large 
as the total area of grain in that district last 
season. Robert Theile had 50 acrea of summer- 
fallow in last Friday and will sow about 100 
aores more, James Astill will put in 160 acres 
of wheat, 40 of barley, 40 of oata, and 100 acres 
of hay. A, J, Sprsgne will pat in about 200 
aores of grain, snd altogether the acreage will 
be three or four times greater than last year, 

Olive Yield. — Auburn Republicayt, 1)3C, 24: 
Pressing oat olive oil Is in progress at the Rob- 
erson ranch near Auburn, Mrs. R^berson is 
making careful tests of the yield and quality 
obtained from the different varietiea, as there 
are over 20 kinds of olivea on the place, the 
principal being the Picholine, From this variety 
«he is obtaining about 15 per cent of oil at the 
first pressing, with a prospect of abont .3 per 
oent at the second. This is better than has ever 
been done at Santa Barbara. The foothi Is is 
the place for the olive. 

Sacramento. 

Prosperity at Vina. — Sacramento Record- 
Union, D c. 25: Cipt. McTotyre, superintend- 
ent of Senator Stanford's famous vineyard and 
winery at Vina, was in town yesterday. He 
reports a moat prosperous state of affiirs at the 
vineyard. Daring the season just clraed, II,- 
000 tons of grapes were crnshea for the still, 
and several carloads of raisins were shipped to 
the Rtstern markets. 

San Benito. 

Lakoe Vineyakd. — Hollister, Deo. 26; Nine 
miles from Hollister are located the celebrated 
orchard and vineyard of Wm. Palmtag, Ttiis 
extensive and highly cultivated place shows 
what industry and enterprise can accomplish In 
these cheniisal'covered bills. This is no experi- 
ment, for it is one of the oldest vineyards in 
the State. In 1852, Theophile A' ache, a French 
vintner, secured this tract from Monterey 
county and set oat a small vineyard, but kept 
increasing his area until 1883, when he had 50 
acres of bearing vines, and during most of these 
years he had mannfactared winea which bore a 
State-wide reputation. In 188.3, Mr. Palmtag, 
the present proprietor, purchased the place and 
commenced clearing the land adjacent to the 
vineyard already planted, until at present there 
is a vineyard of 150 aores covering hillside and 
valley. Among the varieties of grapes grown 
we may mention: Burgundy, Zinfandel, Uaber- 
net, Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet 
Pitffer, Grosse Verdot, Carbono, Mataro, Mai- 
vec, Malvoisie, Mission, Pinot, Muscatel, Mus- 
cat of Alexandria, Malaga, Emperor, Morocco, 
Black Hamburg, Flame Tokay and Rose of 
Peru. Bjsides these are a number of varieties 
which Theophile Vache imported from France 
years ago, the names of which are not known. 
Although so much attention is paid to vines, 
there is not a tree frnit that is not grown and 
which does not develop perfectly. Apples, 
peaches, pears, plums, prunes, apricots, cher- 
ries, oranges, olives, figs, all varieties of small 
fruits, every description of "garden trnck;" 
while corn was planted, grew and developed to 
perfection thia season all along the hillsides and 
even to the very summit of the hills — this, too, 
without irrigation. 

A Few Samples of Fruit Profits. — Hollis- 
ter Frte Lance, D<.c. 26: la order to show 
what are the actual profits in fruit-raising in 
Califoinia, we give below the folloning figures: 
Peaches, Ernest Dewey, Golden Cling peaches, 
10 acres, seven years old, prodaoed 47 tons 
green; sold dried for $4800; cost of prodaotion, 
$24.3.70; net profit, S4556 30. Soil, sandy 
loam; not Irrigated. H. H. Rose, 2 6 7 aores; 
produced 47,543 pounds; sold for §863.46. 
Soil, light, sandy loam; not irrigated. Pro- 
duced in 18S9, 12,000 pounds, which sold at 
81.70 per 100 pounds. E. R. Thompson, 2 16 
acres, 233 trees, produced 57,655 pounds, sold 
for .^864 82^; cost of production, $140; net 
profit, $724. 82^. Soil, sandy loam; irrigated 
three times in uummer, one inch to seven acres. 
Trees seven years old, not more than two- 
thirds grown. P, O'Connor, 20 acres, pro- 
duced 4000 pounds, sold for $60; cost of pro- 
duction, $5; net profit, $55. Soil, sandy loam; 
not irrigated. Crop sold on ground. P, O. 
Johnson, 17 trees, ten years old, prodooed 4.^ 
tone, sold 4.^ tons for $120; cost of production, 
$10; net profit, $110; very little irrigation. 
Sales were one-half cent per pound under mar- 
ket rates, Prunes, E. P. Naylor, 15 aores pro- 
duced 149 tons; sold for $7450; cost of produc- 
tion, $527; net profit, $6923. Soil, loam, with 
some sand; irrigated one inch per ten acres. 
W. H, Baker, ij aores produced 12,529 pounds; 
sold for $551.90; cost of production, ^0; net 
profit, $501.90, Soil, sandy loam; not irri- 
gated. W, A. Spaulding, one-third of an acre 
prodaoed 10,404 pounds; sold for $156.06; cost 
of production, $10; net profit, $146. Soil, sandy 
loam, E, A, Hubbard, 4^ acres produced 24 
tons; sold green for $1080; ooet of production, 
$280; net profit, $80U. Sail, dark, sandy loam; 
irrigated. This entire ranch of nine acres was 
bought in 1884 for $1575. 

San Bernardino, 

The^Raisin Pack.— R versido HorlicuUuriot, 
Dea. 27: The total number of pounds of rai- 
sins shipped from Riverside this season is 
4,447,890, with 12,000 pounds yet to ship. 
The crop brought over $250,000 to the raisin- 
growers of the valley, Tnis is very good, con- 
sidering the rain, 

San Dleso. 
Plowing and Seeding.— Otay Press, Deo. 
25: The work of clearing, plowing and plant- 
ing goes on on every hand, and people have 
stopped waiting for something to turn up, and 



have gone to work turning np the mellow soil. 
Most of the farmers on the mesa have their 
grain sown. W.Lohman has in 80 aores, F. 
W. Lohman has sown 300, and James McCool 
expects to have in 400 acres before the season 
closes. 

San LulB Obispo. 

Sorghum -Cane Growing. — Arroyo Grande 
Cor. S. L. O. Tribune, Deo. 24 : Since it has 
been announced that sugar can be made from 
sorghum oane by a celebrated Government 
chemist, by means of alcohol and very cheaply, 
many of our farmers contemplate going into 
raising cane. 

Fruit Trees and Vines.— Creston Oor. S. 
L. O. Tribune, Deo. 26 : The best and most 
practicable thing that a prospective orchardist 
oan do is to thoroughly post himself in the nur- 
sery business and grow his own trees and vines. 
For a reliable work on tree-growing, he should 
get the book of " Cilifornia Fruits and How to 
Grow Them," wherein he would learn the whole 
modus operandi, from the planting of the seed, 
its care and culture, to the gathering and mar- 
keting of the perfect fruit, and by getting this 
work, reading and practicing its rules, he 
would not be dependent on narserymen and 
tree peddlers, but would find himself inde- 
pendent of all of them, saving thereby, by 
growing his own nnrsery stock, from 100 to 500 
per cent. 

Extensive Grain Seeding. — Creston, Dec. 
25 : Seasonable rains have put the land in the 
best condition for plowing. The farmers in 
general throughout this section declare that the 
land never has been in better condition for 
working. A larger acreage is going to be put 
into grain this season than heretofore. Every 
rancher is whooping the work up for all it is 
worth, and many of them are striving to make 
a grand wlndnp of seeding for this season's 
crop by New Year's Day. 

Santa Olara. 

Active Plowing. — Gubserville Cor. San 
Jose Time*, Dao. 25: From the activity of 
many plows now at work, the fields are rapidly 
changing color. The present weather is most 
thoroughly appreciated by the farmers of this 
locality, as early seeding uaaally means success- 
fal crops. 

Shasta. 

Growing Fruit Sections. — Anderson En- 
terprise, Deo. 25 : W. S. Wilcox, the owner 
of one of the most valuable farms in Northern 
California, situated on Battle Creek, will plant 
this season 15 or 20 acres of Bartlett pears and 
peaches and 10 aores of Piieparturien^walnnts. 
It is on his land that the famous Chinese peach 
orchard and vegetable gardens are located, 
from which, the third year from planting, the 
Chinamen took .*250 worth of peaches from 
each acre, and each year since (having been 
there seven yeart), tbey have derived a large 
Income over and above the rent of the land. 
They have yet five years of the lease l>efore 
tbey deliver their fine orchard to Mr. Wilcox. 
Opposite to the latter's place, E. F. Howell will 
plant 15 or 20 acres to various varieties of differ- 
ent kinds of fruit, but principally the French 
prune. 

Sonoma. - 
The First Oranges.- Cloverdale Reveille, 
Dao. 20: The first oranges ever placed on the 
market that were grown in Cloverdale will be 
sold at M. 8. Connor's. Mr. Connor bought 
the crop grown by Jno. Field from about 25 
trees which are five years old, and will have 
them for sale during the holidays. The crop 
consists of abont 1000 pounds, and are pro- 
nounced to be of better quality than any 
orange ever brought to this market from the 
soathero district. 

Sonoma. 

Meadow Land Being Reclai.med.— Sonoma 
Index- Tribune, Dec. 27 : Bordering the shores 
of San Pablo bay and Sonoma creek is a vast 
body of rich alluvial land that is subject to 
overflow. Thia land embraces an area of 
nearly 100,000 acres and if reclaimed and put 
under a state of cultivation is capable of sup- 
porting a population of many thousands. Small 
patches have been reclaimed here and there for 
a season on the west siie of Sonoma creek and 
planted to wheat and barley. The result was 
astonishing, as high as 70 bushels of the latter 
having been raised to the acre in a season that 
was considered a dry one in the great wheat- 
producing valleys of California, and where the 
crops were almost a total failure. These 
meadow lands of Sonoma are not only adapted 
to the raising of cereals, but are capable of pro- 
ducing immense crops of fruit, berries and veg- 
etables, and for dairying purposes are much 
sought after and highly prized by our Swijs 
dairymen, who claim that butter and cheese 
made from the milk of cows that have been 
pastured on the native grasses of these meadow 
lands command a higher price, on account of 
the excellence of the product, than those made 
at dairies located in other sections of the 
State. W. B. Plesp, the inventor of one of the 
greatest labor savicg machines designed for the 
reclaiming of overflowed lands that has ever 
been given a practical test, knowing the fertil- 
ity of the Sonoma meadow lands when once re- 
claimed from the encroachments of the waters 
from Sonoma creek and San Pablo bay, has 
succeeded in interesting Senator John P. Jones, 
a large owner of these lands, in his invention. 
Last June Mr. Pless commenced work on the 
body of land belonging to the Senator, consist- 
ing of some 12,000 acres. In the seven months 
that Mr. Pless has been pursuing bis dredging 
operations he has constructed a levee on the 
west aide of Sonoma creek 7^ miles long, 8 feet 



high and of an average width of GO feet, and 
has reclaimed 1500 acres. All this work baa 
been accomplished by his wonderful dredger, 
manned by only four men on double shifts, the 
dredger running night and day. Mr, Pless by 
his invention and a six-months' practical test 
on Sonoma creek, has made possible the re- 
olamttion of every acre of our overflowed 
lands. He Is now at work on a model for a 
dredger that will do just twice the amount of 
work of the one which he is now using. 

Profit in Poultry, — Sonoma, Dec, 27: J. 
S. McClemmy, lessee of a small farm on the 
Bnena Vista tract, has raised the past year 527 
chickens and 217 turkeys. Of the chickens, 
317 are laying hens, which, with eggs at 40 
cents per dozen, the present market price, net 
a nice little sum daily. The chickens and tur- 
keys were raised with very little care and at- 
tention. To the question as to whether the 
raising of poultry will pay in Sonoma valley, 
Mr. McClemmy's experience, we are sure, an- 
•wers the question in the affirmative. 

Sutter. 

Large Sale of Wheat — Yuba City /former, 
Dec. 26: The Farmers' Union last week sold 
to the Backeye Mill Co. 420 tons of wheat. 
The wheat waa the property of Geo. Harter, 
and the larger part of the lot had been carried 
over for three years. The price received, wa 
are informed, was $1.15 per cental, 

Tulare. 

Pbone Orchards — Fresno Repiibliean, Ddc. 
26: F. Comings, the prominent fruit-grower 
of San Jose, has come to the conclusion that 
the lands in the San Joaqaln valley, especially 
when not too far distant from the foothills, are 
better adapted to the prune than the Santa 
Clara valley. He has jaat bought 160 aores 
near Kaweah, on the Porter ville branch rail- 
road, and will set out the entire tract to prunes. 
Other San Jose fruitmen have recently bought 
lands in Fresno and Tulare counties and will 
plant large prune orchards. 

NKVADA. 

The Cattle Inuu.stry.— Rjdo OazeUe, Dec. 
25: For five years stock cattle have been going 
down, and beef has kept pace wlt'h the down- 
ward tendency until it is poor encouragement 
for stockmen to pay much attention to fatten- 
ing cattle. The ranges in this State, those in 
Southern Oregon, and in the counties of Lissen, 
Modoo and Sierra in California, met with such 
heavy losaes last winter that this State and the 
sections alluded to above will not have the 
usual quota of beef to market this year. It 
will take the stockmen fully five years to re- 
cover from the loss of last winter, and it is very 
doubtful if ever again Nevada will support as 
many cattle as she has in the past. A year 
ago last winter, Montana lost fully 50 per cent 
of her cattle, and last winter a fourth of the 
cattle in this State died. We look for a ma- 
terial advance in cattle of all grades throughout 
the country the coming year. As the land be- 
comes settled up, the ranges are necessarily 
curtailed, and there will not be range for such 
large herds to be successfully handled by oue 
man. The large abattoir now being constructed 
near Port Costa, Cal., will take 800 head of 
beef of all grades per day. San Francisco and 
Oakland now take abont 400 daily. This en- 
terprise will make a market for all the range 
oattle the country produces, so that stockmen 
oan keep their herds cleaned up. Every animal 
that could possibly be beefed has been taken to 
the shambles in the past five years, and la it a 
wonder that that article of food has been low ? 



, Complimentary SamplM. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re- 
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soription, and give it their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its infiuenoe in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription, 
paid in advance, 5 mos, $1; 10 mos., $2; 15 
mos., $3, Extra copies mailed for 10 oenta, 
if ordered aoon enough. If already a sub- 
sorihflr, pleaas show the paper to nthera. 

" Now 19 the winter of our discontent made Klorlous 
Buminer " by Ayer's Sarsaparilla. Tills nondeiful medi- 
cine so iDvis;orateB the system and enriches the blood 
that cold weather becomes positively enjoyable, Arctic 
explorers would do well to make a note of this. 

Spring la Cominer — Planting Time is at 
Hand. 

If you are thinking of planting Roses, Hardy Shrub- 
bery, Climbing Vines, Bulbs or Seeds uf any kind, write 
The Dinsee 4 Conard Co., West Grove, Pa., for their 
New Ouide— 124 pages beautifully illustrated— free un 
application. 'This house is well known as one of the 
most popular and rcliftble in the country. They make a 
specialty of all the Newest and Choicest Koses, New 
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" It Can't Be Beat." 

S*K FRiNi isi o, Cal., Dec Uth, 1890. 
Lawrbkcs, Wiluams & Co., Cleveland, Ohio— Grktb: 
Will say we retcived your letter the first of Nov. in ref- 
erence to your Qonihault'fl Caustic Balsam, hut is we 
had changed foreman at stable, could not tell anything 
about the merits of same, so we wen t and bou^'ht a bottle of 
it and have tried the same; for lillstering it cio'c be beat; 
for common use he says it is too strong, but he thinks to 
reduce as directed it wi II be splendid and is going to try 
the same reduced. Resp. yours, 

FABNSWORTH & RUGOLES. 



Jan. 1, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAIo f RESS, 



11 



Agriculture in Mendocino County. 

Editors Press : — The year in Mendocino 
ooanty liae been one of varied fortnnes. The 
rainfall, always abnodant with 08, waa ezces- 
eive last winter, and there waa much enow in 
the northern valleys. The stock interest is 
paramonnt ia the Little Lake, Sherwood, Long, 
Round and Eden valley sections, the tnonntains 
being in large sheep and cattle ranges, and the 
valley lands either forming part of the ranges 
or growing hay or grain, which finds a market 
with the graziers. The losses of cattle and 
sheep were very great. Hay was bought of the 
valley farmers at high prices, to try to winter the 
stock, and at heavy original cost and for haul- 
ing. The good prices for wool could not begin 
to replace losses, and besides the range interest 
had not been prospering for years. Their land 
was bought when at high prices, and cost too 
much to be used profitably at current prices for 
wool. The prices for grazing lands are getting 
lower now and will in a year or two be down 
to living rates. The oonntry along the railroad, 
from Cloverdale to Ukiah, ia in a transition 
state of farming. Formerly it was all hops, hay 
and grain. Fruit is now being planted largely 
at the expense of the grain acreage. French 
prunes and Bartlett pears are almost the only 
sorts planted, and both grow finely and produce 
a superior quality of fruit in this section. The 
acreage of bops decreased during the years of 
low prices, but for several years has remained 
about stationary. This year's crop was a little 
below the average in quantity, but of fine qual- 
ity. But few wer^contracted, and the bulk of 
the crop sold in the neighborhood of 30 cents. 
Nearly all are now out of growers' hands. Sev- 
eral growers, L. F. Long among others, made 
trial shipments direct to London with satisfac- 
tory returns. The hop crop of the county, 
moatly from the Sanel, Ukiah and Redwood 
valleys, sold for about $300,000. The hop- 
growers are very enterprising, and the kilns 
are of the most approved patterns. The most 
of the growers are not speculators, bat men 
who have stayed with hops for years and made 
money out of them in the long run. 

Six or eight miles above Ukiah, the rail- 
road terminus is Calpella, in Redwood valley. 
Here is a large body of land mostly in benches 
and low hillp, covered with fir, oak, madrone 
and manzsnita, and very similar in character to 
the Swiss-Italian colony lands below Clover- 
dale. This section is being sold in small tracts 
and is fast settling up with a thrifty class. 
Vines do unusually well on the hills, as do all 
fruits, and the brushy lands seem the best. 
Anderson valley, with its lower end called 
Christine, is an old, well-tried fruit country, 
producing most fruits in good quality and 
apples hard to excel. Here frnit-grnwing is 
extending rapidly. They are 30 to 40 miles 
from a railroad, but are solving the problem by 
building evaporators and drying the fruit. 
With lumber at $10 to $12 for rough redwood 
at their very doors, building is cheap there, 
and the valley is certain to settle up very 
rapidly with a fruit-growing population. There 
ia a fair local market for fresh fruit to the lum- 
bering section on the coast at Navarro, Mendo- 
cino City, etc. The coast section ia given up 
to lumbaring, but the agricnltnral interest is 
steadily increasing as the woods are cleared. 

At Point Arena is a fine dairy section. 
Ca6Fey8 Cave and Ten-Mile river grow large 
quantities of potatoes, while all along the coast 
a farming population finds at the mills a ready 
market for hay and produce. Throughout the 
county, the hay and grain crops were short. 
Almost all grain is winter sown, and hay volun- 
teer or grain sowed. Lmd stayed so wet that 
mnoh could not be plowed till April. A great 
deal went into corn and produced good crops, 
but both hay and grain are intuffioient for home 
consumption, Carl Purdy. 

Ukiah. 

Whooping cough, croup, sore throat, sudden colda, and 
lung troubles peculiar to children, are ea'My controlled 
by promptly administering Ayer'a Cherry Pectoral. This 
remedy la safe to take, certain in its action, and adapted 
to all constitutions. 



The German Savings and Loan Society, 

526 California Street. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 



FOR THE HALF-YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 
1890, a dividend haa been declared at the rate of five 
and (orty-hundredtha (5 40-100) per cent per annum on 
Term Deposits, and four and one-half (4i) |.er cent per 
annum on Ordinary Depoaits. Payab.e on and after 
FRIDAY, January 2, 1891. 

GEO. TOURNEY, Secretary. 



SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION 

532 California Street, Corner Webb; 
Branch, 1700 Market Street, Corner Polk. 



FOR THE HALF-YEAR ENDING WITH 3 1ST DE- 
cember, 1890, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of five and lour-tentha (5 4-10) per cent per annum 
on Term Depoaits and four and one half (4i) per cent per 
apnum on Ordinary Depoaita, free of taxes, payable on 
and after FRIDAY, 2d January, 1891. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



THE REGULAR ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
Stockholders of the GRANGERS' BANK OF CALI- 
FORNIA, for the election of Directors for the ensuing 
year, will take place at the office of the Bank, In the 
City of San Francisco, State of California, on TUESDAY, 
the 13th day of January, 1891, at one o'clock p. u. 
For Grangers' Bank of California, 

ALBERT MONTPELLIEB, 

Cashier and Manager. 



FOR DYSPEPSIA, 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

Is an effective remedy, as numerous testimo- 
nials conclusively prove. "For two years 
I was a constant sufferer from dyspepsia 
and liver complaint. I doctored a lon^ 
time and the medicines prescribed, in nearly 
every case, only aggravated the disease. 
An apothecary advised me to use Ayer's 
Sarsaparilla. I did so, and was cured 
at a cost of $5. Since that time it has 
been my family medicine, and sickness has 
become a stranger to our household. I 
believe it to be the best medicine on earth." 
— P. F. McNulty, Hackman, 29 Summer St., 
Lowell, Mass. 

FOR DEBILITY, 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

Is a certain cure, when the complaint origi- 
nates in impoverished blood. " I was a 
great sufferer from a low condition of the 
blood and general debility, becoming finally, 
so reduced that I was unfit for work. Noth- 
ing that I did for the complaint helped me 
so much as Ayer's Sarsaparilla, a few bottles 
of which restored me to health and strength. 
I take evei-y opportunity to recommend this 
medicine in similar cases." — C. Evick, 14 E. 
Main St., Chillicothe, Ohio. 

FOR ERUPTIONS 

And all disorders originating in impurity of 
the Wood, sfich as boils, carbuncles, pimples, 
blotches, salt>rlienm, scald-head, scrofulous 
sores, and the like, take only 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

TKEPARED BY * 

DB. J. C. AYEB & CO., liOwell, Mass. 

Price $1 ; six bottles, $o. Wort h $5 a bottle. 




EC03sroAa:Y 

TO 

Housekeepers! 

PEERLESS 

STEAM COOKER 

Superior to All Others. 

GEO. W. SHREVE, 

5ZS Kearny St., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




PIANOS. 

UNEQOALED IN 

Tone, Tonch, Workmanship and Darability. 

Baltimore, 22 and 24 East Baltimore f treet, 
New York, 148 Fifth Ave. Washington, 817 Market Space. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD I 

ruSnJ 




00 NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC 

Before BuyfniK a Sewing Machine. 
It Is the lead In prkotlcal progress. Send for prlee list 
W. EVANS. 89 Poor. St.. S. V 



HORSE OWN^ERSI 

TRY GOMBAULT'S 

CAUSTIC BALSAM. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure 
forCurb. Ppllnt, Sweeny, Capped 
Hock, Strained Tendons, Foun- 
der, WInil Puffa, all Skin Diseases 
orI'ara8ltes,Ttirusli, Diphtheria, 
Pinkeye, all LauicuesB from 
Spavin, KIngbone or other Bony 
Tumors. Removes all Bunches 
or BicmlBbes from Horses and 
Cattle. 

Supersedes all Cautery or Firing. 

["^^^^^ " Impossible to rrodnce any 
Scar or lileinlsh. 
Every bottle sold la warranted to srivo satisfaction. 
Price W1.50 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or si'nt by 
express, charges paid, with full directions for Ita ui^;. 
Bend for descrliitlve circulars. Address 
I^WKENCK. WH.l.l AMS ib CO.,Cleveland,0. 




THE SUCCESS TRAP 

Will hold Animals from a Qopher to a Coyote. 
Price for 30 days, postpaid, 25 cents. One dozen, $2 00. 

sxjccEss i::ra.f go., 

StocktoD, Cat. 



JAMES M. HAVEN. THOMAS E. HAVEN, 

Notary Public 

HAVEN & HAVEN, 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

No. S30 California Street, 

Telephone No. 1740. SAN FRANCISCO iCAL. 



FANCHER CREEK NUR8EL , 

FRESNO, OAL. 

OFFERS A LARGE ASSORTMENT OP 

FRUIT AND O RNAM ENTAL TREES. 

SPB0IAL.TIE3: 

WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS. OLIVES. PLUMS AND PRUNES ON MYROBOLAN 
ROOT. GRAPES, PALMS. ROSES AND OLEANDERS. 



TBE TRUE SMYRNi FIG, ALSO THE WILD OR CAPRI FIG. 



New Descriptive Catalogue mailed free on application. Correspondence 

Solicited. Address 

GEO. O. ROEDING, MANAGER, FRESNO. OAL. 



SPRAY PUMPS! 




star Spray Pamp 



The Gonlds Spray Fump. 



WITH BAMBOO EXTENSION ALL FITTED UP. COMPLETE WITH HOSE, BARREL AND SPRAY NOZZLE. 
These cuts show in faithful operation oiur Gould's and Star Spray Pumps. They are utilized for sprayint,' Emit Trees, 
Orange Groves, Vines, and in fact, all trees or shrubbery infested with the destructive insects which infest and do so much 
injury to Orchards, Viueyards, r)range Groves, etc. They are made entirely of brass, with the exception of frame and 
handle, and are strong and heavy; the valves being made entirely of meta! or rubber, and will not be affected by the corrosive 
solutions such as Caustic Soda Acids, Lye, or any other solution that may be used to kill the destructive insect. Send for 
Special Circular and Prices of Spray Pumps. NOTICE. - qNGERTH'S LIQUID TREE PROTECTOR is the best 
Spray for killing Red Scale, Black Scale, White Cushion Cottony Scale, San Jose Scale, or any other insect. Send for 
Special Circular. 

312 & 314 Market street, janctlon of Bush. SAN ipiANCISCO, CAL. 



BEET SUGAR FACTORIES 

Snpr Clieiiiists.Enigiieers M DraugMsmtii, mi Practical MaDafactare' s of Beet Sngar. 

The members of this firm have spent many mootbs in the largest beet sugar factories of Europe, studying the 
details of Oermau and French methods of maaufacturinof sugar from beets, and also at works of the leading manu- 
factories of beet sugar machinery. Having had many years' experience in manufacturing sugar from beets in Call- 
fornla, and having fully demonstrated the feasibility of producing sugar from beets in this country in almost unlim- 
ited quantities, and in successful competition with cane sugar imported from foreign countries, we are prepared to 
furnish designs for factories, plans and drawings of the latent improved machinery now in use in Europe and this 
country. Can also furnish skilled engineers to superintend the construction of factories, and the necessary technical 
skill to operate the works successfully nhen completed. Will make personal examination of localities with regard 
to their fitness for the production of beet sugar, free of expense, except traveling expenses. Successful results 
guaranteed when the conditions are considered favorable. 



'Planet Jr.' 

Improved Farm and Garden 
Tools for 1891. 

BETTER, Both Horse & Hand, THAIV EVER; 

better and more money saving. We cmnot describe them 
here, but our new and nandsome catalogue is free and in- 
teresting. A goodly niimber of new tools will meet your eye 
there. Among these. Gardener's Harrow, Cultiva- 
tor &Piilverizer.combined, adjust able teeth; Market 

Gartlener's & Beet Grower's Special Horse Hoe ^.r^.^^ ^^.^^ .-^-^^^ 

with Pulverizer: Special Purrower, Marker and Ridger, adjustable wings ;^Sweet Potatoe Horse 
Hoe,four tooth with vine turner; HeavyGrassEdsjer and PatlxCleanerjnewNineTootliCultivator 
and Horse Ho© combined; Special Steel Levelcr and Pulverizer combiaen; all interesting, nothing %ve have 
ever made so practical or perfect. Some improved things too are grafted upon our older favorites. Acauital LEVER 
WHEEIj, instantly adjustable for depth, is a great feature; put on all '91 goods unless ordered otherwise. Nor 
have our Hand Seed Drills been forgotten in the march of improvement, nor our Double and Single Wheel Hoes, Gar- 
den Plows, Grass Edgers, Etc. Some of them are greatly altered for the better; yet do not forpet that "o Ttovelties are 
adopted by m tri-hout actual and exhnw^five tests in the fit'ld. We therefore guar- Q T JlTTPWJ&rA 1 1 07 Market St., 
antee everything exactly as represented. Send for Catalogues now. jji IJi nuLull (X llU*t Philadeljihia, Pa. 




"ASPINWALL 

o 

DISTRIBUTES 

FERTILIZERS 



The Triumph of 

Modern Invention. 




AHT£fl 

I'LANTS 

CORN, BEANS, 
ENSILAGE, ETC. 



Mfntion tliis paver. 



Illustnited Circular sent free. 

ASPINWALL MFG CO., \, ^^^^ jhree Rivers, Michigan. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., AGKNTS, SAN FRANCISCO, CAI.. 



Guns, Fishing Tackle, Ammunition. 




SPORTING GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

529 & 531 K£AENT STREET, 

Send for CatalogVK and mention this paper. SAN FRANCISCO. 



13 



fACIFie I^URAlo PRESS, 



[Jan. S, 1891 



(dlicational. 



Bowens Academy, 

UnlTersity Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 

PREPARATORY, COMMERCIAL AND ACADEUIC 
Claases. References to parents of pupils who have 
entered the University from this School. Send for Cir 
cnUr. T. S. BOWKNS, B. A., Head Master. 



CHESNUTWOOD'S 

BUSINESS ell''* 

SANTA CRUZ.CAL 



BEST El^UIPPED ON THE COAST. INDIVIDUAL 
instruction. No classes. Ladies admitted to all 
departments. B<iard and room In private families, $16 
per month. Tuition, six months. $12. 

J. A. CHESTNUTWOOD, Box t3, Santa Ciuz, Cal. 



HEALDS 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

34 POST ST.. 8. F. 

F»B SKVKNTT-nVK DOLLARS THIS 
College Instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the Kn- 
gllah branches, and eveo'thlng pertaining to bnsliiees, 
lor six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Onr school haf 
Its graduates in every part of the State. 
iirSiHV FOR CiRCin,A». . . , 

B. P. HKAU), Prealdsot. 

CI 8. HALKT. Baoretarr. 



Most Worthy Books for Pnrcliase 

OXB. G-XFI?. 

CHOICE AND I'OPDLAR ALTO SONGS. 

33 songs— each one a gem. Price *1 in heavy paper, 
$1.25 in bds.: and $a in gilt binding. 
THK SONGS OF IRELAND. ..... ^ 

A new and carefully revised collection of the best and 
most celebrated Irish songs. Some of the best melo- 
dies in existence, and bright, spirited words, 66 songs. 
Price, $1 in heavy paper, 81 25 in bds , and $2 in gilt 
binding. 



Choice Song Collections. 



SONG CLASSICS. Vol 1, . 
SONG CLASSICS. Vol. 2, . 
SONG CLASSICS. Low Voices, . 47 
CHOICE SACKED SOLOS, ... 34 
CHOICE SACllKD SOLOS, Low V'cs, 40 
CLA8SIC, BARITONE AND BASS, 33 
CLASSIC TENOK SONGS, ... 36 
GOOD OLD SONGS WE USED TO 
fclNG, 116 



Choice Piano Collections. 



fiO songs. 
30 " 



ggj.2 



Sua 



0. > 



PIANO CLASSICS. Vol- 1, . . 44 pieces- | 
PIANO CLASSirS. Vol. 2, . . 31 •• 

CLASSICAL PIANIST 42 " 

POPULAR DANCE COLLECriON, 66 " 
POPULAR PIANO COLLECnON, 66 " 
OPERATIC PIANO COLLECTION, 19 opera}. J 
Churchill's BIRTHDAY BOOK of Emikent Compossrs. 
A handsome ai\d useful book, $l. 

AKV BOOK MAILRD, POBT-I AID, KOR RITAIL PRICB. 

OLIVER DIT80N OO., BOSTON 

O. H. DITSON & CO., 867 Broadway, New York City. 



SMEDBERG & MITCHELL, 

GEO. M. MITCHELL, W. R. SMEDBERG— 314 CALt- 
lornia Street, San Francisco. Managers San Fran- 
cisco Department New Zealand F. and M. Insurance Co.. 
Auckland; Orient Insurance Co., Hartford. City Agents 
Manchester Fire Assurance Co., Manchester; Caledonian 
Insurance Co., Edinburgh; American Insurance Co., 
Newark, N. i. 



The Armstrong Automatic 

PORTABLE 

ENGIHE and BOILEB. 

The Best, Lightest, Cheapest 
Engine in the world. Can be 
arranged to Burn Wood, Coal, 
' Straw or Petroleum. 6 or 8 H. P. 
Mounted on skids or on wheels. 
TROHAN, BOOKER A CO., San Franclsc*. 




DRIVIMQ 1'''^ ""'^ ''''' made that can 
WUJTII1U i,^ Qged on a gentle horae or 
D I T the most vicioutj horse with 
* eaoal And entire Buccebs. 
AO.UOO (tuldin INSit. 
7d,(MK) sold in 1890. 

THEY ARE KING. 

Sample n ailed X O for ^ i r\f\ 

.m^upI si..i<>. I .wu 

'<tnlliuii Hits Fifty cents extra 

RACINE MALLEABLE IRON CO.?.!.?'"^' 




. DatlM, Mgn 



KNABE 



A L. BANCROFT & CO 
• T aa Pont, street 



It Is a fact universally con- 
ceded that the Knabi sur 
passes all other instruments 



PIANOS 



STEINWAY PIANOS.' 



Acknowledged 
by all lt.»diug 
DudMs to be 

the bast toned tni bast wearing PUno1|in tlie world. 

MATTHIAS GRAY CO.. Z06j& 208 Pott SL 




Is the GENUINE Compound of the MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 
COMPANY prepared from GUANO and rendered soluble by the application 
of acids. 

This manure is an ENRICHER of the soil and not, lll<e others, a 
STIMULANT only; it will do for the land what no other can in rendering It 
PRODUCTIVE without IMPOVERISHMENT. 

Its analysis is reliable; its work is immediate and effective, and for 
results we point with confidence to the ORCHARDS of RIVERSIDE, where 
It has been liberally used for the past three years. 

It can be prepared to suit any land, with or without potash, as occasion 
may require. It is rich in PHOSPHORIC ACID, and can be made as rich in 
NITF.OGEN as the most deficient soil may exact. 



WE GUARANTEE ALL WE CLAIM FOR IT, 

Viz.: TO BE THE MOST COMPLETE FERTILIZER ON tAiS COAST. 



For Sale In Lots to Suit by 



H. M. NEWHALL & CO., 

309 & 311 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



N. B.— By courtesy of the Southern Pacific Company we have low rates 
on this Fertilizer to all parts of the State. 



II 



P. & B," PATENT IDEAL ROOFING & PRESERTATIVE COMPOUND. 

Cheapest, Most Durable and Fire-Resisting Roofing in the market. 

PBE8BRVATIVB COMPODNDS FOR WOOD. IRON OB METAL. 

Acirt and Alkali-Proof. 



Water- Proof and Odorless. No Dearer than Common Sheathing. 



PARAFFINE PAINT COMPANY, 

116 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 




BROWNE'S 

Patent 

Squirrel 
Exterminator. 



This is an apparatus tor burning 
straw and sulphur and also forces 
the fumes down their holes which 
never fails to kill. 1 will give 8100 
in caae the exterminator does not 
kill (if properly applied) every 
ground squirrel that Its deathly 
fumes comes in contact with. 
Thousands are In uae. Price tS.OO. 
Send lor circulars to 

F. B. BBOWNB, 

80 S. Main St, Los Anereles, Gal. 



rirsfiTEs-moriuEim, 

SIDING, CKILING, SHEATHING, Ac. 




Used extensively on Bouf n, Factories, Warehouses, 
Etc Absolutely Water-proof Send 2c for IHuctrated 
Catalogues and Samples. 

O". IE'. V^T-SrJMC^N", 

aouiT roa rAcipic coast, 
804 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 




RIFLES r..ool 
PISTOLS 7S« 



All kladtcfaeftpcr Uifto 
tliewher*. H«for« jog 
buy, uDd •Ump for 
•Uloiue. AddrtH 

POWELL * riEHRn, 

1 HO Main Street, 
ClaalanaU, OU*. 



"Neponset" Waterproof Paper. 



NBPONSET MII.I.S. 



s li'lJJlMl^i'i 



THESE PA 
persareall 

^^ranteed to 
be ahaolutalv / 
waterproof, .' 
air-tiKht and , 
odorless. 

For sheath- 
log and lining 
of buildings: 
for roofing of 

a c t o r 1 e s, 
storehouses 
and farm 
buildings. 

They are 
entirely un- 
affected by 
heat, cold, 
snow or rain. 



"NEPONSET" SHEATHING (color black). 

NO. 1 "NEPONSET' KOPE ROOFING (color terra cotU). 

NO. 2 "NEPONSET' ROPE ROOFING (oolor terra cotto). 




These papers are In rolls 38 Inches wide, and they eon- 
tain either 250 or tOO square feet per roll, and weigh 
about 30. or 40 pounds per roll, respectively. 

DIMMICK & LOW, Aganfs, 

aai Front Street, - - San Franclsoo, Gal. 

Lifi'siitiji. 

THE GREATEST DISCOVERT OF THE 
SINETEENTH CEHTTJRT, 



Silver Medal Awarded by tbeStateFalr of 1890. 



This preparation Is a Sure Deatroyer of the SCALE, 
WOOL.Y APHIS and INSECT PESTS of any and all 

descriptions. It may be as freely used in the conserva- 
tory, garden or greenhouse aa In the orchard or vine- 
yard. It is non-poisonous and harinleae to vegetation 
when diluted ana used according to directions. It mixes 
Instantly witii cold water In any proportions. It Is 
SAFE, SURE and CHEAP. No Fruit grower or Florist 
should be without it. Send for drcnlars and Prioe List. 

CATTON, BELL & CO., 

40C CAUFORNIA ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 
Sole Agenti tor th« Pacific Coast. 



Wainwright'sTree Sprayers 

AND WHITEWASHING MACHINES. 

SI.X CASH PRIZF.S, SILVER MEDAL AND A DIPLOMA 
at the late State Fair for the best Spray Nozzles and 
Spraying Apparatus. Complete outfits, prices from $3 
to $90. Send for Circular and Price List. Wm. Waln- 
wrlKht, No. 10 Hayea Street, San FrancUeo. 




Acme Spray Pump. 

This is a strong, light bucket pumo, and is just what 
has been needed by gmall ( irchardlsts, Farmers, Stock 
and Poultry Raisers. This pumpiwlll stand a pressure of 
from 60 to 76 lbs. to the square Incb. When charged it 
will keep up a continuous spray from 5 to 16 minutes, 
without pumping, according to the amount of air In the 
reservoir. 

Sample pump sent complete lor Spraying, with Suction 
Hose, Strainer, Discharge Hose, Rod, one Lime and one 
Chemical Nozzle, for All my pumps have brass and 

Rubber Valves. 

Spray Rods made to spray, from the ground, from 1 
foot tn 30 feet high and at any angle. 

For Orchards, Farms, Stockmen and Poultry Raisers 
there in nothing like them. 

CONTRACTS TAKEN FOR I.ARGE JOBS 
or WHITEWASHING ATREK-8PRATING. 



WHEN YOU BUY, 

BOY 



THE BEST! 



THE 



Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of Its 
kind In the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that it does 
good work every time. 



M88I1B8. H. H. HoOHa & SONB, Stockton, Cal.— Gum,i- 
hrn: La answer to your Inquiry, would state that I used 
your H. H. H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Menlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
lieved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
■till suffering from the sprain gave the largest authen- 
ticated quantity of milk ever given on this coast (101 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. 1 consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
safe, as Inexperienced men can do no harm with it, as 
they can with the more powerful blisters. Resiiectfully 
yours, FRANK H. BURKE, 

Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berkshires. 

Uenlo Park, Cal., January 23d, 1889. 



UANUFACrrnRED BT 



H. H. MOORE & SONS, 

THE DRUeGISTS. 

248 MAIN STREET, STOCKTON, CAL. 



FAY'S PATENT 

Manio - Leather Roofing 

And Waterproof Building Manilla. 

Used for Roofing and Covering the Outside and Inside of 

Buildings. 

CHEAPER THAN SHINGLES OR METAL 

And Lasts Longer. 
Insurance Companies make no discriminations. Can 
be laid over old sbingies or metal roofs. One man and 
boy can lay from 1000 to ISOO feet per day. The cheapest 
thing in the market tor barns. Ice-houses and outbuild- 
ings. 



Estimates Furnished for Ooverinfir Roofs or 
Bntlre BulldlDgs. 

Cottages for Summer Besorts or Camping 

BUILT TO ORDER. 
Write for Catalogue and Samples. 

PACIFIC ROLL PAPER COMPANY, 

SELLING AGENTS, 
SO & S2 First Street, San Francisco. CaL 

JOUI r. WTMAI, aBKUAL ASKKT. 



Cards 



locraph. Eotclope. B«r«l«l Bdn. Crmsj Kdn Cuib 



Jan/ 3, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 



18 



Santa Barbara County Notes. 

Editors Press: — The winter season has so 
far been very propitious for the farming inter- 
ests, the rain of a couple of weeks ago having 
been suiBcient (three inches) to start the plows 
and grain-seeding for hay and grain. Since 
then we have had warm growing weather, and 
the grain is coming up finely. Farmers are 
generally keeping the weeds down with oulti- 
vators and harrows, thus saving plowing two or 
three times daring the season, and also keep- 
ing the moisture which would be absorbed if 
weeds were allowed to grow. Thus a crop can 
be grown with a very scanty rainfall. Grass 
on the ranges is growing well and stock will 
soon be doing well. On account of no spring 
rains, feed was short this fall and stock in 
many places got quite thin. Bay was very 
high, reaching $20 a ton just before the storm 
of two weeks ago. Even now good hay is very 
high and scarce. About one-eighth of an inch 
of rain fell a few days since and helps to keep 
things growing. 

Business Is lively in Santa Barbara on ac- 
count of the holidays. Some building is going 
on all the time. Many stores and dwelling- 
houses are for rent. Livelier times are looked 
for as soon as work Is commenced, building the 
railroad from Elwood to Santa Margarita. It 
takes much time and labor to raise the $15,000 
necessary to secure the right of way, but it is 
hopod that this amount will be made up soon. 

The Occidental Mining Co. have a flow of 
twenty-five barrels per day at their oil well back 
of Carpinteria, and have had an oil tank put up 
on the railroad switch at Carpinteria wharf and 
are now laying a pipe line from the well to the 
tank, some four or five miles. Matters are quiet 
at the Summerland gas wells. The Gas Company 
has secured a franchise to lay gas pipes in San- 
ta Barbara. Summerland is growing quite rap 
idly and is a very pretty little city. Several 
new business houses have been opened there re 
oently. 

Quite a strong movement is noticeable among 
the farming classes in the way of forming 
Granges and Farmers' Alliance clubs. It is to 
be hoped most sincerely that something may 
come from this movement in the way of State 
and National legislation. 

The principal part of the bean crop remains 
unsold. The crop being very light, high prices 
were hoped for, and the beans were held with 
that purpose in view, but the demand did not 
justify, or twas supplied elsewhere, leaving the 
farmers here in the lurch. They still hope, 
however, that matters may clear up before next 
season and all the beans be sold. The walnut 
crop was about all contracted early in tbe season 
and delivered as soon as gathered. Prices aver- 
aged well, ranging from eight to ten cents per 
pound. 

In this part of the county there is not much 
stir in the matter of tree planting, as Lima 
beans pay better than fruit with tbe chance of 
having to dry tbe fruit in a drier, or else paying 
the heavy freight charges on the green fruit to 
Newhall, where it is dried on tbe ground by the 
heat of the sun, L, B. Cadwell. 

Carpinteria, Dec. 20, 1800. 

Oregon State Horticultural Society. 

Secretary E. R. Lake gives notice of the 
annual meeting to be held in City Oouucil 
Chamber, Portland, January 13-14, 1891. 
Daring the past year this society has been en- 
tirely reorganized, and is now placed upon as 
good working basis as any similar organization 
on the coast. The membership of the society, 
though not as large as it ought to be in a State 
so favored as Oregon, horticulturally speaking, 
is composed of the leading orchardlsts and 
gardeners of the whole State. Every section 
is represented, but in many the membership is 
too small to truly represent the horticultural 
interest of those sections. At this meeting we 
are very desirous of seeing every phase of 
horticulture and every section of the State 
fully represented. 

The S. P. R. R. and the O. P. R. R. will 
give the customary reduced rates. All papers 
presented will be open for discussion by those 
present. 

All meetings are public, and every one in- 
terested in the upbuilding and advancement of 
Oregon's horticulture is most cordially invited 
to be present and take part in the proceedings. 



Blind Requests. 



Careless Subscribers- 
It is surprising how thoughtless and careless some 
persons are in remitting money to newspapers, and 
in making requests in regard to changing the ad- 
dress of their papers. Almost every week some 
" blind " requests and blunders reach us, resulting 
from oversight and carelessness on the part of those 
who send thera. 

It is a coraraon thing for us to receive requests 
like the following: 

' ' Please change my paper to Blankville, as I have 
gone there tolive. Yours truly, John Smith. " 

But as " John Smith " failed to give us his former 
or present address, we cannot make the change he 
requests without searching over thousands o( names 
on our mail list — a work that would require a week 
to accomplish; and as there are many John Smiths, 
it would probably be unsuccessful in identifying the 
one sought after, even if the search were made. 

Some persons request us to send their paper to 
such and such a place, not only without giving their 
present address, but even without giving their 
names. Of course, not knowing who the writer is, 
nor where he receives his paper, we cannot make 
the change he requests, and must wait until he 
writes again to complain that his former request was 
not attended to.- But'^his was entirely his own fault. 
If he had sent in his name and former or present 
address, his request could and would have been 
promptly attended to. 

Sometimes persons remit money in letters, and 
with similar carelessness neglect to gi* their address 
or name. In such cases we cannot enter credit for 
the money thus blindly sent us until we are snbse 
quently informed from whom it came by the person 
who sent it and who complains that he has not re 
ceived credit for his remittance. Of course, the de- 
lay in crediting the money was caused by his own 
Carelessness. 

It is the custom of printers to call all defective, 
disconnected, raislocated and unintelligible manu- 
script, or portions of it, "blind," and the terra 
appropriately applicable to the kind of requests sent 
us which we have cited above. They are " blind 
requests and cannot be attended to for the reasons 
staled. 

We hope, therefore, that all our friends will here 
after exercise a little thoughtfulness and care in this 
matter, and whenever they remit money to us, or 
desire us to change the address of their papers, we 
beg them always to state the postofflce, county and 
State to which their paper is now sent, as well as the 
one to which they wish it sent, together with their 
Jiill name, and their requests can then be complied 
with. In short, we beg them to send us no more 
" blind " requests. 

Do Poultry Select Food by Sight or 
Smell? 

Editors Press : — At a late meeting of the 
Muskegon (Mich.) Horticultural Society, while 
the subject of poultry-raising in oonnection 
with horticultnral pursuits was under discus 
sion, the writer, for the purpose of setting the 
members to thinking, asked the question 
whether poultry selected their food by sight or 
by smell. This caused a deal sight of thinking 
and no small amount of talking. The pro- 
pounder of tbe question took the ground that 
sight alone guided not only domestic fowls, 
but all others in the selection of their food. 
Tbe secretary of the society. Prof. Whitney, 
declared it was instinct and neither sight nor 
smell that guided them. A majority of the 
members inclined to the opinion that sight was 
the only guiding sense. Can any of the readers 
of the Press say positively whether fowls 
possess the sense of smell at all ? 

Muskegon, Mith, J. S. Tibbits 



The Imperial Early Peach. — This is the 
name which W. W. Smith of Vacaville gives to 
a new variety which be has originated to meet 
tbe demand for a large yellow freestone ripen- 
ing earlier than the Crawford's Early. Mr, 
Smith writes as that he is receiving many ap- 
plications for buds, scions and trees, but he is 
not able to supply any this year, and wishes to 
notify Rural readers to that effect. He is 
propagating tbe variety largely and expects to 
have sufficient stock next season which will 
enable him to sell at rates so reasonable that 
they can be planted by the thousand. Next 
summer he expects to bring the fruit prom- 
inently before the fruit-growers go that they 
can judge of its claims as the best early yellow 
peaoh. 

The Stanford Museum. — The contracts have 
jast been let to Oakland parties for the con- 
struction of the Stanford University Mnsenm 
at Palo Alto. The bailding is to be a monolithic 
struotare, walls and floors of concrete and twist- 
ed iron, the same as used in tbe Academy of 
Sciences in San Francisco. This branch of the 
work alone will cost $150,000. 



Cream as a Cure. — Very few housekeepers 
know the value of cream as food, and its 
superiority over butter or any other solid fat 
by permitting the gastric juice to mix with it 
in the most perfect manner, and in this wa'y 
aiding and hastening digestion. It is most in- 
valuable in the case of invalids, for it serves as 
nutriment in the most readily available form. 
It is also superior to batter, because it contains 
more volatile oils than butter made from it. 
Persons consumptively inclined, those with fee- 
ble digestion, aged persons, and those inclined 
to chilliness and cold extremities, are especially 
benefited by a liberal use of sweet cream. No 
other article of food or medicine will give such 
satisfactory results. It is far better than cod- 
liver oil, and is an antidote against consamp 
tion and a nutritious food for any one at all 
times. It would probably be used very freely 
were it not for the impression that it is an ex 
pensive luxury, and for this reason we restrict 
ourselves in the use of cream, and ase butter, 
a still more expensive luxury, lavishly. The 
impression seems to be that the legitimate end 
of cream is to make butter, while, in fact, but- 
ter-making is the least useful purpose for which 
milk is employed. 



Hollywood Trotting Stock. 

The entire stock of the Hollywood Farm, at 
Flosden, three miles from Yallejo, on the Napa 
Railroad, consisting of 60 head of standard, 
registered and thoroughbred stock of horses, 
will be sold at auction on Wednesday, 7th of 
Janaary, 1891. After over 33 years of breed- 
ing, the proprietor, B. C, Holly, owing to fail- 
ing health has concluded to close out at public 
auction, this high-class stock, representing, as 
it does, strains of tbe best blood and the most 
honored producing families in tbe United 
States. Mr. Holly has had a large experience 
and made the subject of breeding and nieMng 
horses a study during the best years of bis life 
In looking over his catalogue, there can be 
found representatives from all the leading 
families, among which are some which were pur- 
chased in New York and Kentucky. 

He has been very successful on tbe turf as a 
winner in trotting and running ; having won 
tbe great stallion race with Woodnut in 
1888. Daring the last four years he has ex 
pended a great deal of time and given a large 
amount of money in securing the most 
fashionable blood and the most remarkable 
getters that could be found. A Rural 
representative made a visit to this great breed- 
ing farm one day last week, and spent three 
hoars looking over the stock, and witnessing 
the performances of these royal-bred horses. 
A pair of yearlings, one of which was by Stam 
boul, were speeded around the track under a 
three-minnte gait. After such a high standard 
has been attained in breeding horses as can be 
seen at Hollywood Farm, it is nothing less than 
a misfortune to the Pacific Coast to have it 
closed. 

Any one who is interested in this high class 
of horses, would do well to send for a catalogue 
for tbe purpose of studying the pedigrees and 
performances of noted families here represented. 
Mr. Holly has had long prices made by breed 
ers and speculators in horses, for several of his 
horses since the issue of bis catalogue, but has 
refused to accept any, as the Hollywood trot 
ting stock will be sold at auction as advertised 
in our columns. 



In Memory of Captain Oooley, — The 
Loyal Legion has issued a handsome memorial 
circular giving a life sketch of Oapt. F, M 
Cooley, who recently died in this city. Capt 
Cooley was a brave soldier and a good citizen 
He was hasband of Alice Kingsbury Cooley, 
an esteemed correspondent of the Rural, and 
well known to many of our readers who will feel 
deep sympathy with her in her bereavement. 



An installation for the purpose of plowing 
the land by electric motors has been set up in 
Spain on property belonging to the Marquis de 
la Lagnna. The power of a water-wheel of 
some 20 horse-power will be employed, and the 
implement for working the land is expected to 
work at a distance of three miles from the 
generating dynamo. 



! 



Oood News to Frult-Orowers and 
Farmers. 

The Judson Manufacturing Company are selling Kab- 
bit-Proof Fencing so cheap that it finds a big demand 
especially their 2-ft. high labbit-proof fence with three 
galvanized steel wire cables. It is so strong that hogs 
cannot break it, and farmers are putting barbed wires 
above it to any desired hight and thereby have a very 
cheap fence that will turn anything. Their fencing is 
colored red by a chemical solution that preserves the 
pickets. See their advertisement on page 17. 



Newspaper Agents Wanted. 



Extra inducements will be offered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No. 220 Market St.. S. F 



To Subscribers and Readers. 



INE AND pRDIT TaHDS 

NEAR TULARE CITY. 



City Homestead Lots Cheap, 



\'A MILES FROM TDIARE R. R. DEPOT. 




AHandy Paper Binder 
— A. T. Dewey's patent 
elastic binder, for periodi- 
cals, musicand other printed 
sheets, is the handiest, and 
very cheapest of all econom- 
ical and practical file bind- 
ers. Newspapers are quick- 
ly placed in it (as received) 
and held neatly, as in a 
cloth -bound book. It is 
durable, and so simple a 
child can use it. Price (size 
of this paper, Harper's 
Weekly, and Scientific 
American), 75 cents; post- 
age 10 cents. Postpaid to 
purchasers of this paper, 50 
cents. For sale at this of- 
fice. Send for illustrated 
circular. Agents wanted. 



Land to Rent. 



A Splendid Opportunity 

To rent on exceedingly favorable terms, either for cash 
or a reasonable portion of the production, 164 acres of 
well-tilled land, a very comfortable house, with abun- 
dant shade trees, and splendid well of excellent healthy 
artesian water flows through the garden and door- 
yard. Water sufficient to irrigate 100 acres or more. 
Much of the land leveled, checked and ditched. Large 
barn and convenient outhouses. About 25 acres of alfalfa, 
and seven of orchard. The land is conveniently fenced 
into subdivisions, including a good pasture, large reser- 
voir, etc. This place is one of the pleasant, healthfully 
located places in the Tulare valley, seven miles S. W. of 
Tulare city. Possession given immediately. Also, 15C 
acres adjoining on tbe east side and 160 acres on tbe 
west side of the above tract, making FOUR HUNDRED 
AND EIGHTY ACRES all well-tilled, productive land for 
all kinds of grain-growing, etc Also 640 acres three 
miles from Pixley, and 160 acres within one mile of 
Tulare city, also on very favorable terms. 

Apply soon to Capt. Thos. H. Thompson, Tulare; 
E. M. Dewey, PortatvUle; or A. T. Dewey, 220 Market 
Street, San Francisco. 



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TOKAY AVENUE 


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CO > 

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Wo 

Hi O 



SMALL TRACTS OF LAND FOR HOMES 

In 6, 10, 20 or 40 acre tracts, one-holf mile from city limits 
of Tulare, one of the most prominent-growiDg towns in 
the State, at prices ranging from $40 to $80 per acre. 

The land lies in the northerly limit of the Artesian 
Belt, and is also easily supplied with ditch water. Soil, 
sandy loam. Good surface water at 10 to 12 feet. 

Liberal terms of payment to those who build or plant 
at once. 

Apply to E. M. DEWEY, Porterville, Tulare Co., or 
A. T. DEWEY, 220 Market St., S. F. 



lALIFORNIA IRUITS 



HOW TO GROW THEM. 

A MANUAL OF METHODS WHICH HAVE YIELDED 
GREATEST SUCCESS; WITH LISTS OF VARIETIES 
BEST ADAPTED TO THE DIFFERENT 
DISTRICTS OF THE STATE. 

BY EDWARD J. WICKSON, A. M. 
Contents. 

PART I: General.— The Climate of CaUfomia and its 
Local Modifications; Why the California Climate Specially 
Favors the Growth of Fruits; The Fruit Soils of California; 
The Wild Fruits of California; California Mission Fruits; 
lutroductiou of Improved Friut Varieties. 

PART II: Cultural.— Clearing Land for Fruit; The 
Nursery; Budding and Graftiug; Preparation for Planting; 
Planting the Trees; Pruning Orchard Trees; Cultivation; 
Fertilizers for Fruit Trees and Viuea; Irrigation of Fru 
Trees and Vines. 

PART III: Orchard Fruits. - The Apple; The Apri- 
cot; The Cherry; The Peach; The Nectarine; The Pear; 
Plums and Prune.?; The Quince. 

FART rV: The Grape.— Rise and Progress of the Grape 
Interest; Propagating and Planting Vices; Pruumgand Care 
of the Vine; Grape Varieties in California. 

PART V: Semi-Tropical FRt its.— The Date; The Fig; 
The Olive; The Orange; The Lemon, Lime, etc.; Minor Semi- 
Tropical Fruits. 

PART VI: Small Fri its — Berries and Currants. 

PART VII: NUT8.-Nut-Growingi n CaUfomia. 

PART Vllf: Fruit Preservation. -Fruit Catming, 
Crystallizing and Drying. 

PART IX: Fruit Protection.- Injiuious Insects; 
Suppressiou of Injurious Animals and Birds; Protection 
from Winds and Frosts. 

PART X: Miscellaneous.— Melon Growing; Fruit 
Packages. 

LARGE OCTAVO- 575 PAGES. 
PRICE $3. POSTPAID. 

FUBLISHBD BT 

DEWEY & CO., 

Pdblishers Paoifio Rural Press, 

220 Market Street, Elevator 12 Front Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



PACIFIC 
PRESS. 



1891.C.". 



ANDY 
LENDAR. 



Jan.. 



Feb.., 



11 arch 



April. 



May. 



June. 



July. 



Oct., 



Not. 



11 



f AciFie i^uRAb pREsa 



lJan. 3, 1891 



Breeders' birectory. 



six llnee or leas In this Directory at 60c pec line per month. 



HORSES AND GAULE. 



J. B. ROSB, Lakevilic, Sonoma Co., Cal. , breeder o( 
Thoroughbred Dovons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 



P. PETERSEN.Sites, ColuaaCo., Importer & Breeder 
of registered Shorthurn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 



WILD PJjOWEB stock FARM, Fresno Co. 
A. UeilbroD & Bro., Props., Sic. Breeders of thorouifh- 
bred strains and Cruiksbank Shorthorns; also Ke^'istered 
Herefords; a line let of young bulla in each herd for sale. 

CHARLES R. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded ilolstein-Friesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 



EROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, tor sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. Mew cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. R Collier. 



WILLIAM NILE8,LosAngele9,CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 



REGISTERED HOLSTEIN CATTLE. Also 
lieBt thoroughbred Poultry and liggs. Address Uibbard 
& Ellix, SanU Rosa Breeding Association, Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., CaL, Breeder ol 
Recorded Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

OOTATE RANCH BREEDING FARM, Page's 
Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horsea, Bpaniah 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



PURE-BRED flOLSTBIN FR1B8IAN CatOe 
lor Sale. Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Uollister, CaL 



JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 



JBRSEYS-The Best Herd, all A. J. C. Registered, Is 
owned by Henry Pierce, San Francisco. 



J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sononuk Co., CaL , breeder 

ol Registered Holsteln Cattle. 



M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer In 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
atelns, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

OEO. B. POLHEMUS, Coyote, Cal. Holstein-Krles- 
ian cattle, coniprising niales and females on advanced 
register. First premium in great milking test at 
State Fair, 1889, was won by a member of this herd. 

PBTBB SAXE St SON, Lick Bouse, San Franoisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, tor past 18 years, ol 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 



HENRY HAMILTON, Westley, Cal., breeder of 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
steln Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for sale. 



JERSEY BULL No. 4CS P. C. J. C. C. for sale 
cheap, A tine four-year-old animal. Address Dellwood 
Poultry Yards, Napa, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



GEO. TREFZER, 911 Est., Sacramento,CaL, breeder 
of Houdans, Black and White Leghorns, Prize Winners 
at late State Fair. F^ggs, »2 SO for 13; $4 for M. 

DELLWOOD POULTRY YARDS, Napa. Light 
and Dark Brahmaa, Bull Cochins, Lanifshans, I'lymouth 
Kocks, Silver and Gulden WyanUr)ttcs, Houdang, 
Minorcas, Spanish, Brown, Black and White Leghorns, 
Pekiu Ducks. Birds for sale. Eggs, $2 per 13. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send tor Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

R. G. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. > 

JOHN MoFARLTNO, 70a Twelfth St., Oakland. 
Cal., Importer and Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send 
lor Circular. Thoroughbred Berkshire Piga 



IP YOU KEEP ANY KIND OP FOWLS, 

Pet Stock, Dog8, He, it will pay you to send your ad- 
dress at once to C. R. Harker,SantaCl.ira,Cal. Youcan- 
not afford not to do it. It will cost you but une cent 
and you will receive something worth ten times that. 

B. P. MUSSON, San Leandro. Box 156. Fine stock. 



W. C. DAMON, Napa. Fowls and Eggs, 92.00. 

O. J- ALBBE, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 



SHEEP AND QOATS. 



B. W. WOOLSEY Al SON, Fulton, Cal., Importers 
ft breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale. 

B. H. CRANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 



KIBKPATRICK Si WHITTAKBR, Knight'a 
reny, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for nie. 



L. U. SHIPPEB,Stookton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
ol Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys ft Berkshire Swine high graded rams tor sale 

ANDBB W SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't 



SWINE 



JOSEPH MELVIN, DarisrUle, CaL, Breeder ol 
Poland-Chhia Hogs. 



WILLIAM NlLBS,Lo8 Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pies. Circulars free. 



TTLER BEACH, San Jose, CaL, breeder ol 
Ihorenghbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, CaL; see adv't 



APIARIAN 8UPPLIKS. 
Italian (Queens, (2.60 each; Black cjueons, il each. 
Swarms from i2.54J each; Smoker, $1, Comb Found* 
tlon, tl.26 per pound; V-groove Sections, 94 per 1000 
Comb Honey wholesale and retail; Hives, eta. W 
STVAN k SON. Th« HnmoatoKl Aplarv. R«l> Watnc.Oal 



UBKEDKR OF UEiilSTEllKD 

tttaortborn. AJkcrdren • Anyrua 
and Jmr-'ry Cattle. 

Youuit btotk for .Sulf. Currcspoudfiice i 

•oUoited. U. W. UiniCK, Haitltard, Urcc«B. 




IMPORTANT! 

That the public should know that for the past ElfchtMn Tears our Sole Baslness has been, and now is 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock — Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires, 
and Jerseys (er Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varieties ol breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terms. Write or call ou us. PETEK SAXE and HOMER P. SAXE. 

San Franciaco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1S88. PKT£R SAXG St SON, L,lck House, S. F. 



PURE 



TRUMBULL, STREAN A, ALLEN 
SEED CO., 
Grass, Field, Gsrden and Tree Seeds, Onion Sets, Etc 

Send for Catalorna. Mailed Fres. 
«4aa-i4SS ST. Leuie KANSAS CITY, MO. 



SEEDS 



KT ID n E T^IT S3VJ:IT 

IMPORTEE AND BR££OEK OF THOEOUQHfiBED 

(RBCOKDED 




DISHFACED BERKSHIRE PIGS,* 

IMPROVED POLAND-CHINA PIGS, 

SHROPSHIRE DOWN SHEEP, 

Young Stock for sale at reasonable prices. Every animal guaranteed. 
op-FTOR—aia Cftllforala St. San Francisco. REDWOOD CITY. OAT.. 



Walnut Grove Herd op Poland China Hogs 



JOSEPH MELVIN, 

Proprietor, 

DAVISVILLE, CAL 




- OK - 

Strictly Bred 

POLAND CHINA 
'0 SWINE. 



At the head of the herd stands PERFECTION KING, No. 7579; KING OF THE WEST, No. 8921; 
HOO.SIER BOY 2d, No. .S923. Breeding Sows as fine individuals and as strictly bred as any in the land; 
also recorded in the C. P. C. R. record with pedigrees full to standard. Breeders for sale at all times. 
I have tirst-class Pigs of both sexes at reasonable prices. Residence 1% miles northeast of Davisville, Cal. 
Personal inspection solicited. All inquiries promptly answered. Yours truly, JOSEPH MELVIN. 




HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL VARIETIES OF FANCY FOWLS, 

Ducks, Turkeys, Geese, Peacocks, Etc. 

EGGS FOR HATCHING. 



Publisher of "Nlles' Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book,'' 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
;h<: Paciflc Coast Price 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for information. 

BREEDER AND RAISER OK TUOIlOUGHIiRED 

Jersey and Holsteln Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. 




FRAUDULENT PARTIES 
have been selling an 
article, claiming theirs to be 
the same, and, in order to 
mislead, have added a prefix 
to " Manhattan." Our gen- 
uine food is callrd simple 
" .Manliattan Food, "with the 
Red Ball Brand. 



62 3 Howard St., .San 
Q-UAXTtex- of GrX*A.lXX Food.- Franclnco, Cal. 



Alameda GoDoty Fine Stoek Farm. 

MOHR BROS., Proprietors. 




IMPOKil,./ .\N|i lio.Mh- liKr.ii KKGl.S'l KliED 
Clydesdale Stallions and Mares, weighing from 1600 
to 2000 lbs each, from prize. winning families. Uoistein 
Fricsian Bulls and Heifers of the most noted families. 
All Registered. Also Registered Berkshire Pigs. Call 
on or address B. P. MOHK, MOUNT EDEN, ALA- 
MEDA COUNTY, CAL., 20 miles southeast from San 
Francisco. Take train for Haywards station, on broad 
gauge, or Mt. Eden on narrov gauge railroad. Fare 60 
cents. Conveyance at depot if notice Is given. Visitois 
welcome and intpection invited 



HWIL8KT & CO., PRTALUMA STABLES, 
• M.iin Street, opposite Pl»za. 
We will sell all our Impurted French 
and English Draft Stallions, that 
have proven themselves good foal- 
getters, at a barsain, as we desire to 
close a partnership business. Parties 
intending to purchase will please ex- 
amine our stocK. No reasonable 
offer refused. Address H. WILSEY 
& CO., Petaluma, Cal. 




BADEN FARM HERD. 
Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prices on.iappllcation to 
HOBBBT ASHBUaNBR, 

Bkden StsUoD, San Mateo Co., Osl. 



CoDSipmeDt of Six Clydesdale 
Stallions and Four Mares. 




JUST ARRIVED I KnM AIMKU,1.\. APPLY TO 
r, L. T \.YL,<>K, Nn. 428 California Street, or 
JOBN SCOTT, Park Louvre Stables, Bay District Race 
Track, San Prancisco, Cal. 



IMPORTEDJTALLIONSI 

HOLBEET & CONGER, 

Los Angeles, OaL, 

Import Direct from Europe 
and sell Fall- Blooded 
Yurkahlre CleTelond 
Bay, Oldenbnrg Ger- 
man Coach and Kn- 
« gllsli Shire Draft Stal- 
'fM lions. Tlic best Coach and 
iL Dr»ft Horses in the world. 

- , in Stables permanently located. 

Third Importation. We give Eastern prices and guar- 
antee our horsrs. Correspondence solicited. Adoress 

1008 Ollre St., Loa Angeles, OaL 
Our Uorseo are full registered ia Eorope aod America. 




AUCTION SALE 



OF THE 



Hollywood 
Trotting 



Stock, 



PROPERTY OK 



60 HEAD 

Standard, Registered and 
Thoroughbred, 

—UN- 
WEDNESDAY, JAN. 7, 1891, 

Commenciiie &t 10:30 at Hollywood Farm. 

(Three Miles from Vallej ), at Klosden.) 
«-SEND FOR C.\TAIX»tJUE. 



New Importation ! 




THEO. SKILLMAN 

Ha^t just .irrived in PctftlUDia witli a new 
importation of 

CHOICE YOUNG STALLIONS 

Conflating of 

rEKCBERONS. SVFKOLK8, SHIRKS AND 
FRENCH CUACHBRS. 

Prices moderate and terms liberal to suit the times. 

THVjO. SKILLMAN. 

TOLTS BROKEN 



THE SOUTHER FARM, 

One and a half miles northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda Ooanty, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable, 
Horses boarded -jX all times. 

THE SOUTHER FA&M, 
QTX,BBRT TOMPKINS, Proprietor, 

p. O. Box 140. San Leandro, Oal 



J. C. SMITBJMPORTER. 

Imported, Registered Percheron Stallions 

FROM TWO TO ljX)UR YEARS OLD. 

Also, 

FIVE SELECT MARES. 

Havjulf spent over one 
yeiir in France selecting 
a)x>ve Btock, think I baTe a 
better ^rado tLan h%» ever 
beftjfc l>ecn otTt'red for aale 
in this 8tatL-. Hav'D^ b«>eu 
Ijere one year, tlity are 
thorouKlily acclimateU. For 
furt)ier particulars, address 

J. C. SMITH, 

1422 Eiglith 8t , Oakland, or 
No 1 Howard St., S. F.. Cal. 




BAY VIEW STOCK FARM, 

BREEDER.^ OK 

Pure-Bred Shorthorn Cattle and Improved 
Poland China Hogi, 

CHOICE YOUNG PIGS, AND ONE BOAR, MONTHS 
old, for sale. Address J. P. TUOMPSON, Manager, 
Napa Junction, Cal. 



H. E. CARPENTER, 

Veterinary Surgeon, 

Gra<luate of Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto, Canada. 

RESIDENCE AND VETERINARY INFIRMARY: 
831 Qolden Oate Avenue, San Francisco. 

Ti Iciilione 3069. 
<9-UPKN UtV ANI> NIGHT. 
No risk in throwing Horses. Veterinary operating tabls 
ou the premises. 



Jan! 3, 1891.] 



f ACIFie f^URAlo PRESS. 



16 



PoJlTIY; Etc. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Oor. 17tb Sf Oastro 8te., Oakland, Oal. 

Hannfactory of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR and 
BROODER. Arenoy of 
the celebrated silver flnisb 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances in great variety. 
Also every variety of land 

and water Fowl, which 

have woo first prizes wlierever exhibited. £^gs tor 
natchlng. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Ouide, price, 40c. Send 4c. stamp for 80-page catalogue, 
illustrated In colors, to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 
1817 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 




DROP IT 



If you are in any business 
not paying you, drop it, 
and buy a Petaluma Incu- 
bator. PKICKS RE- 
DUCED, A l«ge 32- 
page Illustrated Catalogue 
describing Incubators, 
Brooders, BroodingUouses, 
How and What to Feed, 
How Long to keep them 
in the Brooder, Drinking 
Fountains, Diseases and 
their Cure, Egg Testers, 
Bone and Shell Mills, Wire 
Netting, Thermometers, 
Lath Fencing, Flood's 
Roup Cure, "Creosozone," 
the only thing that will 
exterminate vermin among 
chickens, in fact, more in- 
formation than is given in many 25-cent books. 8ent to 
any address on receipt of four cents in stamps. 

PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO,, Petaluma, Cal. 




POULTRY- MEN, ATTENTION! 

Every disease known to Poultry can be cured, and 
every flock made to lay, now, wiien eggs are high — 
by using 

WelliDgton's Improved Egg Food, 

The standard for 12 YEARS. Do not get discour- 
aged because you loolishly tned some preparations 
" called Egg Food " and got no results, but immedi- 
ately get some of Wellington's Improved Egg Food, 
and you will have no more trouble. You will then 
have healthy Poultry and plenty of Fggs. It never 
has failed and it will not now. You try it. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, Proprietor, 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 WASHINGTON STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 
" Every merchant keeps it." 




-THE- 



HALSTED INGDBATOR 

COMPANY, 
1813 Myrtle Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circxilar. 



Horse Tail Tie. 





BETTER THAN CLEANING A MUDDY TAIL, ALL 
Polished Metal. Samples, 25 cents. DES MOINES 
NOVELTY CO., 127 Fourth St., Des Moines, Iowa. 
Mention this paper. 



DR. A. E. BUZARD, 

VETERINARY SURGEON. 

Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, England. 
Graddatbd Apbil 22, 1870. 
Advice by Mail, $2. 

OFFICE AND PHARMACY: 

No, 11 Seyentli St., near Martet, San Francisco, Cal. 

Open n»v and Nlirht. Telnphnnn, No. RSflO. 



PACIFIC COAST HORSE MARKET, 

1616 and 1618 Mission St., 
Telephone No. 6093. SAN FRANCISCO. 

WATKINS & DUHIG, Proprietors, 

lilVE STOCK & GENERAI, AUCXIONESRS 



Horses bought and sold. Auction Sales every Wednes* 
day and Saturday at 11 A. m. A full line of Draught, 
Driving, Saddle and Business Horses. Particular atten- 
tion paid to country sales. Special inducements to 
parties having sale horses. Stock sold on commission 
and hoarded at low ratdfi. 



FOR, 



OnePercheronMare 

CtOLOR, BLACK; WEIGHT, 1650. IMPORTED BY 
' Levi Dillon. Normal, Ills. Due to foal March 1, 1891. 
Address W. B. ELLENWOOD. Atlanta, San Joaquin 
County, Cal. 



Will lie Sold Very ReasonaWe, 
TWO PERCHERON STALLIONS, 

One black and the other gray. Both seven years old 
last spring. Can show their colts. Weigh 1750 and 1840 
pounds. 

SACKRIDER & CHISHOLM, 

No. 870 Bleventh Street, OAKJCAND, OAI» 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 

JUDSON POWDER, 



PATENT OWNERS OF 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 
NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 
NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Explosives in tbe World. 

As other makers IMITATE oar Giant Powder, so do they Jadson, by Mannfaotiiring 
a second-grade, inferior to Jadson. 

BANDMANN. NIELSEN ii CO. General Agents, San Francisco. 



The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stamp and Bank Blastiog. From 5 to 20 
pounds blowB any Stump, Tree or Root clear 
oat of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 




FRESNO CANAL. DITC HING AND LEVELING SCRAPERS. 

FlEEBADGH, CAL. (Poso Farm), November 8, 1889. 
Me. Jas. Pokteous, Fresno, Cal.— Dear Sir: In answer to yours ol 6tli inst , will say that I have found 
your new style lOur-horse Scraper the best all-round Scraper I have yet tried. Respectfully yours, 

J. W. SCHMITZ, Supt. Miller & Lux. 

SEND FOB CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SHIPPING § COMMISSION HOUSE, 

OFFICE. 108 DAVIS STBEET, SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 

Warehoaee and Wharf at Fort Ooata. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Oraln in Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricaltoral Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

B. VAN BVBRT. Manaccer A. M. BBLT. Assistant Manaser 



SAN FRANCISCO TOOL CO, 

IVIANDFAOTURBRS OF 

IRRIGATING PUMPS 

AND 

Machinery of all Kinds. 

PACIFIC COAST AGENTS 

BABOOOK & WILOOX 

Patent Water Tube Steam Boilers. 

Estimates Fnrnighed ou Application. 




'Send for Cataloerues. 



CIKWTRIirDOAT, PUMP. 



FIRST and STEVENSON STS.. S. F. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue. San Francisco. 

fS'Free Coach to and from the House. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 



DEWEY & CO. C^.iSSf'fa^Sil^''-! PATENT AGENTS. 



MOORE. FERGUSON & CO., 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

—AMD— 

General Commission Merchtnts, 

810 California St., S. F. 

Ifembeis of the San Fraodsco Prodnce Exchange 
CVPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad. 
vanoeo made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Merclxants 

A»D DIALBRS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Q-reen and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Conslgcnments. 
308 ft 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. 0. Box 1S36.] 
JVConslgnmeots Solicited. 



ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 

BD00B880R8 TO 

LITTLBFIBLD, ALLISON A CO., 

601, 608, 605. 607 and 609 Front Street 
and 800 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Prodnce and 
Wool. 



(KSTASLISBSD 1864. J 

GEORGE MORROW A CO., 

HAT and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

89 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
Bar FBANoisoe, Cal. 
MT SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECL&LTT.m 



E^UOBNB J. Orksort. [Established 1852.] Frame Orioort. 

GREGORY BROTHERS CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF 

CALIFORNIA FRUIT AND PRODUCE. 
126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco Office, 813 Davis St. 



WETMORS BBOTHEBS, 

Commission Merchants, 

Oreen and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments solicited. 413, 416 k 417 Washington 81., 
San Francisco. 



EVELETH ft NASH, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers In Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, S88, 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



WITTLAITD ft FREDBICKSOH, 

Commission Merchants. 

AH Kinds of Oreen and Dried Fruity. 

Consignments Solicited. 324 Davis St.. S. F. 



J. L. HEALD, Pres. C. B. MORGAN, Seo'y. 

HEALD MFG. CO. 

Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers, 

TAACTION ENGINES, 

Portalile Straw-Bnrmg Boilers & Engines. 

IRON AND BRASS CASTINGS. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stammers, Elevators, 
Wine Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used in 
Wine Cellars, irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Beald's 
Patent Engine Governor. Etc. 



allsteel. lightning 



pULl C'BCI.F. 




K.C.HAY PRESS CO. KANSAS CITY, MO. 




FARM ENGINES 

Upright and ITorizontal, 
Simple, Efiective, Curable. 

Write us before buying. 
For free Pamphlet address 

THE JAMES LEFFEL b CO. 

BPBIMGriELD, OHIO, 
«r 110 Liberty St, Maw York, 



16 



f ACIFie l^URAb PRE88. 



(Jan. S, 1101 



B»B» fljAf^KET J^Ef Of^l 



Market Review. 



DOMESTIO PBODOOB. BTO. 



San Francisco, Dec. 30, 1890. 

Trade in general produce has bung, but not more 
so than usually obtains at this season of the year. 
The money market has probably seen its worst, and 
from now on a steady improvement should set in. 
The large sums of money tied up will begin to be 
disbursed with the beginning of next month. The 
aggregate will be largely in excess o( former annual 
disbursements, which will tend no little in easing the 
money market. This ease would be more pro- 
nounced if Congress would slop partisan legislation 
and pass a free-coinage bill, besides other legislation 
calculated to restore confidence. The English wheat 
market has held strong throu ghout the week. The 
following is to-day's cablegram: 

Liverpool, Dec. 30.— Wheat— Strong. Califor- 
nia spot lots, 7s 4%d to 7s 7Kd; cargoes off coast, 
38s 3d@38s 6d; just shipped, 38s; nearly due, 38s 
3d; cargoes oflf coast and on passage, firm and held 
higher; wheat on passage to Continent, 745,000 qrs; 
wheat and flour on passage to Cork, U. K., 2,011,- 
000 qrs; French country markets, stiff; wheat and 
flour in Paris firm. 

Foreign Qraln Review. 

London, Dec. 29.— The A/aii Lane Express 
in its review of the British grain trade during the 
week past, says: English wheats are firm for good 
sorts at an average advance of 6J. Foreign wheats 
are steady. Oats and corn are slow. At to day's 
market English wheats were well sustained. Foreign 
was firm for white sorts. Flour was in good re- 
quest. Round corn was 3d higher. Oats were 3d 
lower. 

Lilverpool Wbeat Market. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April. May. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 786Jd 7«7d 7s71d 7s7}d 7B7Jd 767Jd 

Tuesday 

The following are the prices for California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

0. C. P. S. N. D. Market 

Thursday .' 

Friday 

Saturday 

Uonday SSsSd SSsOd SSs3d Vuiet. 

Tuesday 

Baetern Oraln Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
at New York for the past week, per bushel; 

Day. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. May. July. 

Thursday 

Friday 104j 103J .... 1051 1041 ..- 

Saturday 103} .... lOSl 1041 

Monday lOSi 103| .... 100 IO4J 

I'nesday 

The closing prices for wheat have been as follows 
at Chicago lor the past week, per bushel : 

Day. Dec. Hay. June. July. 

Thursuay — 

Friday . . «7S 

Saturday »61 

Monday 97S 

Tuesday — .... 

New York, Dec. 30. — Wheat— $1.06 for cash, 
$i.o4)i for December, $1.04^ for January, $1.05% 
for March; $1.05?^ for .May, and $i.ooH for July. 

Chicago, Dec. 30. — Wheat— 89 J^c for January 
and 97HC for May. 

Hops. 

Nkw York, Dec. a8. — Hops are in a tame con- 
dition for local or export use. The prices, however, 
have not shrunken, which is a favorable feature of 
the dull market at the close of the year. Light or- 
ders from brewers directed to good olds and under 
grade. The New York crop of 1890: Choice, 38® 
40c; good to prime, 35@37c; common to fair, 32® 
34c; crop of 1889, 2o@2Sc; crop of 1888, I2@i8c; 
do, old olds, 7(giioc. Pacific crop, 1890: Prime to 
choice, 36(0)380; good, 33@3sc; common, 30(0)320; 
crop of 1888, I2@i8c; Eastern and California old 
olds, ^@loc\ Bavarian, 6o@62c; Bohemian, 62® 
65c; Altmarc, 52(^550. Exports for the week, 359 
bales. 

Bastern Wool Markets. 

New York, Dec. 26. — liradstreet's will say: The 
wool sales for the week show a strong active move- 
ment in both Texas and Territory supplies. Some 
large lots of Texas wools were disposed of at full 
values, showing that confidence in high prices has 
not weakened. Fleece wools are in strong demand. 
Australian wools are moving better, while pulled 
wools are very firm. Prices have not been changed 
on any grade. It is said 300,000 bales have been 
shipped from Melbourne for the next London sales. 
A recent decision of the Treasury Department to 
assess a duty of 12c ^ lb. on common goat hair has 
stirred up considerable discussion among carpet 
dealers and carpet manufacturers. 

New York, Dec. 28. — New York makes a light 
showing in wool business, the weather and holidays 
restricting the evident disposition to trade. All sea- 
board points have a hopeful outlook for prices. The 
early new year is expected to bring a line of manu- 
facturers needing selections of the remaining light 
supply, especially for hosiery worsted. 

Boston retains an active tone. Sales — 2,393,000 
lbs. domestic and 193,000 lbs. of foreign. The bulk 
of Texas was closed out at 18(^230; 140.000 lbs. of 
California went at 17(0)230. The Philadelphia mar 
ket is in good shape for the new year, and buyers 
are unable to shake the holders' views. 

Dried Fruits. 
New York, Dec. 28. — Raisins continue to be of- 
fered at low prices, and unless some unforeseen dfr 
raand springs up the holders are fearful that the 
season will wind up with many invoices in storage 
Retailers are not heavily slocked, which is encourag 
ing for really useful loose or clusters at current quO' 
tations. Prime parcels in bags, 7(87)^0; good style 
layers offered, $2; choice and best Three Crowns as 
Ijefore. 

prunes, apricots and peaches almost nominal. 



New York, Dec. 29. — The Commercial Bulletin, 
discussing the dried fruit situation, says: It would 
be difficult to picture a more stupid condition of af- 
fairs than that observed at present. There is abso- 
lutely no demand for goods from interior points, 
and among the local large dealers there is a com- 
pletete absence of speculative interest, the low prices 
current for most lines attracting not the slightest 
attention. 

The foreign markets reflect generally a firm tone, 
though naturally at this time the cable offerings of 
stock are not frequent. The crop of prunes in 
France the past season was in fair quantity and of 
an unusually good quality. The market in Bordeaux 
appears well sustained, with no disposition to urge 
supplies, the belief being entertained that there is on 
band the entire available quantity required during 
the coming season. 

The Turkish prune crop was a comparative failure 
this year. The stock of Valencia raisins is exceed- 
ingly small and consists chiefly of better class fruit. 
The crop of Malaga raisins this season was small, 
but as this country has become almost wholly de- 
pendent on California for a similar class of fruit, the 
scarcity has been without influence on this side of 
the water. For grades of imported fruit there is yet 
a moderate call. Good fruit has been in fair demand 
all along. For such, full prices have been and are 
exacted. 

MlBcellaneoue. 

New York, Dec. 28.— The long pause in trade 
in mustard seed makes some room for parcels on the 
way from the Coast; 3}ic is quoted for yellow 
brown. Pacific Coast of irregular quality does not 
compare well with the foreign. 

Honey strong; sales, 6)i@7/ic for amber shades. 

Lima beans slow with easy prices. Nothing above 
last price. Quality unsatisfactory. 

Local Markets. 

BARLIT. 

Buyer Season. Seller 1891. Buyer 1890. 

B. L. H. L. U. L. 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 1491 1^9 106S lOSf 

Tuesday 

WUKA1 

Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Seller 
Season. 1S91. 1890. Season. 1890. 

Thursday.... | {" 

Friday \^ 

Saturday ^ 



14Si 
1481 



ISll 
1311 



1423 



Monday jj* 

Tuesday | 

BAGS — The market is essentially unchanged at 
6^@6^c for May-June deUvery. 

BARLEY — The sample market has held firm 
under moderate receipts and a fair call. The Call 
Board adjourning for three days interrupted trad- 
ing in futures, but with business resumed on yester- 
day more activity is noted. The following are to- 
day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer season — 100 tons, 
$i.49K; 300, $i.495f ^ ctl. Afternoon Session: 
Buyer season — 300 tons, $1.50; 100, $1.50}^; 100, 
$x.50H:409, $i.SoM ctl. 

BUTTER — The market is firm but no higher. 
There is very little if any choice pickled. The East- 
ern creameries are sending liberal supplies to this 
coast, which interferes with the California product. 
It is generally claimed that with milder weather on 
this coast, the output of butter will increase. 

CHEESE — The supply is light, the demand good 
and the market strong. 

EGGS— The market is shading off under increas- 
ing supplies and buyers haggling for still lower 
figures. 

FLOUR— The market is steady. The demand 
is fair. 

WHEAT— For the first three days of the week 
under review, trading in sample parcels was quiet 
owing to the adjournment of the Produce Exchange. 
On yesterday fair business was done. Holders ap- 
pear very firm, only letting go when compelled to 
do so. In futures, trading yesterday and to-day 
was fair. The following are to-day's Call Board 
sales : 

Morning Session: Buyer 1890—200 tons, $1.31 5^; 
too, $1.31. Buyer season — 200 tons, $1.42^. 
Buyer 189 1 — 300 tons, $1.48^; 700, $1.49 ^ ctl. 
Afternoon Session: Buyer 1890 — 200 tons, $1.31. 
Buyer season — 400 tons, $1.43: 200, $1,435^; 1300, 
$i.43M; 900, $1.43^^. Buyer 1891—200 tons, 
$i.49H; 100. $i.49>4; 100, $i.49M ^ ctl. 



Market Information. 

Produce Becelpta. 

Receipts of produce at this port for the week end- 
ing Dec. 291b, were as follows: 



Flour, qr. sks. 
Wheat, ctls. . 
Barley, " . . 
Rye '• .. 
Oats " .. 
Corn " . . 
•Butter " . . 

do bxs . . 

do bbis . . 

do kegs . . 

do tubs . . 

do M bxs . . 
tCheese, ctls. 

do bxs . . 



. 100,619 Middlings, sks... 2526 
293.923 Alfalfa, "... 543 
. 17.177 Chicory, bbls.. 200 
216 Brooracorn bdls.. 865 

- S.437 Hops, bis 

. 11,160 Wool, " 5 

407 Hay, tons 1,150 

314 Straw •• 44 

Wine, gals 133,700 



Brandy, 
Raisins, bxs. 



Eggs, doz 35.360 Mustard, 

do " Eastern. 44,750 Almonds, 

Beans, ctls 343 Peanuts, 

Potatoes, sks .... 34,072 Popcorn, 



19,820 
4.578 

51 1 Honey, cs 520 

281 Walr.uts, sks. 
3 Flaxseed, " . 



Onions, " 

Bran , " 

Buckwheat " 

'Overland 654 ctls. 



1,716 Beet sugar, bbls. 
14,863 do do sks,... 



3' 
1.523 

22 
370 
43 1 

30 
300 



tOverland 845 ctls. 
Cereals. 

Owing to adjoiirnment of the Produce Exchange, 
the local wheat market has been very dull, barely 
enough doing to afford quotations. Home receipts 
continue quite light, but receipts from up north were 
free. In this State there is no decided disposition to 
meet buyers' views, although the latter claim that 
with a light supply of tonnage the offerings are 
ample. But there is no doubt they would no be 



were Oregon and Washington to hold back supplies. 
It looks as if the majority of farmers in Western 
Washington and Western Oregon are forced to sell, 
having placed themselves in the power of moneyed 
shylocks. The elevator system up north gives to 
unscrupulous persons the reins to drive any kind of 
bargain desired by a grain ring. All ring records 
are such as to warrant the assertion that the bargain 
was against wheat growers. 

Silver has fallen in London, and in sympathy, 
wheat has declined; and still speculators and Shy- 
locks say that the free coinage of silver with its at- 
tending higher price would benefit only mine- 
owners. 

There are several disengaged vessels in port, 
against none two weeks ago. 

The weather has been of the best for outdoor 
work. Owing to heavy rains last winter, the ground 
was soaked down to a greater depth than for several 
years, and consequently it is affirmed that good 
crops can be grown next year with light but season- 
able rains. 

Barley has ruled fairly firm under moderate re- 
ceipts and a fair demand. Oregon and Washington 
sent us more than in the preceding week. The sup- 
ply in California is light, hardly enough to meet 
home requirements, consequently receipts from up 
north are welcomed by buyers. The Hawaiian 
Islands continue to draw freely, with rolled barley 
making neatly as large a showing in the shipments 
as does whole grain. There will be a large acreage 
seeded this season to barley, consequently seed bar- 
ley will be required in localities where the crop was 
light. 

Oats show continued strength under light receipts 
and small supplies to draw from. The demand is 
fair, notwithstanding high prices restrict some feed- 
ers. 

Corn is still coming in freely, causing a shaving 
off in prices. The demand is of an offish character. 
Rye and buckwheat are unchanged. 

Feedstuff 

The demand for ground feed has held steady — 
about equal to the receipts. If the rains yesterday 
and last night are followed by milder weather, natu- 
ral feed, in a short time, will be so abundant as to 
considerably curtail the feeding of ground feed. 

The receipts of hay are still light, causing a steady 
market to obtain. The supply in the country is 
light, but the fear that mild weather may set in at 
any time causes feeders and dealers not to anticipate 
their wants. With mild weather, grass will make a 
good start and excellent pasturage would soon fol- 
low. If the present rains are succeeded by severe 
cold weather there will be an increased call for hay 
and all kinds of feedstuff. 

Frulta. 

The receipts of oranges are increasing, causing a 
slight shading in prices. Choice ripe thin-skinned 
are given preference by buyers. Rough thick- 
skinned will be again discriminated against. Con- 
sumers have not taken hold freely; this no doubt is 
due to apples being in liberal stock and given pref- 
erence by consumers. Limes and lemons are in 
light stock, but the demand is slow. 

Apples continue to come in freely, yet the market 
holds up well. Taking receipts as a whole, 
they average in quality better than for years past. 
This speaks well for orchardists. With more atten- 
tion given to pruning, cultivation and keeping trees 
free from pests, the fruit will continue to improve, 
which will make poor stock still more unsalable. 

Oregon is sending us larger quantities of apples 
than it did last season. 

Winter Nelis pears are not worth quoting. 

In dried fruits there is absolutely nothing new to 
report, and probably will not be until well into Feb- 
ruary. 

Raisins are slow of sale. Quotations are more or 
less nominal. 

Vesetablea. 

Garden truck is in light supply. The southern 
part of the Stale still supplies this market with early 
spring vegetables, for which quotations are more or 
less nominally high, changing according to the de- 
mand and supply. 

Onions are In better supply, but the market holds 
steady. Choice good keepers are wanted. The 
crop the next season, it is said, will be large. 

Potatoes are barely steady under free receipts and 
liberal supplies to draw from. Large speculators 
in this city are working off their holdings. New 
potatoes are making a better showing, but, as yet, 
receipts do not justify quoting sales. Sweet pota- 
toes are generally in poor condition. Choice good 
keepers fetch top prices. 

Uve-aiock. 

Attention is still paid to holiday stock. The dis- 
play of meats this year was never equaled in this 
city. Bullocks, hogs and mutton sheep corn-fatted 
to perfection. At Sampson's market in Oakland, 
two hogs were killed— one weighed over iioo lbs. 
and the other over 900 lbs. He bought the hogs from 
a Contra Costa farmer and fattened them himself. 
These were the largest the writer saw the past 
Christmas. The offerings of bullocks are still free. 
Mutton sheep are firm, as are hogs. More of the 
latter are being put into packed than for years past. 
Horses and milch cows are unchanged. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per centl: 

HOGS — On foot, light grain fed, 4J^(g4Kc V Tb; 
dressed, 7@8c ^ lb.; heavy, 4@45ic t9 lb.; 
dressed. by^@^%c^Xb. Stock hogs, 3@3 M c V lb. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 7(g— c ^ lb. ; grass fed, extra, 
to. ; first quality, S5<@6c ^ lb.: second 
quality 4M@5C ^ R>-; ^^'"^ quality, 3}<c@4M >$ 
Va. ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3C ^ lb. 

VEAL— Small, 8@9C ^?lb.; large, 6®7'Ac 

MUTTON— Wethers, 7c ^ lb.; ewes, 6}^c Jfi lb.; 
lamb, spring, S@<)C. 

MlacellaneouB. 

Exports by sea the past week aggregate as fol- 
lows: Flour, bbls. Central America, 6066; Panama, 
378; Hilo, 300; Kahului, 400. Wheat, ctls, Hull. 
56.914; Dunkirk, 61,500; Antwerp, 127,790; Cork, 
33,717. Barley, rolled, lt)s, Hilo, 97,735. Beans, 
lbs, Victoria, 3200; Mexico, 6121; Central America, 
21,554; Hilo, 1980; Honolulu, 1536. Apples, bxs, 
Mexico, 872. Corn, ctls. Central America, 1019. 
Dried fruits, lbs, Mexico, 2115; Central America. 
1317; Honolulu, 2400. Wine, gals, Mexico, 1867; 
New York, 52,248; Washington, loio; Central 
America, 600. Kaisins, bxs, Mexico, 205; Central 



America 417. Potatoes, sks, Mexico, 541; Ceutral 
America, 335. Brandy, gals, New York, 145; Provi- 
dence, R. I., 150. 

Poultry has held up well, considering the heavy 
receipts. More fowls were bought this Christmas 
than ever before, which speaks well for the condi- 
tion of all classes. Last winter the city was full of 
idle workmen ; this winter there are very few here. 

Game is in light supply, but the rains may bring 
in more on the various hunting grounds which will 
cause hunters to send more into market. 

Beans are barely steady. There appear to be 
strong buyers for large desirable parcels. 

In hops there is nothing doing. 

Wool is dull, with no important change, if any, 
expected until after the turn of the year. 

Nu s are easier under a slower demand. 

Honey is very firm at full prices. 

From the Commercial News of Dec. 30th the fol- 
lowing summary of tonnage movement is compiled: 
On the way to 1890. 1889 

San Francisco 275 433 1^9 664 

San Diego 12,676 11,368 

San Pedro 7 478 2,735 

Oregon _ 32,341 25 960 

Puget Sound 38,526 15.255 

, Totals 364.454 254,979 

Injxjrt at 

San Francisco, disengaged 10,734 7.864 

" engaged for wheat 47,941 83,739 

San Diego 4. 250 "| 

Sin Pedro _ 2,009 1 ■•476 

Coluriibia River 12,948 J 

Puget Sound 

Totals 77,882 93.079 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From luly r, 1890, to Dec. 24, 1890, the following 
are the exports from this port: 1890. 1889. 

Wheat, ctls 5,859,269 6,233,523 

Flour, bbls 567,116 5463^2 

Barley 176,369 815,865 

Domestio Prodnoe. 



Bztra oholoe Id good itaokagee fetch ao adTanco 00 top 
Qaotatioua, while very poor grades wU leea than tlie lower 
iiaoutloas. Ti:e.sdat, Dec. 30, 1890 

BEAjrS AND PEAS. 1 do pa|>«r shell 

Bayo, ctl 3 50 @ 4 00 iAlmoDds, ha Bhl. 

" - — - 00 I Softahell 14 Si 



Butter 2 75 

Pea 

Bed 

Pink 

8ms U White 
UzDa 

Fid Pesii.Hkeye 1 65 
do ffTfpD .... 2 50 

do NLes 1 00 

Split 4ii 

BROOM CORN. 
Choice toEitra60 00 (d 75 00 
Fair to Good. .45 00 w 55 00 

Poor 4O0O(te — 

CHICORY. 
OaUfomla 5i(^ 




3 00 I Paper shull. 

2 90 iBrazU 

Pecans malL.. 

do large 

Peanuts , 

Filberts 

Hickory 

Chestouts 12 ^ 

Pine Qiits 7 < 

ONIONS 
Silver Bkiu .... 2 CO C<i 3 25 

POTATOKh 
Early Bode, ska. <iri @ 1 OO 

Timialea 1 10 (o» 1 MS 

Rl»er Reda 1 10 (tf I 3J 




Ofrman 6 6J:BurbankB W @ 1 2'. 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. |_dii Salluaa... 1 30 col 1 5) 



10 at 

13 @ 
13 @ 
13 @ 

11 % 



BUTTSR 

CaL Poorto(air.lM5 @ 

do good to choice 32^.^ 
do Giltedged... 3!< @ 

do pickled 27J(SJ 

do in kegs 221(a 

do Creauiery rolls 4U <^ 
do Eastern tubs 30 ^ 
do do dairy ... 2U @ 
rHEcai. 

Oal. choice mild 12 @ 
dofair to good 
do kIU edged.. 

Young America 

N. York Cream. 

Western 

SOGH. 

Cal. ranch, dor. 32i« - 
do do sel'cted m 35 

do. store 27; a — 

Eastern, fresh.. 25 ig 27 i 
do selected.. — @ 30 
FEED. 

Bran, ton 22 00 @23 00 

Feedmeal 27 00 @2it 00 

Or'd Barley 51 50 S33 no 

Middlings 24 00 S2C 00 

Oil Cake Meal. .25 nn <827 TO 
MaiibattanKoud^lOOR.8 7 50 
HAY. 

Compressed ... .13 00 m& 00 
Wheat, per ton. 12 00 ^ai7 00 
do choice..., IS U) & 
'it 



'Jersey liliies... 1 00 (or I 25 

283|Sweet ska 1 50 uc 3 UO 

375 POULTRY AND QAM K 

40 Hens, doz 5 00 « 6 50 

32i!Roo8ters.old.... 4 50 S 5 .■>0 
28 ! do young 4 50 (3 6 50 

41 BrolleiB. small 3 01 d 4 00 
32i do large 4 50 (f( - 
27! Fryers 4 50 ^ 5 UO 

iDucks. tame 4 01 (ie 6 .50 

13 I do large 6 00 (4 7 .'.0 



Oeeee. pair 1 50 2 OO 

Turkeys, Oobl'r. 15 & 165 
Turkeys, Hem. . 15 S IBJ 

do dressed lii (a 

Pigeons 1 75 2 50 

Etabblt8,d02.... 1 25 @ 1 fO 

Hare 1 .VI § 1 75 

yuail.. 1 25 (<r 1 50 

Bnipe, Rnglisb. 1 75 i/t 2 CO 
do .lack.... 75 (« — 
Ducks, Mallard 4 GO (» 5 03 
do Canv'sbock 5 1 '.A 00 

do Sprigs 2 Ou (<r 3 00 

do Teal 1 50 trt 2 00 

do Widgeon... 1 60 ot — 

do Small I 25 in - 

Geeae, Gray 3 50 "r — 

do white I fO «i — 

liraot 1 5') vt 2 00 

Hiyukcrs 4 00 a 5 00 

ma FOOD 

MauhatUu, VS. 12 (it - 
PRDVlHIONt- 



WhoatandOatel? 03 ^15 60 

Wild Oata 12 OO (315 00 'Oal.Baoor.be'ry.lb lOtCa 

Tame do 12 09 (^15 00 I Medliun . . . . 12 # 

Barley '.< 00 (513 00 ! Light 13 m 

Barley and Oata 10 00 (dl4 00 |Lard 9(3 



Alfalfa 12 00 (313 50 

Straw bale 70 ^ 80 

FLOUR. 

Extra, OityMiUs 4 10 @ 4 25 
do Co try Mills 4 00 S 4 25 

Supertlne 3 00 ^ 3 50 

GRAIN. ETC 

Barley, feed, ctl. 1 42i@ 1 47 i 
do Choice 1 50 @ - 
do Brewing... 1 52Sg - 
do do Choice. . 1 55 ^ — 
do do giltedg'd 1 60 |e - 
Chevalier chce 1 57'^ 1 02' 
do com to good 1 4U w 1 52! 

Buckwheat 1 40 (3 I 65 



Oal. Smli'dBeef 11 

Hams, Cal 1213 

do Eastern... 13i@ 
SEEDS. 

Alfalfa <i (f 

Canary 3 @ 

Clover, Bed 0(3 

White I71@ 

Cotton K @ 

Flaxseed S m 

Hemp 4 @ 

ItalianRyeGraas 10 & 

Perennial .... 7 @ 

Millet, Gorman . 5 @ 
do Common . . 



11 



lOi 
li 
13 
14 



'3 I 32'. Mustard, yellow 1 K) « 
■ ■ - iii 

2^1 



Com, White.... „ , , „ - 

Yellow, large... - S 1 30 ' do Brown 

do, small - @ 1 32' Rape 

Oata, mllllug.... 1 90 @ 1 95 Ky Blue Grass. 
Surprise 1 90 @ 2 00 8we< t V. Grasa 



Oholoe teed,ch'c 1 M 

do good. 1 80 @ — 

do fair I 70 S - 

do (iray 1 80 S I 92i 

do Black 1 70 C3 1 90 

do do for seed 2 10 (rf 2 45 

Rye 1 27it<* 1 332 Crude, lb. 

wheat, mlUlog. o-..__j 

Gilt edged.... 1 42i@ 

do Choice 1 40 @ 

do fair to good 1 35 ^ 
Shipping, cho'oe 1 35 @ 

do good. 1 

do fahr 1 30 @ 

Sonora 1 271@ 1 31J Cala'v & K thTl. 

HIDES. Oregon Eastern 

Dry Ight to h'vy 10 (3 

Salted b@ 

HOPb. 

Oregon. 1890 30 (3 

Cal 1890 Choice 37i(3 
do Fair to O'd 30 @ 

NUTS- JOBBINO. 

Walnuts, Oal. lb i& 
do Oh'ce 10 (g 



Orchard 
Hungarian.. . 
Lawn 17 tS 

Mesqult 7 a 

Timothy 6 @ 

TALLOW. 

3 <9 

Refined 6 it 

1 WOOL -8pkino,1» 
Humb't\Meu'cino 19 <9 

Sac'to valley 15 " 

Free Mountain. 18 
S Joa.iuiu valley 
do muuotalD. 




11 do valley 
8t So'n Coast, def.. 
So'n Coast, free. 

40 K>LL— 1890. 

40 North'n, choice lO 

36 do defective 14 (3 

Mountain Free 13 (3 

9 S.Joaquin, def.. 9 

— Southern do... 9 «v 



18i 
Iii 
154 
III 
lit 



Rope. 



Baling, Duplei, lb 

Manilla, lb 

Twine, for hops, balla, tarred, lb, Manilla. . . . 
'• " grape vine, balls, lb "' ... 

" •* " coils, lb " .... 

spring, lb 



... 10 
13 

...15 
... 141 
... 14t 
16 



•' binder (650 ft. to lb), lb H 

Duplex twine 3c par lb lea*. 



Jan. 3, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



Dried Fruits, Etc. 



The quotations given below are for average prices paid. 
BoniethiDg very fancy fetch an advance on the highest quo- 
tations while poor sells slightly below the lowest quotations. 

Prices named, unless otherwise s'^ecifi d, are for fruit In 
sacks. Add for 5U-tb. boxes ic per tb., ajd for 25-tb boies 
{c to Ic per th. 

Apples, pun-dried, quarters, common 6i@ — 

" " " prime % ~ 

'* " choice 8 @ — 

*• '* sliced, common 7i@ — 

'* " " prime — 8@ — 

' " " choice 8i@ — 

" Kvap. hlwanhpd. Hug fin ib hoxw lOft"* llj 

A.pricot8. sun-dried, unbleached, commou 8 @ — 

" " prime 10 fa — 

'* " *' chi»ice 12 @ — 

'* " bleached, prime Iii ® — 

•' " " choice 17 @ — 

*' " fancy 18 W — 

■' Evap. cbuice, in boxes @ — 

fancy. " 19 fct - 

Figs, suD-dried, black 3@ 4 

** '* white ~ @ — 

" *' " wAflhed 

" *• ** fancy 8 W 10 

" " " pressed y@ n 

" Smyrna boxes 12 '(f 14 

do Backs 10 @ 12A 

Grapes, sun-dried, stemless 3 <0 34 

* " imntHniraHd . ., i ^ 3 

Nectarines. Red. sun-dried @ 13 

" evaporated, in boxes 14 

" white, sun-dried ^ . . . 12 # 

" evaporated 17 19 

Peaches, sun-dried, unpeeled, common, bleached @ — 

•' " " primp, " ^ — 

" *' *' choice, " 13 @ — 

" '* fancy ^ ~ 

" evaporated " choice ^ ~ 

" " fancy. 16 @ — 

*' sun-dried, peeled, prime, bleached 19 @ — 

" ** '* choice . 22 @ — 

" " '* fancy.. 21 ® — 

" evaporatud, " in boxes, choice 25 @ — 

'* *• " fancy 27 ft* — 

Pears, sun-drted, quarters 7^ 9 

** " sUced 9 @ 10 

'* evaporated, " in boxes 10 @ Hi 

" ring " 12 @ 13 

Plums, pitted, sun-dried 9i@ II 

" evap. io >K)xe8, choice 11 @ 12 

fancy 13 @ 14 

unpftted, 3i '< 5 

Prunes, Cal. French, ungraded sizes. , 9 @ IJ 

" " " graded " 90 to 100 S@ - 

' " *■ 80 to 90 9 'tt - 

" *' 70 to 80.... 9i^ - 

" • 60 to 70. . . 10 @ - - 

" .Wto fiO. .. ]l (& — 

" 40 to 50 12 (ct ~ 

Fancy shII for more inouHy 

RAI8IN8. 

Halves, quarters and eighthB. 25, 60 and 75 cuuts higher 
respectively than whole box prices. 

London Layers, choice It? bx «) 75 2 00 

fancy. " 2 10 O 2 25 

[i»yers, IP bx 1 25 @ - 

Loose Muscatels, commou, -IS bx 1 15 @ 1 35 

*• choice, " I 50 @ 1 75 

fancy, " 1 80 (a I 90 

Unstemmed " in sack-t, lb 4 ^ 6 

Stemmed " '* " 4 (it 7 

SeedlesB '* " " & <^ 7 

^ 20-Ib hi I 15 @ 1 25 

" Sultanas, unhleacbed. in bxs 1 15 ^ 1 25 

" " bleached " 1 25 1 30 

CALIFORNIA HONEY. 

Comb, dark, 2-tb. frames, 6U-lb. cases, ^ tb 5 ^ 6 

amber, " " cs. new " 7 ^ 



PAOIPIO COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication In this paper by officer In charge of branch Signal office, Division of the Pacific] 



white 



Itli 



Extracted, darli, 5-gal. cans, 2 cana to case, ^ lb. 
" an)i>er, '* " " 

*' white, » ti <• _ 

Uomb, 2-tjnH. 2 do/., to case, ^doz 

Kxtracted, " ** 

" 4-lb. tins, I doz. " 

iteeawax. PHr pound 



11 (a 

13J<n' 

- @ 

- @ 



22i@ 36 



Fruits and Vegetables. 



Oholce selected, 
quotations, wliile 
quotations. 
Bananas, bunch 1 

Cranberries 10 

Limes, Mei 4 

do tOalifornia 1 
do * do 
Lemous,Gal.,bx. 1 
do Sicily, bx.. 6 
do Malaga.... 7 
OranKes. 
do *Winter8. . 1 
do *Vacaviile. . 1 
do tRiverside . 2 
Seedling Oranges, 
do tRiverside. . 2 
do tLofi Angeles 2 
Njivel Oranges, 
do tRiverside . 3 
do tLoB Angeles 2 
Pineapples, doz. 4 
Pears, bx 



In KOod paokagee, fetch an advance on top 
very poor gradea sell less than the lower 

Tuesday, Dec. 30, 1890. 
50 @ 2 75 Apples, com box 40 (a 50 



50 (ecu 00 
50 @ 5 50 
60 «* 1 75 
50 @ 75 
00 @ 3 00 
00 @ 6 50 
00 @ 8 50 

25 @ - 
00 (9 1 25 
00 (» 2 50 

50 ffl 3 25 

00 @ 2 75 

50 @ 4 50 
SO @ 3 50 
00 @ 5 00 
60 @ 1 00 



do good 60 @ 80 

do choice.. .. 1 00 ^ 1 60 
do Red Iix . . . . I 50 (•* 2 25 
Grapes, box .... 60 @ I CO 
Lady apples, box 1 00 (» 1 26 

VBOETABLES. 
Okra, dry. lb. . . . 10 m 17-1 
Parsnips, ctl. ... 1 25 @ — 
Peppero, dry, lb 12 @ 20 

Turnips, ctl 75 @ — 

Beets, 8k — @ 1 00 

Cabbage, 100 Oia 50 @ 61 

Carrots, sk 30 (3 45 

Marrowfat,ton 12 00 @15 00 

Hubbard 15 00 (S)20 00 

Garliclti 8 (a 10 

Aeparagus, lb.. 20 (a 25 

* Small box. t Large box. 



Importation of Horses to Los 
Angeles. 

The arrival at Loa Angeles daring Cbrist- 
mas week of two oars of imported atallicus by 
Holbert & Conger, importers and dealers, adds 
another lot of grand sires for the use of Cali- 
fornia breeders. There was one oar of En- 
glish Shire draft horses and one oar of Cleve- 
land Bay and German ooaoh horses. 

Among the number they have a German 
ooaoh horse, which is perhaps the only one on 
this ooast. He was bonght from the Govern- 
ment stud in Germany and is claimed to have 
no eqaal as a coach horse in America to-day. 

The German coach horse received marked 
attention at the American Horse Show in Chi- 
cago last fall, and was prononnced the coming 
great coach horse for America. This firm in- 
vites the attention of first-olass breeders. A 
very interesting article on the German coach 
horse by A. B. Holbert was published in the 
Rural of July 12, 1890, and it Is an acqai. 
■ition to have such an excellent breed intro- 
daced into the State. 



Always Take a Receipt. 

Subscribers to this paper are earnestly requested to 
take a receipt lor every payment made on subscription, 
no matter how small the amount or to whom paid. We 
use printed receipts, with stubs attached, to prevent 
mistakes, through carelessness (or other reason), by 
agents or others. For our mutual interests take a re- 
eipt, whether you preserve it or not. 



T. D. MORRIS. ARua Caliente, Cal. Fine Poultry, 
Bronze Turkeys, Toulouse and Embden Oeese, etc. 



Olympla. 



Portland. 




fp 






a 


B 
■e 


p. 


V 








cr 








Cb 


.00 


36 


Nw 




.00 


52 


8W 


Cy. 


.00 


46 


Nw 


CI 


.00 


48 


N 


Cy. 


.00 


38 


8W 


Fy. 


.48 


46 


S 


Kn. 


.^8 









Eureka. 


W 

a 


m 
g 
•a 


Wind . 


Weath 










.02 


52 


N 


Oy. 








.... 


.00 


50 


N 


CI. 


.02 


54 


S 


Cy. 


~!04 









Red Bluff. 


Sacramento. 


58 

ED 

5' 


Temp 


Wind ... 


j Weather . 


Rain 


Temp 


d 
a. 


S- 


.00 


42 


N 


Fy. 


.00 


42 


8 £ 


Oy. 


.00 


48 


SW 


CI. 


.00 


40 


N 


Cy. 


.00 


SO 





PC 


.00 


40 


N 


Cy. 


00 


50 


S E 


PC 


.00 


49 


S 


Cy. 


00 


48 


S E 


CI. 


.00 


44 


N 


CI. 


.00 


46 


S E 


Oy, 


.00 


46 


S E 


Cy. 


.00 








00 









S.Francisco. 










a 


■5 


E 
S< 














■ 




a 


.CO 


46 


Nw 


P c 


.00 


48 


N 


Cy. 


.00 


4C 


N 


Cy. 


.00 


50 


N 


Cy 


00 


52 


Nw 


01. 


.00 


52 


8 E 


Cy. 


.00 









Fresno. 



42 S 

I 

42 W 



00 



Keeler. 



OD 46 



46 



CI. 
CI. 
Cy 
SW Cy. 



Los Angeles. 



.01 . 



San Diego. 



Explanation. 01. for clear; Cy , cloudy; Fr , fair; Cm., calm; indicates too small to measure. Temperature wind and weather at 5 P. M. (Pacific Standard time) with amount 
of rainfall In the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. P C, partly cloudy. Rn , rain. 



List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Oo., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 

FOR THE WEEK ENDING DEC. 23, 189O. 

443,172. — Baling Press— Geo. B. Allen, San 
Leandro, Cal. 

443,130. — Bill File — Fay Butler, Oakland, Cal. 

443,315. — Window Shade and Screen Fix- 
ture — Thomas Chope, S. F. 

'443,204.— Device for Inducing Full Res- 
piration — C. C. Davis, Los Angeles, Cal. 

443,394. — Lawn-Sprinkler — R. Franken, Po- 
mona, Cal. 

443,445.— Seaming Machine.— M. Jensen, As- 
toria, Or. 

443,178.— FRyiT-PiCKER's Knii-'e — T. H, Jor- 
dan, Los Angeles, Cal. 

443.367.'— Wave Motor — L. M. Lloyd, San 
Buenaventura, Cal. 

443,397. — Hat-Box— A. C. Mack, Portland, Or. 

443,458. — Canal-Digging Machine — McMul- 
len, Wood & Krusi, S. F. 

443,168. — Propulsion of Vessels — John 
Schroeder, S. F. 

443,151. — Water-Wheel — L. M. Sharps, 
Lake View, Or. 

443,171.— Concentrator — James Tulloch, An- 
gels Camp, Cal. 

NOTB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co , in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Ooast 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible lime. 



Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 




Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate acquaintance with the aabjects of 
inventions in our own community, and our 
most extensive law and reference library, con- 
taining ofiBcial American and foreign reports, 
files of Bcientifio and mechanical publications, 
etc. All worthy inventions patented throagh 
our Agency will have the benefit of an illastra- 
tion or a description in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Pre.ss. We transa.tt every branch of 
Patent business, and obtain Patents in all coun- 
tries which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and Foreign Patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Ooast have 
been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while onr advantages for Pacific 
Coast inventors are far superior. Advice and 
Oircnlars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 
220 Market St., Elevator, 12 Front St., S. F 

Telephone No. 658. 
a. t. dewey. w. b. ewer. geo. h. strong, 



ORANGE 



A practical treatise by T. A. Garbt 
giving the results of long experi- 
ence In Southern California. 10f 
Pill Tlinr P*KBB> olo'b bound. Sent post-pali: 
I. Ill I IIKr at lednced price of 76 cts. per copy 
UUt. * bTT>i:WKY4C0., Pnbl|gher8.8. R 



Raisin,Fruit and 
Grain Lands 

At Eitremely Low Prices, 



Seven miles S. W. of Tulare city. 164 acres of rich land 
is offered for sale, with well-improved homestead, large 
flowing artesian well, reservoir, alfalfa, orchard (seven 
years old), pasturage, one of the healthiest and most 
comfortable seven-room, two-story residences In Tulare 
valley. Must be seen to be appreciated. Will be sold 
soon at a very low price and extraordinary reasonable 
terms to a good purchaser. Some 320 acres of good and 
well-cultivated land adjoining is also offered low. 

Address E. M. Dewey, Publisher, Portprville, Tulare 
Co.; A. T. Dewey, 220 Market St, S. F.; or call on Oapt. 
Thos. H. Thompson, Tulare City, Cal. 



THE CALIFORNIA 

STUMP PULLER 

In its improved condition is now universally ad- 
mitted to be the most practical, powerful and rapid- 
working machine in America, and the only machine 
in existence that can be successfully operated on hill 
land. The prejudice existing against stump pullers, 
the result of the many failures with machines of this 
class, should not deter land owners from investigat- 
ing the merits of this machine, as it has been de- 
signed strictly to meet Pacific Coast wants and con- 
ditions, being entirelj; free from the defects that 
have made other machines failures, and every ma- 
chine is fully warranted. Illustrated descriptive 
catalogue sent free on application. Address 

GEO. HARVEY, 

547 BBANNAN STREET, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO. CAL. 



VINE PRUNBRS, ATTENTION ! 




GRAPE BRUSH RAKE. 

With whirh one horse and a boy can do the work of eight or 
ten men in gathering and l>unching the pruning.s ready for 
loading on wagon. Its cost will ho saved in one season's 
work on 65 acre.? of Tines. Address TEU MAN, HOOKER 
6 CO., 427 Market Street, San Francisco. 



Catalogue of Seeds, 

Containing 100 pages of matters of Interest to the 
Farmer and Gardener, with illustrations and deecrip- 
tions of Garden, Field and Flower Seeds. Send for 
Catalogue to 

COLORADO SEED HOUSE, 

BARTELDES & CO., 

1516 to 1522 Wazae St., DENVER, COLO. 
Mention this Paper. 



FoBlirjaiiSioekMi 



Niles's new 
manual and 
r ef e r e nee 
hook on sub- 
j e cts con- 
nected with 

successful Poultry and Stock Raising on thePaciflc Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely Illustrated with 
handsome, life-like Illustrations of the different varieties 
olPonltrv and Live-Stock. Price, postpsrtd 60 ots. Ad* 
dress PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Office, Sao Francisco, Cal. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 
8AN FRANCISCO, OAL. 

INOORPORATBD APRIli, 1871. 




Anthorized Capital fl.OOO.OOU 

Capital paid Hp and Reserve Fund 800,000 
Dividends paid to Stookholders.. 6<97,SOO 
OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I.e. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Sliver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

July 1, 1889. A. MONTPELLIER. Manager. 



FRANCIS SMITH & OO. 

Manufacturers of 

Sheet Iron and Steel 



ALL SIZES. 

130 fieale Street, San Francisco, Cal 

Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe oc 
ground. All kinds of Tools supplied for making Pipe. 
Estimates given. Are prepared for coating all sizes ol 
Pipe with a composition of Coal Tar and Asphaltum. 

oTh. EVANS & CO. 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS), 

110 and 112 Beale Street, S. F. 

MACHINE WORKS, 
Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

and all kinds of MACHINERY. 

•-d 

m 
m 






THE KRIEBEL ENGINE 

And Plain Vertical Boiler. 
Sloanted on a Combined Base. 

A very Cheap and Economical 
Engine. 

Made of the very best material. 
2 & S HORSEPOWER. 

Write for Prices. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



BEES AND HONEY. 



lid to ibf Largest Bee-Mlve Factory in the vp. 

ofCLEANINCS 



orld 
IN 

BEE CULTURE (« 

#1 illusl'il Boml-monthlyl, 
and a 44 pp illiiH. OataloKuc 
ofBEE KEEPERS' 
SUPPLIES. (r?0"f 
_ B Oof Bee Culture 

lyclopedia of 400 pp. and .300 cuts. Price $1.25 

n this paper. A.I. ROOT, Medlria.O. 




TOKOLOGYlr-r" 



■ r.AniEs Gnins 

- — — _ . e K. Nlnrkliam, JI. D. 

■The very host hook lov AGENTS. S.i.nplo papeafree. 
Prepiud»2.76.A.ll.StuckliamAto..ll7La8alleSt.,Chlc.go. 



THE JUDSON RABBIT-PROOF WIRE & PICKET FENCE. 



CHEAPER and BETTER than Ever. Their 2-ft. high 3-cabIe 
fence has taken the tratle. Farmers put barbed wire above 

in^S^v^^A*^^ SFSi^.f^^'^ ^^^'^^ '^an be made 

Rabbits cannot eet through. Hogs cannot 

fence colored RED by bolUng In a chemical solution that preeerves the wood. ^Address JUDSON MANUFACTURING OOMPANY'?4%nd °e'F?emon°t°Stf|et/aln FraniUca 



18 



f ACIFie R.URAb f RESS. 



[Jan. 3, 1891 



CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE & ST. PAUL 
RAILWAY. 

Electric-Lighted and Steam-Heated Vestibuled 
Trains between Omaha, Council Bluffs and Chi- 
cago. 

Steam-Heated and Electric- Lighted Vestibuled 
Trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Finest Dinmg Cars m the World. 

P'ree Reclining Chair C»ts between Omaha and 
Chicago. 

Fast Mail Line between Chicago, Milwaukee, St. 
Paul and Minneapolis. 

Transcontinental Route between Omaha, Council 
Bluffs and Chicago. 

5700 miles of road in Illinois, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Missouri, South and North Dakota. 

Everything First-Class. 

First-Class People patronize First-Class Lines. 
Ticket Agents everywhere sell Tickets over the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 
W. T. ALLEN, 

Pacific Coast Passenger Agent, 
San Francisco. Cai.. 
C)^ee, A'o. Jj8 Montgomery St., under Occident 
al Hotel. 

Oar Agents, 

Our Friinm can do much In aid o( oar paper and the 
cause o( practical knowledge and science, Dy assisting 
Agents In their labors ot canvassing, by lending thelt In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
hut worthy men. 

H. KiiLLST — Wodoc and Lassen Cos. 

Oio. WiLSOK— Sacramento Go. 

J. P. tJi iNRTTK— San Krancisco. 

J. C. UOAO— San Francisco. 

M. E. DobAN— San Francisco. 

Samcrl CLipy— Creston, (:»l. 

J. H. Crohsmah— San Bernardino Co. 

Mark T. Sk kat,— Contra Coeta Co. 

F. W. K SAP!' — Amador Co. 

Okordk EVA.V8- Sinta Clara Co. 

Mks. M. E. Di'DLKY— Ventura Co. 

ANDREW Rkid— Monterey Co. 

n. F. BkI/T— Shasta Co. 

Frank S. CnAPiN— Colusa Co. 

Helen B Kiko— San Benito Co. 

Wm. M. Hilleart— Oregon. 

Wm. HobDKR— Oregon. 

R. O. HiTSToH— Montana. 

H. G. Parsoks— Nevada. 

John Simpson —Oregon. 

The Bteamabip America, bailt at Dundee for 
the National line of freight boats, and which is 
nearly ready for service, is 450 feet in length 
and is construoted of steel on the cellular 
doable-bottom principle. She has three 
decks of steel and engines of the triple-expan- 
sion type. 

Successful Patent Solicitors. 

As Dewey & Co. have been in the patent soliciting busi- 
ness on this Coast now for so many years, the Arm's name 
Is a well-known one. Another reason for its popularity 
is that a great proportion of the Pacific Coaat patents 
Issued by the Goveromont have been procured through 
their agency. They are, therefore, well and thcroughly 
pasted on the needs of the progressive industrial classes 
of this Coast. They are the best posted firm on what 
has been done in all' branches of industry, and are able 
to judge of what is new and patentable. In this they 
have a great advantage, which is of practical dollar and 
cent value to their clients. That this is understood and 
appreciated, is evidenced by the number of patents 
Issued through their Scibntifio Press Patent Agency (S. 
F,) from ^eek to week and vear to ve*r. 



Don't gaU to Write. 

Shoold this paper I>e received by any snbscrlber who 
does not want It, or beyond the time he intetidi to pay 
for it, let him not fall to write us direct to stop It A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish It, but U It is continued, through the failure .of the 
sabeoriber to notify ns to discontinue It, or some Irre' 
sponsible party requested to stop It, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time It is sent. Look cakkpdli,t 

AT THE LABEL ON TOUR PAPRR. 



'Immigration' has increased this year over 
that of 1889, The arrivals from Ireland, Kog- 
land and Germany have fallen off, while those 
from Italy, Russia and Sontbwestern Earope 
iiave largely Increased. 



$500,000 

To LOAN IN ANY AMOUNT AT THE VERY UJWEST 

market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands, A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 430 Cali- 
fornia St., San Fr^*nH«-n. 



$3,250,000 

To LOAN ON MORTGAGE ON RANCHES AND CITY 

real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALL, 508 California St., S. F. 



^eed^, Hapt;, tie. 



Arizona Everbearing Strawberry. 

BY PLANTING QUITE A NUMBER OF THE LEAD- 
ing varieties of Strawl>erry toge her for five years, 1 
have produced a variety unlike any of the former. 
I have picked the fruit daily since April 20th tu the 
present time, October 18th, and the vines are still full 
ot bloom and berries. Koots are long and stand the 
drouth well. The berries are large, fine flavor and high 
color, and resemble the Jessie In shape somewhat. I am 
prepared to furnish them in small lots at $1.60 per doz., 
postpaid. K. E. FARKINOTON, General Nurseryman, 
Phcsnix, Arizona. 



FRUIT TREES^FOR SALE. 

TRAGEDY PRUNES, YE^^RLINGS; EARLY CRAW- 
ford Peaches, \e«rling8; French Prunes. June buds. 
Call orin.juirc at 910 Filth Street, SACRAMENTO, CAL. 
INOLGSIDE NUKSEKY COMPANY. 



CITRUS AND DECIDUOUS TREES, 

PLANTS AND PALMS IN VAKIETY AT ALOHA 
NURSERIES, Penryn, Placer Co. ,Cal. A few French 
Frnns on Almond stock left. FEED C UILES, Manager, 



^eeds, |)|a|]t3, tic. 



BARREN HILL 

NURSERY, 



SPECIALTIES: 



NUTS. PRUNES & GRAPES. 



The largest and finest collection of " NUT-BEARING " 
TREES to be found in the United States and excelled 
nowhere in Europe- 
Headquarters ol the 

Proeparturlens, or Fertile Walnut, 

Introduced into California in 1871 by Folix Gillet; and 
also of the f^rcat market walnuts of ttie world, 

Mayette, Franquette and 
Parisienne, 

The " HARDIEST" walnut varieties linnwn, and which 
render walnut culture possible as far north as the State 
of Washington. 



lO VAUICTIES OF \VALNi;rS, 

11 A ARIETIES OK CHESTNUTS, 

9 VARIETIES OF PRUNES, 

241 VARIETIES OF GRAPES. 



APRIL CHERRIES, four varieties, the earliest kinds 
ever introduced In California. 
PEARS, APPLES, PLUMS, APRICOTS, etc., etc. 
ORANGES and LEMONS. 



GRAFTING THE WALNUT, 

By KELI.N GILLET of Nevada Cit.v, Cal., an Essay on the 
Different Modes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut; 
illustrated with eight cuts made after nature. 

Will be sent with descriptive catalogue to any address 
on the receipt of 25 cents in iiostage ttamps. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE AND PRICE 
LIST, illustrated with 20 cuts, sent free on application. 

FELIX GILLET, 

NEVADA CITY. . - OALIFOBNIA. 

SANTA^ROSA NURSERIES, 

R. W. BELLi, Proprietor, 

(Successor to L. Burbank). 

Still a Fair Quantity of PRUNES, though 
Selling Fast. 

A Superb Lot of Bartletts and Apples 

(on Whole Roots), 
Oherrles, Olives, Walnuts, Sbade Trees, 
Table and Raisin Orapes, &c., Stc. 



^v i ^iv^^'^ aays earlier than 

^rtt*ii»lXft'"-,c V niiy varleivtebtedatthe 
K GP^mOU'^CRA?*'' 11 AKrlcuifl Ex. Grounds 
» w m v.ru- - ^1 lifneva. N. Y. Color 
Kreenish white : pulp 
tt'Uiicr, sweet and de- 
licious. The only graiic 
that ranks llrNl both 1_ 
oarllncss and quality, 
tach vine sealed wlih 
otir rcplsiered trade- 
mark label. .Send for 
clrcuiai inK lurii" r information. Agents wauled 
Address STEPUtX IIOYT'S soSS, New Canaan, Ct 




TREES! TREES! 

AT 

VENTURA NURSERIES, 

300,000 Soft Shell English Walnuts and White Adriatic 
Figs a specialty. Price on application. 

O. P. COOK. 
Nurseries, (our miles east of Ventura 



20,000 Olive Trees 

MISSION, MANZ ANILLO, NEVADILLO & PICHOLINE. 
Write for prices. 

GEO. H. KUNZ. 

Third and K streets, SACKAMENTO. CAI,. 



WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS 

The undersigned has 10,000 one atid two-vear old trees 
ot this popuUr variety, which will be ready for next 
season's planting. 

The Knights Ferry White Adriatic is conceded by all 

be the best Fig produced in America. 

For prices and full particulars, address, 

H. R. SOHELL. 

Knights Ferry, Stanislaus Connty, Cal. 



A CHOICE LOT OF TWO AND THREE- YEAR-OLD 
Plchollne Olive Trees in open ground.^Low nrioes 
MRS. C. W. CRANE, 1117 Nineteenth St., Oakland, Ala- 
meda Co., Cat, or O. J. BACKUS,.61« Battery St., 8. F. ^ 



Established 1S63. 



J. P. Sweeney & Co. 

DEALERS IN 

GARDEN. FARM AND TREE 

ALFALFA AND ALL KINDS OF OTHER 

GRASSES AND CLOVER, 

TOP ONIONS, SEED POTATOES, ETC. 



409-411 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

(Send for Catalogue.) 



JOHN S. CALKINS' 

NURSERIES, 

POMONA. LOS ANGELES OO., 

CALIFORNIA. 

OLIVE TREES, 4 to 5^ FEET HIGH, 

SOFT-SHELL WALNUT, 

GUAVA. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES. SHRUB), Etc, 

Write for General Price List 



NAPA VALLEY NURSERIES. 

ESTABLISHED 1878. 

GENERAL NURSERY STOCK. 



Special attention to maf,;nirii>ent Htock of 



LEONARD COATES, 

NAPA, CAL. 
(Proprietor Saueal Fruit Farm.) 



OLIVES. 

400,000 OLIVES, 18 VARIETIES. 

20,000 

Budded OraDge and Lemon Trees. 

FOR SALE BY 

POMONA NDRSERT, 

Pomona. Los Angelas County, Cal. 

Write and get Prices. 



BCCAUSe THEV ARC 

THE BEST. 

D. M. Kf.rkv & Go's 
Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced 

SEED Annual] 



Fur 1891 will be mail 
Ito all applicants, and to 
^customers. It is better 
Every person using 
Fiaiver or Field 
should send for it. 
D. M. FERRY 
DETROIT. Ml 
[ Largest Secdsnnjii in 



d FREE! 

last season's J 
than ever. 
Garden, 
Seeds, 
Address 
& CO. 
CH. 

the world J 



MISSOURI NURSERY CO.. Louisiana, Mo. 

S aleam en \s:intt-(J; simrijil aids; mu^niticHiit outfit free, 

STARK NURSERIES, gJi^ll^rJiai^r^ 

Founded I s.l.>. Olfl**Mt in tliM West. l.nrucNl in the 
World. Hi:s*r of cveryihinK. >*<';irl,v ttiW SJiU'smen sell our 
Htock in .iliuo't pvi'ry Stat*; and Tfrrit^ir>- ; voliinu- of annual 
sales now exceeds that uf any othtT Nunnery. We noil 'lirect 
throngh our own wiiefimen. withnnt the aid of tree dealers or 
middlemen, and d'-Hif st-oc jc. freijgh t and jill c-harg ea paid, 

NO TREES m 

IHIH^^^H^^HHHHIIiHIHIHHBB r>nst and bear 
like wiiolerool trees; or like plum. prune Jimi "Mftree» 
on M'truirm. the Ih'-i plui.i st^M-lt Krown. ItlitlMiand other 
Nc%TiV4Hd Krnifwftty mn*.>; omninent.ilH, r«K»t#cT!ifti»— j 
everything, No larger stock in C & .Mu better. No cheaper.' 



JAPANESE TREE CO. 

(Formerly Japanese Tree Importing Co.) 

MAKE A SPECIALTY OF THE HAKDY, SEEDLESS 
Oonshiu Orange Trees so highly recommended by 
all the leading horticultural papers. N. B.— Our Man- 
ager, Mr. H. E. Amoore, who has lived 28 years In China 
and Japan, is now traveling there in search of new fruits. 
Address hi n at Yol<ohania, Japan. All kinds of Japanese 
and Domestic Fruit Trees. Order at once for winter and 
spring delivery. 



TEN AOBBS OF FINE FRUIT LAND 
for sale on lonfr time. This land is near Concord, 
Contra Oosta Co.. Oal., adjoining the large orL^hards of 
A. L. Bancroft, Webster Treat and others. The quality of 
tJie land 1ft first cla-sa, being a bl;iclt toani, ver>- rich ; produced 
tliree tons of wheat hay to the a'^re last year. It i« level, but 
not low. Fine location, good water. This land produces fine 
peaches, pnines, pears aod apricots. Only 2u miles from 
San Francisco, ons mile from item Southern I'acihc Railroad. 
Address G. 8. WILLIAMS. Santa Ko.sa, Cal. 



T. V. MUNSON, 

DENISON. TEXAS. 

Introducer of the Great PARKER EARLG 
.STRAWBERRY, now hCKinn the introduction of a 
few of bis thousands of wondertul Grape Hjbrlde. 
This season he offers four varieties, v iz: 

BRILLIANT, early red; CAMPBELI,, early 
Kolden: ROMM KL,, earlv white (proniisititr for North 
andSoutn),and HKKMANN JAKGKR, late purple; 
larger cluster ana berry than Herlitmout. Huitahle for 
south of Cincinnati and St. Louis, all e^jual to betl for- 
eiffn in ijuality. Descriptive circular and terms on ap- 
plication. 



OLIVES, VINES, PALMS & ROSES. 

Address WM. SICKERT. 

caSada nursery, 

Redwood City, dan Mateo County, Cal. 



250 SACKS PEACH PITS, 

50 SACKS APRICOT PITS. 

Address FANOHFB CREEK NaRSERY, 

FKE9N0, CAL. 



TRUMBULL & BEEBE'S NURSERIES, 

.A.'La.TncXGcln. axxcI. Saxx n.rt-f fvcsl. 



THE ATIKNTION OF PLANTERS IS INVllED Tt) OUR CO.MPLETE STOCK OF 

Almonds. Apple*. Apricots, Cherries, Figs. Peaches, Pears, Plums, Prunes, Quinces, 
Chestnuts, Walnuts, Persimmons. Pomegranates, Olives. Urang<>s. Lemons, 
Limes, in Full Assortment; Berry Bushes and Plants; Ornamental 
Trees and Shrubbery, Roses, in Large Assortment, &c., &c. 

Our stock has been carefully and well grown, WITHOUT IKKIGATION, FREE FROM INSECTS, and Is UNSUR- 
PASSED IN QUALITY. PRICES MODERATE CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. Catalogues on application. 

Ti?,Tj::iynB"crLL & beebe. 



NURSERY AND SEEDSMEN, 



419 & 421 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



FOR 

SPRING 

PLANTING. 



THE DINOEE & CONARD CO*S 

ROSES^JOSEEDS 

If you plant Roses, Hardy Plants, Bulbs or Seeds, wc would like to send you our NEW GUIDE, 
134 pages beautifully illustrated, FREE on application. You will find it interesting and useful. 
We offer all the Choicest Novelties and best things in NEW ROSES, HARDY PLANTS, BULBS 
and SEEDS, postpaid to your door, satisfaction guaranteed. Our business is one of the largest 
in the Country and we will be pleased to serve you no difference whether your orders arc large 
or small. Write to-day for our New Guide. FREE. THE DINGEE £ CONARD CO. WEST GRO«E. P« 




Seeds, Plants, Shrubs, Vines, 
Fruit & Ornamental Trees, Etc. 



CATALOGUE FREE. 

Over l.TO jiages illustiatiiit^ and (IcsiTibiiiLr ono of the large.st 
ami best as.soitetl stocks ot Seals, Trees and I'laiits in tlie Li. S. 
Best value for the money in our Tested Novelties and Special 
Low Priced Collections. 

37 YEARS. 25 GREENHOUSES. 700 ACRES. 

THE STORRS & HARRISON CO., 

Painesville, OhiOi 



Jan. S, 1891.] 



PACIFI© f^URAlD PRESS. 



19 



geeds, Waptg, ttc. 

PACIFIC NURSERY, 

Established 1871, 
OFFERS FOR SALE THIS SEASON 

100.000 OLIVE TREES. 

Mission Olives, two .years old, .$15 to S18 per 100. 
Nevadillo Blanco Olives, two years, 815 to $18 per 100. 
Lavayino (from Genoa) Olives, two years, $20 per 100. 
Picholioe Olives, two years, $6 to $10 per 100, $50 to $90 
per 1000. 

Riparia Grapes, two years, rooted, $15 per 1000. 
Blackberries, Lawson and Kittatinny, $10 per 1000. 
C'.iiavas, ready to fruit this season, $15 per 100. 
French Prunes, a few thousand on hand. Price on 
application. 

Monterey Cypress, in boxes, transplanted, $12.50 per 
1000. Moi terey C.i press, billed, from $10 to $20 per 100. 

Address F. LUDEMANN, 

Baker 6i Lombard Sts., San Francisco, Oal. 



E. J. BOWEN, 

SEED MERCHANT 



Onion Sets, Grass, Clover, Vegetable, 
and Flower Seeds. 



LARGEST STOCK AND MOST COMPLETE ASSORT- 
MENT. Illustrated descriptive and priced seed cat- 
alogue, the most elaVorate and valuable of its kind of 
aDy Paciflc Coast publication, mailed free to all appli- 
cants. Address, K. J. BOWEN, 815 and 817 Sansome St., 
San Francisco, or 65 Front St., Portland, Oregon. 



SEEDLESS GRAPE ROOTS. 

These Grapes make the finest seedless raisins known. 
For sale by J. P. ONSTOTT. Yuba City. Oal. 



vJREES! TREES! 



SEEDS, 

SEEDS 



NURSERY STOCK 



PRUNES, PEAOHES, APRICOTS, APPLES. 
ALMONDS, OHERRY. PLUMS, PEARS. 
NECTARINES. ETC. 




FL.O"W^EI?,, THEE, 
HEE-B, EIElLilD SEEDS 



BULBS & PLANTS. 



ORANGE AND LEMON 

530 ACRES OP NURSERY 
GROUNDS. 

CATALOGUE 



IvIOST COIvOIFLETE HiinSTE OF 
SEEDS A3SriD BTJI-.BS 03Sr THE 
CO-A-ST- 



1890 

NOW READY. 

S EnST JD 
E O R 

)SX3]Nrx> OF" o rt cj-A-T-A-XjO oxtoe:. \\ \\ it. 

CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. \\ r V^FfiEE 

All Orders will Receive Prorapt Attention. 



SEE OUR STOCK OF TREES, PLANTS, SEEDS, ETC AND GET OUR 
PRICES BEFORE PURCHASING ELSEWHERE. 



SAjrXSF A-Cmoisr C3-XJA.E,A.3SrTEEJD. 



W. R. STRONG CO., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



MAY'S NORTHERN GROWN SEEDS. 



THIS ENTIRE COLLECTION OF SEEDS ONi-Y ID CTS. 



MOST PRODUCTIVE. 

nnd fine 



nCCCD Mfl SURE HEAD CABBAGE. The suiest heading variety, large size, flr 
UrrLII nUi l.-xlun-. W . KInne ol Kok.inio Inil. .says: Sure head exceeds arivthjnn I ever saw in t]ie eal)- 
hatre line. (Hit (>r so iilll i.l:inlsn..t one fa i led t.> ma a tine.solid head. CHRISTMAS WATERMELON. 

The llnest kc-|.]iinsr vai irl v e..nilini, d « Uh tlie ri. lu-st llavor of any melon (rriiwii. 1 W I avei i.| Ui iulMlle. < iluci. 
says: Chri.stmas Mel.Mi i> 1 lie li ni'^f i.iMduein- mcji.ii I ever grew. I had 82 lar-e melons 1 nun lour % 1 lies, and liad 
tlnnn al ter Christmas. LENTZ BEET- •\ sp!. ndal sort, dark red color, will pi odiiee a crop in six weeks. a line 
keeper. H. MUlerof Goshen Jnd.. says: Lent/. Iw et t.iU. s the lend in ourmarket. Tl 
selllike hot cakes and are line croppers. Test Northern Crown 
bo convinced they ai esupi i ior to 11 others, 
our seeds. %ve will send one packn^-e each of 
the above eabbatre. melon niui beet to any 
address on receipt of aOrts. and oiir (Incly illus- 
triilcil (•nlaloKiie wli irh is inilispi.iisa ble to any 
interested in I'liiiils, S..< il.s .ir lliillis. beinn 
• most coiiiplele iiianii.il (.ver puhlislied. 
iilnms over !Ml illnslral ions anil a colored 

l]ilale ot llie fiimoiin lliii<l..n> 11 s. C ' Every 

T Person sending Sliver and meni ioniiiL.' this 
paper will le eive extra a ]iai.kai;e ol llle 
laliions K\lra K.irly rarmln<! BiiilKh. Meiirion 
imnil.er of olfer. L. L. MAY & CO., 

Seedsmen and Florists, St. Paul, Minn. 

May's Catalogue acknowledgea the finest and most complete ever puUished. 






IPOMEA PANDURATA".^;^?'' 

M«H>KFL«WEK. Grows from bulhs. Livcsoutall 



In 



111 b. ; 



utveach ^ciir. BlnomR 
niglit anil <lav ; Hnwcra « in, In s across ; very ftagrant. 
Kl':l» KIUlN«.ll«>Oi> l'AJ«8Yl Most bcautlfhl 
■ if this popuiur tlower. I.Hrffe size, deep red color. 
lhu,.U..M.,i.JKcil with shining i!„l,l. Z.IIAAGEANA 
11. 1)1. (Oulden Cloth): A beuutll'iil ahrubhy plant 
11 li. liich. MasRofbriKlitKol.l.M ILiwrrs June to UeoT. 
WILSON'S SEKI> A I'LANT CATALOGUE 

and LIVESTOCK ANNUAL FOK 18»1. 
110 pagea, SOO fine engravings, haud-some colored 
[ilate-s, full of UHcful Informutlon. Unquestionably 
the most reliable catalogue iiubli-sht'd. All the above 
stilt by in postage stamps or momy. The 

mall for tCV'" IlKST iind CIIEAPESTCOL- 
LECTION of lilXltSaiid SEEDS everolTcrcil 




Address SA.il/IX7EI. WIIiiSON. iaE:CZIAIiriCSVII.X.E:. PA. 



DEWEY &:CO. n^^A^^I^^riii.^'-l 



PATENT AGENTS. 



COX'S SEED CATALOG-UE MAILED EKEE. 

It coutaius de.script.iou aud price of Grass, Clover and Field SEEDS, Australiau 
Tree and Shrub SEEDS, Native California Tree, Shrub and Flower SEEDS (the 
lariiest assortment of Vefrctableaud Flo^vcr SEEDS, offered in the United States). new 
varieties of Forage Plants, (irasses and Clovers cspeoiallv recommended for the J'acific 
Coast. Holland, Japan and Ctilifornia Bulbs. lAWac Assortment of I'alm SEEDS, 
new aud rare I'lants, new Fruit. Our stock of Fruit Trees consists of the best varieties 
of I'rune, Flum, Apricot, Ajiplc, Peach, Cherry, Olive, Fig and Nut Trees, Grape Vines 
auil small Fruits. Address 

THOS. A. COX & CO. 



411, 413 & 415 Sansome St., 



San Francisco, CaL 



ESTABLISHED 1863. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 

AGENT FOR THE CALIFORN IA NURSERY CO. 

Largest Stock and Most Complete Assortment of frnit, Sliade ail oiiamital Trees oa tlie Facile Coast. 

Apple, AlmoDtls, Pear, Plum, Prune, Apricot and Cherry. 
Also Fine Stock Olives. Oranges, Lemons, Nat Trees and f^mall Fraifg; Magnolias, 
Camellias, Palms; i^arge .Stock of Koses. Clematis, Etc., Ktc. 



GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, FLOWER AN1> TREE SKED.S, TOP ONIONS, Etc., Etc. 



Catalogues Mailed Free. Address 



THOS. MEHERIN, 516 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



MOUNTAIN NURSERY. 

Fine Budded Orange and Lemon Trees. 



First Class, 4i to 6 feet; Second Class, 3J to 4J feet. 



SEEDLING TREES, 

SEED BED ORANGE PJjANTS. 

LISBON LEMONS, 



WASHINGTON NAVRt S, 
MEDITERRANEAN SWEETS, 
EUREKA LEMONS, 



AND A FULL LINE OF OTHER NURSERY STOCK FOR SALE. 



FOR PRICES AND TERMS ADDRESS THE PROPRIETOR, 

Or D. L. WILBUR, Riverside. 



TREES, PLANTS AND VINES 

:F"oi- tlio Sgasoxi. of X090-9X. 

Having decided to re-establish the GENERAL NURSERY BUSINESS at Oakland, Cal., I have purchased the 
ENTIRE NURSERY STOCK grown by Mr. James Shinn at Niles, Cal., embracing a most complete assortment ol 
unusually fine stock, grown without irrigation, that I am offering at reasonable prices. 

All the Leading Varieties of APPLE, PEAK, CHERRV, PLUM, PRUNE, APRICOT, 
NECTARINE and ALMOND. 

Fine Stock of ORANGES, LEMONS, OLIVES, NUT TREES and FIGS. 

The Only Stock of PERSIAN WALNUTS (Kaghaz-I) on the PaciSc Coast. 

300.000 GRAPE VINES (Strong: Roots). Small Fruits, Berry Bashed, Etc., Etc., In 
Large Quantities. 

ORNAMENTAL and SH.4LDE TREES, Roses, Standard Roses, Clematis, Trailing Vines, 
Plants, Etc., Etc., In Great Variety. 

Packing Grounds at Niles, Cal., Unsurpassed Facilities lor Shipping. Correspondence solicited. 



W ■ 



». H-A-lVt MOIST, 



Business Oflace, 960 Broadway, 



OAKLAND, CAL. 




SALZER'S 



ARE THE BEST 
FOR ALL SOILS 
AND CLiMES. 

Thcv will Yield tor vou, OATS IS.') bu.. WHE.\T 40 l)u., 
BAliLEY 60 bu., CORN 100 bu. POTATOES 600 bu. per a. 
r^Send 8 cents for sample farm seeds and catal0(?ue. 
£2^Send 6e. for i>k{^. "Acme Radish" and elegant catl^. 
Our Catalog is the finest ever published in America. 
On Tri.nI -.—'i^ pl<{;s. Karliest Wgetable Seeds. post pd.81 
15 pkgs. Elejfant Flower Seeds, post paid, 50 cents. 
rSTLow Freight to I'acilic Coast States. 




■■ i: <l.iy R,t<iis 



JOHN A. SALZER. LA CROSSE. WISCONSIN. 



1891. 




1891. 



Home Grown, Honest, Reliable. 

I offer you my Vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue for 
r f KKC Note the immense variety of seed it con- 
tains, and that all the best novelties are there. Not 
much mere show about it (you don't plant pictures) 
ibut fine engravings from photographs of scores of the 
choice vegetables I have introduced. Would it not 
well to get the seed of these from first hands? To be the 
oldest firm in the United States making mail and express 
usiness a specialty proves reliability. Honest and hon- 
orable dealing is the only foundation this can rest on. My Cata-- 
:ue is FREE as usual. A matter on second p.^ge of cover will 

terest my customers. J. J. H. GREGORV & SON, Marblehead, Mass. 



Red Top, Timothy. Red Clover. Kentucky Blue Grass, 
ALFALFA SEED. Etc. 
W. H. rOOO & CO.. 117 to 125 J Street, SACRAMENTO. 



20 



f ACiFie i^uraid press. 



[Jan. 3, 1801 



A REVOLUTION 
IN PLOWING. 




Best's Traction Engine. 

THE MONARCH OF THE FIELD I' ' 

IT WILL DO THE WORK OF 100 HORS!^ 




Plowing Reduced to a 
Minimum Cost, 

And from 35 to 45 acres plowed each 
day at an expense of 50 cts. to 60 cts. 
an acre. 

Three Sizes Built, 

30 40 & 50-Horse Power, 

AND 

22 Best Traction Engines 

AT WORK NOW. 



A Fifty-Foot Harrow 
is Used, 

With which from 100 to 125 acres 
arc harrowed each day, doing 
the work much bettor tbio 
horsM. 

Hmrs. Reed & Frisbie of 
KiuKS City arc pulling a gnag of 
26 ten-incb |ilow8, moviDK at the 
rate of three miles an liour and 
plowing eiKbt acres an hour 
wi'h a Best's Traction Engine. 

Plowing by Sunlight by 
Day and Headlight 
by Night. 

GOLD MEDAL 

Awarded the Best Traction En- 
gine by 

State Amcminral Society 

At Saoramento, 1890. 

feZ^^^^ SEND FOR CIRCULARS. 

ADDRESS; 



Proprietor of the Daniel Best Agricultural Works, SAN LEANDRO, ALAMEDA CO., GAL., U. S. A. 

THE PACIFIC GAS OR GASOLINE ENGINE. 

Patented June 17, 1890 — No8. 430,604, 480,505, 430,506— also In Great Britain and Other Foreign Countrlee. 




OX" :E3^E.-E3ex>lexicoca. "Flin gixxeexr. 



The Engine uses from 20 to 25 feet of Coal Gas, or 
about one-e'fsrhth of a gallon of Gasoline, per hour per 
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ning Printing Presses, Small Factories, Elevators, Jewel- 
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The Com|iany nakes a Spcdal'y of 

ENGINES FOR SMALL BOATS AND LAUNCHES. 



PACIFIC GAS ENGINE CO., 

830 FREMONT STREET. ... 8AN FRANCISCO, OAI,. 

Send for Circular and Price List. 







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01i.©«ir>ox" Tlx a, XI w lxxc3Lxxx lllgi fox* Fetx^xxxexris ! 

Our Perfected " Safety " Engines Cost to Bun only 1-8 Gallon of Qasoline per Horsepower per Hour. 

and 



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Works. Etc. 



ai8 Oallfomla St., San Pranolaoo. 



or Honnted on Wheels 
U. 8. AND FOREIGN PATENTS. 




BEST TREE WASH. 

"Oreenbank" 98 degrees POWDERED OACTS- 
TIO SODA (tests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities In the Stote. Also CommoB 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., tor sale by 

T. W. JAOKSON a CO.. 
Manafaotarera' Agents, 
104 Market St. and 8 OaUfornla St.. S. F 



MANUFACTURER OV 



LiCA-TSIER BELTinSTG-, L^CI3^GI- 
''gil?WATc?sU"}l-^iS^ID HOSE 



A Specialty of Agricoltaral 
Drapers aud Carrier*. 



RUPTURE AND PILES. 

We PosiTlVKi.Y Cnt E all kiuda of Hiiptiire 
and Rectal DIseaBes, no luattcr of tiuw long 
■taodiug, in fn>m 30 to CO day«, without the 

use of KNIFK, DRAWING BL001>, or I»ETBN 

TioN FROM ju siNEHM. Terms: Wo Cnr«a 
no Pax; and bo Psar and I CoreA. 
If afflicted, come aod see us or send stamp for 
Dampblet. Addr«aB: 
DRS. POBTBBFIBLD & LOBBY. — " 
888 Market Street. - - San Franolaoa 




Vol. XLI.-No. 2. 



SAN PRANOISOO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 10. 1891. 



{ 



DEWEY & CO., PubliBhera, 
Office, 220 Market St. 




Oranges and Lemons. 

As pertinent to the holding of 
the Citrus Fair at MarysvHle, uu> 
der the auspices of the State 
Board of Agriculture, we give 
upon this page pboto-engravinga 
showing the two leading fruits of 
the oitrus family. Common print- 
ing ink can bat remotely repre- 
sent these masterpieces of vege- 
table growth, and still such pic- 
tures are suggestive and convinc- 
ing beyond words. 

Both pictures show the prolific 
bearing of the orange and lemon 
under favorable conditions. The 
early fruiting of the orange is 
shown by the photograph of a tree 
in the orchard of H. A. Mayhew, 
situated at Niles, in Alameda 
county. The lower engraving 
shows a lemon branch from a tree 
growing on the Tejon Ranch, near 
Bikerefield, in Kern county. 



New Citrus Varieties. 

At the last meeting of the State Horticul- 
tural Society, Mr. B. M. Lelong showed two 
Interesting citrus fruit varieties which are but 
little known in this State, but which may be- 
come of prominence and value. 

One is the orange of Joppa, taking its name 
from the famous old seaport of Palestine. The 
fruit shown by Mr. Lelong was grown upon 
scions secured in Joppa by a Californian trav- 
eler who saw the fruit there and brought the 
scions home with him. 

The orange is large, seedless, exceedingly 
fine grained and free from "rag" — the 
■ignificant term which is applied to the 
fluffy white layer which lies between the 
true skin and the pulp. The orange though 
seedless has no rudimentary seed vessel which 
forms the characteristic mark of the Navel 
orange and occupies part of the space of the 
fruit with a non-edible material. 

The other fruit shown by Mr. Lelong was a 
genuine Villa Franca lemon grown from stock 
secured in Portugal. Mr. Lelong claims that 
the common Villa Franca lemon as grown in 
California is not true to name. Among other 
objections in this common variety is a scant 
foliage which does not properly protect the 
fruit. The genuine Villa Franca has good foli- 
age. 

As the stock of these varieties Is now intro- 
duced and bearing fruit in this State, the dis- 
tribotion of them will no doubt soon be ef- 
fected. 

The area suited to the lemon is not so wide 
as that on which the orange thrives, and yet 
California is advancing in the lemon industry 
and the fruit will bring the State a grand rev- 
enue. 




BBABINO OEANGB AND LEMON TBEBS, GHOWN IN ALAMEDA AND KERN COUNTIES. 



22 



f ACIFie I^URAb PRESS. 



LJan. 10, 1891 



She jStock "^af^d. 

The English Fat-Stock Shows. 

Editors Pkkss : — The yetr 1890 was a win- 
niag year for Shorthorn oattle. All the cham- 
pion pri/38 of the year, both in Eoghnd and in 
America, were won by cattle of that breed. 
Not only at the fat-stock ihowi, but at the ex- 
bibitione of breeding stock throughout the 
conntry, as well as at the London D^iry Show, 
where the premiums are awarded according to 
both the quality and quantity of milk given, 
have the Shorthorns been viotorioas. 

The Birmingham and Smithfield Fat-Stock 
Shows have always been considered the two 
leading exhibitions of the world for that class 
of stock. For a year or two the American 
Fat-Stock show held at Chicago was a strong 
rival, but according to the most authentic re- 
ports that Institution Is on the wane and it will 
require some very energetic management to 
bring it back to its short lived grandeur. The 
number of fat oattle of all breeds at the re- 
spective exhibitions of which we have any ac- 
count up to date for 1890 arR as follow* : Chi- 
otgo, 109 head; Norwich, Eagland, 91 bead; 
Birmineham, 217 head; and Smithfield, Lon- 
don, 284 bead. 

Some account of the Chicago pbow was given 
in the Rural Press of Dec. 27, 1S90. 

Of the Norwich show, the Mark Lane Ex 
press ay t: " The fat-stock shows of the year 
commenced on Thursday last (Nov. 20tb), 
when one of the best exhibitions we have seen 
at Norwich opened its doors. 

" The oattle classes were, on the whole, good. 

" In the two-year-old class for steers of any 
breed, thn premium was awarded to a Here- 
ford and Shorthorn cross, described as a really 
good beast, the second premium goine to 
a long, level, ripe Shorthorn; a pore-bred llere- 
ford takes the reserve and h. c. (highly com- 
mended). 

"The premium 2-year-old roan steer, just over 
35 months old, girths 8 feet 9 inches, and has a 
weight of 2140 pounds, a daily gain since birth 
of 2 lbs. 0:\ ounce — a remarkable figure for a 
beast of that age " — say 1060 days. 

It is rare, indeed, for an animal to make as 
great a- growth as 2 lbs. a day from birth up to 
the age of 900 days. This will be found to be 
the fact, I think, by any who will take the 
trouble to look over the tables of weights and 
ages given at any fat stock show on either con- 
tinent. I do not know that the above record 
is unprecedented; at any rate it is one of the 
best, if not the best, in some years, for a bull- 
ock of that age. The best and heaviest growth 
for the year was l{. 11 lbs. per day since date of 
birth, made by a Shorthorn calf exhibited at 
Ohicago. 

The third or reserve and h. c. 2-year-old, a 
roan steer, at Norwich, made the remarkable 
growth of 588 pounds gain in weight since last 
year's show. 

Growths like the above not only are proof of 
extraordinarily good animaU, bat also of rare 
skill in the feeder. 

In the Shorthorn cow class, a nice level white 
cow is placed first and a nice roan second. 

In the class for cows or heifers of any breed 
or cross breed other than Shorthorns or Red 
Polled, both premiums are taken by crosses be- 
tween the Shorthorn and Polled Angus .breeds. 
Premiums are given for cattle bred and fed in 
the county of Norfolk. 

In the classes for steers, the premiums are all 
awarded to crosses between the Shorthorn and 
'either Hereford, Polled Angus or Ksd Polled 
breeds. 

In cows, the first premium was awarded to 
a roan Shorthorn and the second to a " curious 
cross between a Hereford bull and a Red Polled 
cow. The result is a perfect Hereford in min- 
iature." 

The Norwich Show was followed by the 
BirmiDKbam Cattle and Poultry Show, 

Of which the Mark Lane Exprtu of Nov. 24th 

says : 

A comparison of the returns which have been 
published shows that the entries for this, the 
42d annual exhibition (November 29th and 
December 1st, 2d, Sd and 4th), considerably 
exceed tbos« of former occasions, and the 
resources of Bingley Hall will be taxed to the 
uttermost in order to provide the necessary ac- 
commodation. 

Ninety breeds of poultry and 115 varieties 
of pigeons will be found represented In the 
4022 pens which make up this extraordinary 
collection, and 20 judges are required to award 
the prizes in this section. 

The Agricultural Gaz'Ue says: 

There are 217 entries of cattle, and a 
very fine display they make, the various pure 
breeds being well represented, while the sec- 
tion for cross-breds is, as usual, of a very inter- 
esting description. The success achieved by Her 
Majesty the Queen is even more marked than it 
was last year. 1 he Elkington Challenge Cup again 
goes to an animal from the Royal Farm at Windsor, 
and having been won two years in succession, this 
trophy becomes the absolute property of the Queen, 
a victory that has only been achieved twice before 
in thirteen years, by Mr. John Price with his Here- 
fords, and Mr. Clement Stephenson with his Aber- 
deen-Angus. The Queen gained the prize last year 
and this year with Shorthorns— both, it may be re- 
marked, bred in the north of Scotland, and in the 
same county. The Elkington Challenge Plate is 
given for the best animal in the cattle classes, but 
the President (the Earl of Aylesford) offers a prize 
of £25 for the best animal bred and fed by the ex- 
hibitor, and this also falls to the Queen with a beau- 
tiful Devon. Moreover, in addition to four first- 



class prizes. Her Majesty secures the special prizes 
for best Devon, best Hereford and best Shorthorn — 
a series of successes that, we believe, is unparalleled, 
and which reflect much credit on the skill and care 
bestowed upon the selection, feeding and breeding 
of cattle on the Royal Farm. 

Another point that may be noticed is that the so- 
ciety has cut off one of the prizes for steers above 
three years old. This has had the effect of dimin- 
ishing the entries of these, and it is only to be ex- 
pected that before long the classes for over-aged ani- 
mals will disappear altogether from the fat-stock 
shows. With the development of early maturity 
they have survived their usefulness. 

In regard to the doing away with prizes for 
over-fed and over-aged beasts, the American 
Fat-Stock Show is ahead of the English, in that 
the managers have already given notice that 
after 1890 no more prizss will be o£Fered for 
animals over .S6 months of age. This is prog- 
ress in the right direction, for if, in these days 
of boasted early maturity In cattle-feeding, 
they cannot be fully ripened before the age of 
three years, we might as well give up breeding 
and fattening pure-bred cattle, keeping the 
several breeds distinct and all that, seeing that 
the cro!s-bred beasts generally make as good 
a growth as any of the pure-bred animals. 
Especially was this the case at Birmingham, 
where a yearling cross-bred Shorthorn and Gal- 
loway showed a gain per day of 2.37 lbs. since 
birth, age 581 days. However, this is nearly 
equaled by a Shorthorn, age 631 days, weight 
1481 lbs., daily gain 2 34 lbs., there being so 
slieht a difi^erenoe lii daily gain that the 50 days' 
difiference in age probably makes the animals 
about equal, if not fully so. 

These two animals had made the beet use of 
their time of any in the show — not one that was 
over two years old having made as much as 
two lbs. per day, while all the Shorthorns un- 
der two years old had made a growth of over 
two lbs. a day since birth, no other yearling 
class of any breed having done so well. 

The folly of keeping fattening cattle till 
they are over three years old, or even after .30 
months of age, is apparent from the limited 
growth made by animals over that age when 
compared with that of those under two years 
old. 

The Mark Lane Express of Dec. 8th gives 
some account of animals sold at the Birming- 
ham show, among which were the Queen's Dtvon 
bullock, which won the first prize in its class, 
the i50 ($250) priza offered for the best Devon, 
and was also reserved for the Elkineton chal- 
lenge cup, was sold privately for £93 ($465); 
and her first prize stner in the middle class 
was also sold for £85 ($425). A white 
Shorthorn steer, two years and nine months 
olH, was sold for S287, and a fine, fat cross 
bred Shorthorn and Polled Angus heifer, two 
years and five months old, for $250. 

EnsllaKe In England. 

The same paper also says: 

An interesting fact with regard to the extra stock 
classes was the good show made by ensilage-fed 
animals. For instance, Mr. R. Boddington of 
Colebrook Hall got the third place in steers with an 
i8-months' Shorthorn, weighing 11 cwt. 2 lbs. This 
animal was fed on a mixture of corncake and silage, 
the last-mentioned ingredient being used as a sub- 
stitute for roots, and the same amount of corn and 
cake having beea given as would have been given 
with roots. In the same class were two other ani- 
mals, which do great credit to the ensilage system. 
Mr. Boddington's beasts had no hay, and at the 
show they refused to touch the hay provided for 
them, keeping exclusively to their favorite silage. 

Having no account of the Smithfield show 
beyond the opening day, Monday, Dec. 8 Sh, I 
leave that for another week, when I may also 
have something to say on the recent London 
dairy show. Rob't Ashbcbner, 

Baden Station, San Mateo Co. 



(She Vii^eyard. 



Charles Krug on the Wine Interest, 

In an article for the St, Helena Star, Charles 
Krug, the well-known vigneron, writes as fol- 
lows : 

The wine industry of California appears for 
the past four or five years in a rather depressed 
condition, [Overproduction is considered by 
most of the vinemen the cause of the depres- 
sion. I do not fully agree with this opinion. 
Overproduction of a low grade of wines is the 
main trouble. Ordinary or poor wines always 
found as quick a sale as those of good quality. 
'Good and poor wines brought the same price, 
This caused the discouragement in car busi- 
ness; ambition among the winemen was badly 
snfiTering, Oan you, for instance, expect that 
our wine-growers shall raise vines producing 
small crops but of superior quality, as Caber- 
net, Miller, Burgundy, etc., instead of heavy, 
bearing •Maivolse, and shall they raise Zin- 
fandel on the hillside, producing fine olaret 
grapes, instead of Zlnfandel on rich bottom- 
land, producing double and triple the quantity 
of wine, but 50 per cent lowel- in quality than 
the hillside grape, when the price is the same 
for good and poor wines ? There is no over- 
production of fine wines; it is overproduction 
of those of poor quality. But phylloxera will 
change this situation before long. Destruction 
of vines Is increased by its attacks every year, 
A good many wine-growers are now replant- 
ing the land of their destroyed vineyards with 
well-paying fruit trees. Energetic and ambi- 
tious ones, however, replant with resistant 
stocks and graft them with the finest varieties 
of vines, (lately preferring the fine claret 



grape. The production of wine therefore is 
decreasing, but the quality is greatly im- 
proving. The present advanced prices of 
brandy will lessen the quantity of poor wine 
offered for sale, therefore wine-growers, do not 
lose your courage when prospects are bright- 
ening. 

It is undeniable that our situation will soon 
be improved, when production of wines is now 
decreasing and quality considerably improving. 
There is still another, a third point coming 
to our assistance. Consnmption of California 
wines is considerably increasing in this coun- 
try. Read the statistics published in the Wine 
and Spirit Review and you will not doubt the 
troth of this. Five years ago 3,000,000 or 
4 000,000 gallons of wine were used on the Pa- 
cific Coast, where to-day over 6,000,000 are 
used. During the month of October last, ship- 
ments of about 1,000,000 gallons of wine were 
reported. Times will improve, particularly in 
Napa county, where the capabilities of cellars 
and the energy of a good many wine-growers 
will caose the desired change. No county in 
the State has a larger number of solidly built 
cellars than Napa, and the elegant and im- 
mense one of W, B, Bourns of St, Helena is 
undoubtedly the best, finest and largest in 
America, The size and solidity of these build- 
ings enable its proprietor to age and improve 
wines and establish markets for his fine prod- 
ucts. We find among the wine-producers of 
this country a larger percentage of independent 
dealers of good wines with larger stocks on hand 
than in any other county, 

Vine-Grafting. 

In an article published in last week's Rural 
we gave the introductory part of Prof, Hus- 
mann's instructions for vine-grafting as com- 
municated to the Napa Regiiter. The writer 
continues as follows: 

I prefer to graft when the stock is large 
enoogb to hold the scion firmly, say one inch 
or an inch and a half in diameter. There is 
then less danger of the scion being moved, no 
tie is needed and there is really no time lost, as 
the graft can bear nearly a full orop the season 
following, and even a partial crop the first 
summer. There are many methods of grafting, 
all successful enongh if well performed, bat the 
simplest and quickest for the novice is the 
common cleft graft. For this we need for large 
stocks a fine sharp knife to cut the scions, a 
saw and grafting chisel. The last-named, any 
good blacksmith can make from a straight 
piece of steel, the blade to be about 2^ inches 
wide, the two ends of the hur bent around in 
the form of a wedge, 

A wooden mallet will complete the equip- 
ment, A common budding knife is as good as 
any, because they keep a good edge. If the 
stocks are not more than one ioch in diameter, 
a pair of pruning-shears can take the place of 
the saw. Three good men are a convenient 
force, one to dig around the stocks and cut 
them off, one to cut the scions and insert them, 
and the third to cover up after grafting, 

Tbe Modus Operandi. 

Let tbe first man take away the earth from 
the stock with a spade, to a smooth place in it 
for the insertion of the scion; in resistant 
stocks, as near the surface as such a place can 
be found, as it will save labor in cutting off the 
roots which the graft may throw out at the 
junction. If far below the surface. Then the 
stock is cot off horizontally with shears or saw, 
as the case may be. The grafter now follows, 
and it is needless to say that he should be tbe 
most skillful of the three. The scions should 
be of medium siz^, short-jointed wood, aboot 
the size of a common lead pencil or somewhat 
larger, and, of coarse, well-ripened, as on their 
careful selection depends mosi of the success. 
I prefer to have them 18 inches long, as the 
upper buds, which will throw out tbe young 
growth, will then be about the bight to form 
the future bead of the vine. Tbe number of 
buds will also prevent stagnation of sap and 
black knot, and also bear a partial crop tbe 
first summer. The scion is out to a long, slop- 
ing wedge of, say an inoh or even an inch and 
a half long, just below tbe lowest bud, with 
the bud on the outside of tbe wedge, and the 
inner side somewhat thinner. Then split the 
stock with the chisel. To make a solid "fit," 
the stock should be cut about an Inch and a 
half above a joint or node, which will prevent 
its splitting too far, Holl the cleft open with 
one of the wedges, and push the scion down 
firmly, taking good care that the Inner bark or 
bambelum of stock and scion meet, for on their 
close junction depends the success to a 
great extent. If the stock is only an inch in 
diameter, one scion will do. If larger, I prefer 
to put in one on each side, as it doubles the 
chances. If both live, the weakest can be cut 
off next spring. 

Our third man now follows. If the stocks 
bold tbe scions firmly, no tying is necessary, 
but in some oases it may be advisable to pass a 
strip of some good material around the stock, 
to make a firm junction. Press some moist 
earth on and around tbe cut, which is all that 
Is necessary, and then fill up around it with 
finely pulverized earth, up to the upper buds 
of the scion. This will keep the sun and air 
from it, and the yoong shoots, when they ap- 
pear, will easily penetrate the fine earth. 

If suckers from the stock appear, they 
should be removed promptly, but care should 
be taken not to move the scion in any way. 
Do not be discouraged if these do not grow 
until a month or two after the operation. 



They will keep coming out as late as Angost, 
and the later grafts will often make the strong- 
est growth when they do start. With every 
operation thoroughly done, and good scions 
and stocks, 90 percent should grow. It would 
seem needless to my that the grafts should be 
staked and tied, to prevent their blowing off, 
I will discuss varieties in my next. 



@HEEf AJ^D CECOOL. 



Wool from a Manufacturer's Stand- 
point. 

lA paper read by C. O. Rohkrts at the Farniore' Institute 
recently held at Thu Dalles, OreEon.) 

In presenting this article on " American 
Wools from the Manufacturer's Standpoint," I 
propose to consider equally the best interests 
of both the wool-grower and the manufacturer. 
In much their interest" are identical, are closely 
allied to each other. The manufacturer ought 
to and must have the various classes and condi- 
tions of wool necessary to produce the fabrics 
our people buy, and certainly the grower's in- 
terest is to produce and supply the manufac- 
turer with those qualities be needs for that 
purpose. 

It would be hard to estimate the sacrifice 
made by the manufacturers to the erownrs in 
the convention held at Syracuse, N. Y., in 
1865, the effect coming into operation in 1867, 
when they agreed to the higher duties on wools 
imported, which they had been accustomed to 
use especially in the production of the higher 
classes of goods. It was hoped, we may say 
believed, the promises made by the American 
Wool-Growers' Association that the higher 
duties would encourage the wool-growing In- 
dustry; that all classes of wools would in 
abundance be supplied; that soon we would be 
independent of foreign wools, and thus firmly 
establish another great and important industry 
within our own borders. The public as well 
as wool-growers have a dim, hazy impression 
that this has in a great measure been accom- 
plished, and flitter themselves accordingly; 
but the facts In the case are very different. 

The Pine-Wool Product. 

The fine working- wools furnished us are prac- 
tically comprised inside the limits of the older 
wool-growing districts situated east of the 
Missouri river. These wools, many of them, 
approximate closely in value to the best foreign 
but, instead of increasing the prodnotion to 
replace that hitherto used, it is sufficient to 
note, and avoiding going into statistics, that 
there is lesn produced now than there was 25 
years ago. 

The great expansion in the wool growth of 
the country has been in the newer States and 
Territories west of the Missouri. This has 
been of great magnitude, and so far as that is 
concerned, no dissatisfaction oan be expressed, 
but in quality, irrespective of quantity. Is 
found the great fault which we note the second 
and great failure. 

So far, then, and after a generation of benefi- 
cent legislation in behalf of this special inter- 
est such as no other wool-growing community 
in the world has or does enjoy, it is bluntly 
claimed, disagreeable as tbe fact may be to 
those most interested, that the American wool- 
grower has not performed and come up to his 
part of the agreement; that he has not fulfilled 
his proposition and produced for the use of the 
manufacturers the various qualities and staples 
he positively requires to manufacture the goodi 
his business demands. 

Let us first investigate the conditions neces- 
sary to attain in the merino blooded wools. 
Length of staple is not of first importance, the 
short staple being of as much importance and 
necessary and nearly as valuable for carding 
wools as are the longer staple merinos tor comb- 
ing purposes, but we must have strength, fine- 
ness, elasticity and softness, so that in every 
operation or process in the various stages it 
passes through in tbe factory the rich, soft 
handling improves. This is the most valuable 
quality rt quired in these wools. Now what is 
furnished us in the great wool districts ? A 
merino which in nearly every instance works 
"hard," as it is technically termed, that is, in 
finished goods bandies bristly %nd rough and 
having an entire absence of those conditions 
which give the pleasing finish in high-class 
goods. The staple is mostly tender, much of 
it actually frousy. Whole sections produce 
little else and were the choicest produced, and 
in this city of The Dilles from the John Day 
and Oanyon City yon receive what, by common 
consent, is admittedly the best produced in p] ast- 
ern Oregon, From some cause thee never sell on 
the scoured pound in Boston, New York or 
Philadelphia within 20 to 30 cents as do the 
Australian, and yet both are bred from merino 
sheep. Why this great difference in values ? 
Ba assured the manufacturer understands what 
he is doing and that he buys according to the 
intrinsic value to him for these two qualities 
and that there is a just discrimination. 

You will note, therefore, that on account of 
the limited quality of the really superior wools 
and the larger of medium to low, our mills 
are practically confined to the manufacture of 
the medium and low classes of goods, and, in 
the excessive quantity produced, with the 
forcing process necessary to put them into dis- 
tribution, yon oan quickly understand tbe diffi- 
culties under which our mills have straggled 
for some years past, and also why the mana- 
faoturing of woolens is termed jaatly "the 



V 

Jan. 10, 1891.] 



pACIFie f^URAb PRESS. 



most depressed of the American indnstries." 

The continned increase in importations of fine 
woolens, both ladies' and gentlemen's dress 
goods, the increasing demand for fine wools, so 
that we might furnish the market with at least 
a fair proportion of these higher-priced goods, 
onght to show that something is wrong some- 
where. 

The American manufacturer can claim just- 
ly, we believe, that he is equal in skill 
and ability to his foreign competitor, but he 
mast have equal materials to effect equal re- 
sults. None of us " can make a silk purse out 
of a bow's ear." 

Miselon Blankets Made of Imported 
Wools. 

The old Mission mills of San Francisco were 
most favorably known over the Pacific Ooast, 
and even over the continent, but in the finish, 
softness, wearing qualities of these goods they 
had but little assistance from the California 
wool-growers. It was the imported Aus- 
tralian fleeces, blended or mixed with native 
wools, or used entirely, that raised their fabrics 
to the high standard they attained. When 
these mills took the gold medals at the Paris 
and Philadelphia Expositions for the finest 
blankets produced in the world, they were not 
made from native wools; there was not then or 
now any fleece raised In the United States 
which could have produced the same result — 
that wool was raised in Saxony and was bought 
in Scotland at a cost of $1.12 per pound, 
this price for wool shrinking 40 per cent. 

This wool coat, scoured, duties paid, etc., 
$2.70 per pound, and yet this was cheap 
enough, as these 12 pair of blankets were sold 
for $1200. We mention this In detail to illus- 
trate to growers the prices which are possible 
to gain in the production of the finest wools. 
Now such wool and costing such prices is al- 
ways on hand in the European high-class mills. 
The demand and consumption is steady and 
certain. Not much is used, it is true, but for 
certain purposes in manufacturing it is essen- 
tial, and it is ready for use when wanted, and 
unless you produce similar staple we are cer- 
tain to be discounted. Produce us such staple 
and we can stand on an even footing with 
foreign manufacturers. You promised us all 
kinds and conditions in abundance. This was 
the statement: " We can soon produce all the 
clothing and combing wools we need, that no 
admixture of foreign wools is required to give 
success to wool-growers or wool manufactur- 
ers." 

I won't profess to know anything about 
breeding any class of wool. That is not the 
manufacturer's business; it is solely the grow- 
er's. But we are all interested in the neces- 
sary improvement and so may legitimately 
make an inquiry into the matter. Climate and 
enyironment are generally admitted to have 
much to do with the quality of staple. An 
outsider might well doubt from results if we 
really do possess the best conditions in that di- 
rection ; but here again those who do know whose 
business it is to know it, the growers, claim 
to have them to raise all the classes. We must 
take that for granted, then; it adds so much 
the more to their responsibility. Is the busi- 
ness on an average so profitable that any extra 
exertion on new lines seems unnecessary and 
financial pressure does not enter as a competi- 
tion to improved values? Is the business to 
many growers considered as of a temporary 
nature, but only to make a quick "stake," so 
that improvement, patient, experimental, pos- 
sibly costly, and lengthy, is no part of the 
business and does not enter into the wildest 
dream? 

Have We Fine Merinos? 

Is the business so very unremunerative that 
he has no means at command wherewith 
to improve his flocks to the highest standard ? 
Oan the type of merino you have be improved? 
Is this mixed and mongrel merino you breed 
in the West the best you can do or the best 
that can be done ? The German authorities de- 
clare (in analysis of such facts we cannot get 
superior authorities) that " a mongrel is always 
a mongrel," and that sheep cannot be improved 
by arithmetical progression; that there is a 
point where improvement stops. You think 
you prodnoe fine staple, but how about your 
inability to produce a merino that works soft 
and kindly in the processes of manufacturing, 
instead of hard and harshly as mentioned be- 
fore? You have yet to overcome that problem; 
that most important point where progression 
falls and stnns, and so the mongrel is always a 
mongrel. Now, why not improve from thor- 
oughbred ewes as well as rams and so give it a 
fair trial ? Have you equal to the best merino- 
blooded sheep in America? You claim to have, 
and indeed we all know very well, you claim 
to have in the distinctly American merino the 
best in the world. 'The Australian growers 
don't think so, and judging from their prod- 
ucts, it may be admitted they know something 
about their business. I noted the final verdict 
in the colonial papers on the few shipments of 
Vermont bucks made some years ago. It was 
condemnatory. There was nothing in quality 
superior that made them especially valuable to 
them, and they produced too muoh natural 
yoke or grease. 

I have scoured hundreds of bales of Aus- 
tralian wools unwashed — that is, with all the 
natural grease in them — and they shrunk from 
50 to 52 per cent. Yours average 10 to 15 per 
cent more of what is purely a by-product and 
valueless. It is worse than valueless; to the 
grower it is a cause of expense for transporta- 
tion. Also, there seema occaiion for inquiry 



if it doesn't cost you just as much to produce 
that 10 to 15 per cent of grease which oueht to 
have gone either into mutton or wool. To the 
manufacturer those heavy, greasy wools must 
always prove objectionable, and more especially 
if they bad access to light, shrink wools. The 
greater difficulty of estimating shrinkage in the 
first place is in buying; again, in a technical 
way, unnecessary obstacles are placed across 
the path in getting it into a clean, scoured con- 
dition. If his scourer makes a slight blunder, 
or is careless or at all incompetent, he may use 
too much of the alkalies used in scouring, thus 
destroying the enamel of the wool and the wool 
will work harder still; he may even make it 
tender in staple. He is apt to leave a residuum 
of grease in the wool, and in this condition sent 
to the dyer he makes the effort to color on top 
of the grease, and this is the primary and most 
fruitful cause which some of our American 
factories have acquired of an unsavory reputa- 
tion of poor or fugitive colors. Lighter shrink 
wools would save much of this annoyance and 
exoense, and you a better market for the wool. 
No wonder the Australian grower found ob- 
jections to this peculiar feature in our bucks; 
their competition in the world's markets teaches 
them the necessity of studying the manufactur- 
ing requirements and interests as well as their 
own. The advisability of shelter and feeding 
in winter, of dogging and hounding a flock half 
to death (and this will, I have seen it, de- 
teriorate wool in a remarkably quick time) and 
many other points in the management, might 
also be worth investigation, but it would only 
relBult in an inordinately long article, and these 
we may safely leave to the grower; his interest 
will make him give attention to them. 

Natural Conditions Favorable. 

Now, nearly every point mentioned above 
applies to our long-wooled breed of sheep, 
while in the high, dry plateaus east of the Cas- 
cade range we find a natural home for the 
merino blood, and where the improved breed- 
ing of the same ought only to be encouraged. 
We find in the climate and surroundings of the 
Willamette valley and district on the western 
slope as natural a home for the breeding of the 
best types of the Leicester, Cotswold Down 
and their crosses. What occasion is there for 
the importation, annually, of from 10,000,000 
to 15,000,000 pounds of such wools from 
Canada, England and New Zealand when one 
part of Oregon could do it just as well as not ? 

Instead of 200,000 head of generally scrub- 
bred animal" of these long-wooled breeds it 
might carry 2,000,000 and produce 12,000,000 
pounds of the highest-priced wools and yet not 
be nearly as heavily stocked as in England and 
Scotland, with climate and conditions some- 
what similar. It is impossible to overestimate 
the business impetus to merchants as well 
as producers such a clip as this would create to 
all interests in that part of the State. Why 
don't the farmers there realize to some little 
extent, at least, that truest of sayings an old 
master left behind him when he wrote: "Sheep 
is the protitablest cattle that a man can have." 
It furnishes them an important source of 
revenue, and is the readiest means of nnaintain- 
ing the fertility of their fields 

I believe that in that district we have every 
natural condition to produce these long wools 
inferior to none — the Laicester, with the clear 
luster; the cheviot, with its substantial wear- 
ing quality, its softness and flexibility ena- 
bling a manufacturer to spin it two or three 
ply, as fine as the ply yarn mads from the 
coarser flanks of some of our underbred so-called 
merinos or the scrubby stock from the valley 
sheep, and which an American citizen buye for — 
and is badly sold when he does buy it — a cheviot 
suit, but which has not the first element or 
merit of a real cheviot suit, which he, the 
grower, ought to have furnished as promised, 
and must admit to have not even made an effort 
to do so. [ don't suppose there is a cheviot 
sheep in America, or has the slightest effort 
been made to get one, and how can the man- 
ufaoturer produce these valuable goods with- 
out the wool ? Now, I am American enough 
to believe that an American is desirous of the 
beat of everything so long as he pays for it, 
that he ought not to be confined to the wear- 
ing of cheap goods; and I differ altogether 
from that sentiment of the Hon. John Lawrence, 
of Ohio, and others of the American Wool 
Growers' Association, when he (admitting at 
the same time that we could in three genera- 
tions of sheep produce the highest lustrous 
wools) said that our ladies, if they would have 
dresses made of such wools and must get them 
abroad, they would have " to pay dear, very 
dear, for their whistle." Now, when growers 
claim that they can, yet don't, produce those 
very wools which will enable us to clothe our 
lady friends in luster as fine as any trades- 
man's wife or bedecked " my lady " in Europe, 
they ought to be exhibited as public curiosi- 
ties, as I am sure our mothers, wives, listers, 
sweethearts are worthy of it; deserve it; ought 
to have it, and will have it anyhow. 

Now, can anything be done to give some 
impetus in a proper and more creditable 
direction ? Merchants and all interested in 
the distribution of commodities ought to be as 
anxious for this as wool-growers and manu- 
facturers. That mine of wealth has hardly 
been opened and oannot compare with what it 
ought or might be. 

What of the Future ? 
We are now at the beginning of another 
period of higher duties on wool and its substi- 
tute. Whether yon retain their aid or lose it 
completely, depends on what yon do is fur- 



nishing the raw materials they need. The 
financial prices in their business must in future 
be in their ability to produce the higher class 
and higher priced goods. In not furnishing 
the necessary wools, you are an obstacle and 
hindrance to the higher art in woolen manu- 
facturing and its advancement to that plane 
that can successfully compete with foreigners, 
and that we have a right to expect of it. The 
manufacturing interest is now too powerful 
and important in wealth, number;, and brain 
power to resignedly sit still and quietly let 
their interests be destroyed or injured, and 
unless greater progress is made by growers in 
the future than in the past, and they continue 
forgetful of their obligations, privileges 
and advantages, if they persist in squaring 
with the motto: "It is more blessed to re- 
ceive than to give," it can only meet with a 
justly deserved rebuke in the contempt and 
the stern condemnation not alone of the man- 
ufacturer, but of an intelligent American 
people, 

It is not a pleasant task, sometimes, to tell 
the truth. It is, however, generally our best 
friends who do it, and I earnestly wish, for 
their own interests, that the too oftpn amus- 
ingly ignorant conceit the average Western 
wool-grower possesses about the conditions 
that go to making a true wool, and the high 
opinion he believes his own clip to possess, no 
matter how little merit may be in it, may 
be forever dispelled, and that he could 
moralize, as did Burns, on seeing that little 
insect on poor Jenny's bonnet in church one 
Sunday : 

" Oh, wad some power the giftie gie us 
To see oursel's as ithers see us, 
It wad frae inony a blunder free us. 
And foolish notion." 
I trust this candid, plain article may assist in 
spurring on to great improvements our friends, 
the wool-growers, with many of whom I have 
broken bread, eaten salt, and (figuratively speak- 
ing) broken the bottle, and whose truest, per- 
manent prosperity has my heartiest good-will 
and assistance when possible. 

C. Gr. Roberts, 



The Mohair Situation, 

Editors Pkess: — The importations of foreign 
mohair have been quite limited recently, caused 
by the slack demand for foreign stock; conse- 
quently there has been a reduction in prices at 
the foreign ports of Importation, This has 
caused a corresponding temporary depression 
with our home productions. 

The market at present is easier on the manu- 
factured goods, especially demi-lusters, but 
full-luster goods are always in request and at 
stable prices. 

As the adaptability of mohair plush is being 
developed for various uses, the demand for the 
future would seem to be beyond the supply. 
This mohair question is a momentous one for 
this country, and is yet in its infancy. It is 
only a very few years since plants of any im- 
portance have been successfully established 
and maintained, but the improvements in 
quality and style, together with improved ma- 
chinery, have developed with such rapidity 
that even at these early stages foreign manu- 
facturers find great difficulty in successfully 
competing with our home productions. 

Our manufacturers have been very wary 
until recently in using our domestic product, 
objecting to its quality and condition, and even 
now it requires much diplomacy to convince 
them to the contrary; and it now rests with our 
growers whether, by car'?ful attention to breed- 
ing and care of their flocks, they will bring 
their stock up to the standard of the foreign 
hair. We have the climate and soil and oan 
produce as fine a quality here as in any other 
country. All we require is determination and 
pluck on the part of the growers to bring out 
these requisites. 

The erroneous impression that we cannot 
successfully compete with foreign hair is a 
fallacy, and is so accepted by the more intelli- 
gent manufacturers; and the time is not far 
distant when we shall be able to meet all home 
demands and not be at the mercy of foreign 
competitors. 

We shall be pleased later on to forward to 
you our annual collated statistics of the mohair 
market for 1890. 

Wm Macnaughtan's Sons. 
New York GHy. 



R I e U L T U R/c b G[ N © I E E R 



Improvement of Roads. 

A correspondent of the Stockton Independent 
writes thus pertinently upon the subject of 
highway improvement: 

That good highways are necessary to high 
civilization is a maxim in government. 
Ages ago the Saxon law required of 
every citizen what was called the trinoda 
necefsitat — the three-fold necessity. It 
was to repair bridges and ways, to maintain 
garrisons and to repel invaders. The reason is 
obvious. Macaulay says that the alphabet 
ranks first and the highway second among the 
agencies by which man has passed from sav- 
agery to civilization. No man, whether he ride 
ov walk, whether ho be a millionaire or a 
tramp, but it interested in having a good road 
over which to pass. No man ever sita down 



to his dinner; no horse is ever fed a pound of 
barley; no child ever drinks a cup of milk or 
eats a piece of bread and butter, that has not 
paid toll over a country road, and it ia self- 
evident that the better the road the higher the 
toll. 

These considerations are of peculiar force to 
an agricultural people like ours. Careful esti- 
mates based on accurate experiments show 
that on an average it costs more in America to 
carry a bushel of wheat from the field to the 
shipping point than it does to carry the same 
bushel of wheat from the shipping point to the 
seaboard. 

The price of wheat is fixed in London. A 
great and permanent increase In price cannot 
be hoped for. The only chance for increased 
profit is to diminish the cost of production. 
The cost of plowing, seeding and harrowing 
cannot under present conditions be very mueh 
lessened. The same may be said of harveatlDg, 
sacking and freighting. There seems to be 
only one point where any saving can be made. 
That is in carrying from the farm to the land- 
ing or station. Tbix can be done by means of 
better highways. No one who has not studied 
the subject has any idea of the enormous 
amount of expensive power which is every day 
wasted in this country. 

To illustrate : Exoeriments made in 732,000 
cases show that an Eaglish horse does twice 
as much work as an American. He is no 
heavier, no better bred and no stronger, but 
works on a better road. The Americans, there- 
fore, feed, care for and use twice as many 
horses for road freighting as they need. It 
costs less to keep a mile of good macadamized 
road in perfect repair than it does to feed one 
poor horse. Prof. Jenks, an authority on this 
subject, says : 

"In the State of Illinois a full load for a two- 
horse team can be carried for three months of 
the year, two-thirds of a load for three months, 
and half a load for six." 

In San Joaquin county the rate would prob- 
ably be a full load for six months, half a load 
for three months, and none at all for the re- 
maining three. To quote further from Prof. 
.Jenks' report : 

" The Illinois roads cost $15,346,000 per an- 
num in extra hauling and reduce the value of 
farms at a distance from railway depots over 
$160,000,000. If Illinoia apent $250,000,000 
on good roada, the interest on this sum would 
leave enough of the sum now spent on hauling 
to build a new State capitol every year, to say 
nothing of the nervous wear and tear and the 
prismatic profanity induced by country roads 
when the frost is coming out. Good roads 
would save the State taxes every year and the 
labor misdirected and wasted now would go 
far toward making good highways." 

Tn New York City a careful and accurate 
estimate shows that there are 12.000 trucks 
carrying an average load of one and a half tons 
for 12 miles on each of 300 days in the year, at 
an average daily cost of |4 per truck. Sixty- 
five million pounds are thus transported one 
mile in every year at a cost of $14,400,000, or 
over 22 cents per ton per mile. The same goods 
are carried in that Sl^ate by rail at six-tenths of 
one cent per mile. On asphalt pave the same 
horses could haul three times tho above amount, 
which would save nearly $10,000,000 per 
annum. 

Elaborate experiments show that 200 pounds 
traction force will draw a ton on a good dirt 
road in first-class condition. One hundred 
pounds will do the same work on macadam, 33 
pounds on granite blocks and 15 pounds on as- 
phalt pave, such as Center street in Stockton. 
It has been demonstrated beyond a doubt that 
a locomotive can haul a ton of wheat more 
cheaply than a farmer can haul a bushel, and it 
is very doubtful whether a locomotive could 
move at all over an ordinary country road. 
Our noble, patient, much-abused horses are 
simply living traction engines, and every ad- 
vantage that could be given to a machine by a 
good road can be gained for them. They are 
entitled to )♦:. They ought to have it. 

General Q. A. Gilmore has made a series of 
accurate experiments with a dynamometer, 
which proved that any one of the better class of 
permanent roadways would enable a team to 
draw on a level about four times the amount 
drawn on a common dirt road. 

These startling facts have attracted the at- 
tention of the people Eist. The result is a 
movement for better highways, which is one of 
the most universal and powerful agitations our 
country has known for y«ars. The wealthiest, 
'the brightest, the most learned men in America 
are giving to the subject of roadway improve- 
ment their very best efforts, and the results are 
wonderful. 

The city of Buffalo has over 60 miles of the 
best streets in the world. This improvement is 
a monument to Grover Cleveland, who started 
the movement while mayor of that city. The 
repairs on these strepts in the last six years 
have cost less than $100. In Georgia and 
Pennsylvania public meetings for consultation 
on this sobjeot are frrquent and large. In New 
Jersey a fine road system is already in oper- 
aMon. The Governors of Massachusetts, New 
York and Ohio have addressed special me^aigea 
to their respective Legislatures on this subject. 
College presidents, carriage builders, farmers, 
great physicians, civil engineers, railway presi- 
dents and men of eminence in all occupations 
are lecturing and contributing to gather infor- 
mation. Great journals, like the New York 
Sun, are writing and publishing special article* 
in the same line. The movement will soon be 
here and will bear fruit. 



24 



f ACIFie I^URAb PRESS. 



LJah. 10, 1891 



JpATROjMS Of JE^USBAJ^PK.Y. 

In our Rural PresB Official Grange Edition, Issued 
every week, will be found additional matter from 
this and other jurisdictions, ol interest and import- 
ance to Patrons. Any subscriber who wishes can 
change &:ee to that edition. 

Farmers and Organization. 

" 'Tis true 'tis pily. 
And pity 'lis, 'us true. ' 

Editors Press :— The Patrons' department 
in the Tulare RegiUtr is now numbered with 
the innumerable trifles of the past; trifles which 
loomed up with magnifioent prospective propor- 
tions, with the very best intentions at their 
back and the widest field on which to stand, 
and yet hardly left a ripple on the surface to 
iiftiicate where they had been. 

The Register man attempted a little ripple, 
a sort of requiem, over departed hopes and 
wasted energy and a slight reflection on wasted 
generosity. His little ripple fairly bubbled 
over in pessimistic prophecies of the present 
tidal wave of Alliance tfiFort. Of coarse he has 
as a basis on which to place his augural tripod 
the mistakes and failures of the Grange which 
were its necessary founlation of experience and 
the general tendency of farmers to " go it 
alone " and "get left " 

Farmers have been and are the easy prey of 
speculators and the whole brood tf middlemen, 
who have so got the combination of circum- 
stances acd organized conditions that the 
farmer must sell at the cheapest and buy at the 
deares' ; and the combination is so set that the 
farmer must gradually gravitate to tenantry, 
the serf of the lords of the land who toil not, 
neither do they epio. The annual increase of 
farm mortgages indicates too plainly the future 
of the toiler on the soil. It is easy, then, to pre- 
dict. 

If no new factor enters into the present ar- 
rangenent of things, the tiller of the land will 
not be the owner of the land. If he continues, 
as a quotation in the Fkes.s puts it, to go on 
"economizing, cursing the ring politicians and 
voting the old party ticket," workii g as he 
must all day and every day, with no time to 
meet his his brother unfortunates in farming, 
no time to read a farmer's paper and no money 
to spare for one, no time for anything but to 
raise enough to pay his interest and taxes and 
live at the lowest minimum rate— if that con- 
tinaea, the prophecies of the editor of the Reg- 
ister will surely come to pass. 

Bat I do not believe that those pessimistic 
predictions will come true. I have faith in the 
general intelligence of the farming community, 
and the only reason why farmers have not acted 
so as to bring about the best results is simply 
beoause the matter has not yet been so broaght 
before them that they could see it. 

The Grange has made some mistakes, hut its 
face is toward the light, and while the Grange 
may yet feel the smart too keenly of burnt 
fingers to act hastily, there are in her actions 
educational lessons which may yet save the 
farmer. But it is the Alliance which is now the 
seen of all beholders, the "fly blister" on the 
old parties and the keenly watched by business 
men; for if the Alliance succeeds in carrying 
oat its purposes, it will revolutionize the politi- 
cal, mercantile and agricultural worlds, as the 
Grange would have done had it succeeded. * 

I do not believe, I cannot believe, that our 
present system of society can go on and ' reach 
the altimatum indicated at present — the divi- 
sion of society into two classes, a few capital- 
'tsts with the remainder of mankind as slaves ! 
I dare not believe that evil is the supreme 
providence of the world; that the only prog- 
ress is in the line of wealth; that all that is 
involved in this world's existence can only 
evolve sensuality and selfishness, dominant 
greed and servile subserviency. No; the spir- 
itual in man will at last assert itself. The man 
will be the victor; and not what a man pos- 
sesses, but what he is, will be the prominent 
feature of his estimate i* the eyes of his brothers 
and sisters. 

Neither the Grange nor the Alliance may 
effect this — the certain destiny of man — but 
they will be no mean agents in its acocmpllsh- 
ment. The farmers may be slow in taking 
needed lessons, but I think they are taking 
rapid steps toward the scboolhouee. 

The first lesson the farmer needs is to trans- 
act bis own business; the next is co-operation 
to render the transaction more effective, not 
for the purpose of crowding out other people, 
nor compelling consumers to pay the price 
farmers may demand, as his agents now do, but 
to 00 operate with the dweller in the city, the 
mechanic and the manufacturer. 

This Is the lesson the Alliance is holding up 
before the farmer, the lesson the Grange has 
been talking about so long, and the lesson the 
farmers are beginning to con over and learn. 
In their effort to spell fraternity and jostioe, 
some mistakes will be made; tricksters will 
introduce themselves, and tricks will be re< 
sorted to by the agents of the old to prevent 
the success of the new, and even farmers may 
and likely will be parties to the trick; for 
with all the goodness in the movement, we 
are not all saints; in truth, I have met with 
very few saints. 

I have spun my yarn longer than I intended, 
but when my pen gets loose on its favorite sab- 
jeot, I never know when or where it will stop. 

To the editorial staff and readers uf the 
RoRAl Pre.ss, I send my New Year's greeting, 
wishing all a happy and prosperous New Year. 

Tulare, Dec SI, ISOO, J. W. Mackie. 



The Master's Desk. 

K. W. DAVIS, W. M. 8. O. OF CALIFORNIA. 

The report of the Secretary of Agriculture, 
one of the members of the President's Cabinet 
— thanks to the Grange — is on my table. 
The doonment is a credit to Uncle Jerry Rask, 
and will do the cause of agrioulture much 
honor. If yon have not received a copy, be 
sure to write for one, and when it is received 
be very sure to read it with care. Kindly 
reference is made to silk culture. This is 
pleasing to Cilifornia Patrons, for we have been 
agitating that subject for some time past. 
But get a copy of the report and read for your- 
self. 



Every young man should take an interest in 
politics — not party politics; he should not as- 
pire to be a ward or saloon politician, but he 
should study political economy and know why 
parties are a necessity. Then knowing, he 
should rise above party and have partisans 
come to him. They will surely do this if the 
man is fitted to help and elevate the party. We 
want men in politics who are as pure and true 
as the principles they teach. The country 
needs and demands honesty rather than bril- 
liancy in public life. Give as honest politicians 
and cfiiae-holders and we can endure any 
political party. Cultivate and equip the young 
men ! 



Secretaries and Masters of subordinate 
Granges must use the seal of the Grange on all 
official communications. It is truly surprising 
how few officers use the seal. Daring the new 
year use the seal. If you write an official letter 
without the impress of the seal of your Grange 
and do not get an answer to your letter, don't 
blame any one bat yourself. 



I hope every subordinate Grange in Califor- 
nia will at once pass a resolution calling on the 
Seaate of the United States to pans the Oonger 
bill. Send a copy of the re olution, under seal 
of your Grange, at once to Hon. Leland Stan- 
ford and Hon. Geo. Hearst at Washington, D. 
C. The Conger bill has passed the lower 
house and is liable to die in the Senate. The 
bill is to prevent bogus Urd and other com- 
pounds and adulterated foods. Act at once. 
Delay is dangerous. 

Can the membership in California be doubled 
this year ? It can if every member of the Order 
will secure jutt one member to his or her own 
Grange. Who is so little interested as to be 
unwilling to try to get one application for mem- 
berithip ? 



D9 you know, if you use all of your oppor- 
tunities to do good, that even then there will 
be many opportunities left for others? You 
can't monopolize the business if yon would. 



B 0. W. L. Overhiser, Past Master of the 
California State Grange, P. of H., has been en- 
gaged by the Executive Committee to organize 
new Granges and to reorganize dormant ones, 
Bro. O. will also represent the Rural Press, 
the cfficial organ of the State Grange of Cali- 
fornia. No community of farmers ought to be 
without a Grange. Organization is the key to 
success. Let the farmers of the State consult 
their own interests. To do this they must be a 
compact and intelligent body, with avenues for 
receiving and imparting useful information and 
for giving and getting financial aid. If any 
dormant Grange wants to know how to reor- 
ganize, or what the Grange has done and will 
do, let those interested call a meeting of farm- 
ers and give Bro. Overhiser notice. He will 
convince you that the Grange will do you good 
and not harm. The Grange is national, not 
sectional; progressive, not partisan; charitable, 
not stingy; useful, not idle; developing, not 
contracting; helpful, not hindering; thoughtful, 
not thoughtless; prosperous, not puny. If yoa 
are a farmer, you ought to be a Patron. For 
further particulars about organization, write 
W. L. Overhiser, Stockton, Cal., or A. T. 
Dewey, 220 Market St., San Francisco, Cal,, 
or E W, DaviF, Santa Rosa, Cal. An Organiz- 
ing Deputy will be sent to any part of the 
State on application. 



Spring will soon be here. Before we know 
it the bills, vales and valleys will be dotted 
with wild flowers. Already fruit trees are in 
blossom. The cherry tree in our yard is now 
white with blossoms. But the thought in this 
paragraph is, why not have a " Flora Day " in 
your subordinate Grange some time this spring ? 
It is now time to prepare for it. Appoint a 
day in April or May, as will beat suit yoar sec- 
tion, and allow Flora and the Worthy Lecturer 
to prepare a program. Have a feast, both for 
body and mind. Invite the public to the enter- 
tainment. Ornament your halls and tables 
with flowers. Have poems about flowers; sing 
about them, talk about them, think about 
them, praise them, for they are always your 
friends. Why not have a day for Flora ? 



The Leeislature is in session. Farmers, to 
your post ! Ba on guard till the session ad- 
journs. Watch your representatives. We don't 
want, and won't stand, the heavy tax-rate of 
the past two years. Keep an eye on the Appro- 
priation bill, and another eye on the appropri- 
ators. 



Permit me to suggest to the Masters-elect of 
subordinates that they appoint the following 
standing committees for the year 1891: Com- 



mittee of two brothers and one sister on Delin- 
quents and Dues, Let their duty be to aoUect 
arrearages from delinquent Patrons. A com- 
mittee of two sisters and one brother on New 
Members. My word for it, if this committee 
is chosen with care, your Grange will soon 
have applications for membership. Then add 
a committee of one sister and one brother on 
"Fan and Instruction," If these committees 
are appointed and will go to work, your Grange 
will have no dull or idle meetings this year. 

The Master of a subordinate Grange is the 
only person who is authorized to communicate 
the Annual Word to the members of a subordi- 
nate Grange. Remember that ! 



The ofiBcers of your Grange may be ever so 
willing and competent, but to make a success, 
they mast have your help and your presence. 
The day of " wishing well " is past. The hour 
of labor has arrived. Let each one pat the 
harness on. 



Who can best work and who can best agree ? 



Which Grange in California is to make the 
largest per cent of gain in membership ? 



Report the name and address of your new 
Master and Secretary, as soon as installed, to 
Bro. Dewey, at 220 Market St., San Francisco, 
Cil. 

San Jose Grange. 

Editors Press: — You will think it strange, 
probably, to receive a few lines from one who 
hat been silent so long and who once more 
comes to the front to express his gratitude for 
the unity and good-feeling among the members 
of San Jose Grange. It now looks like old 
times when the Grange was in its palmiest 
days. With our hall well filled and old mem- 
bers coming back and meeting with us who 
have been absent for many months, and others 
talking of coming — all this nLikes as feel very 
much encouraged. 

Our officers were Installed to-day by our re- 
tiring Master, F. Dunn, in a beautiful and im- 
pressive manner, and it was gratifying to the 
installing officer to see every new officer pres- 
ent. Each was heartily cheered as he or she 
was conducted to his or her station and intro- 
duced to the Grange by the very efficient Mar- 
shal, after which the Worthy Lecturer called 
on Bro. C. J. Cressey, who was present for the 
first time since his return from the East, for a 
speech. He responded with one of his masterly 
efforts although feeling feeble from a recent 
illness. 

Miss 0. Calhoun gave us a song and accom- 
paniment on the guitar, after which Grange 
closed to meet next Sikturday (10th inst. ), at 
10:30 A M., when we expect to confer the first 
and second degrees on a clasx of ten, wbioh will 
test the mettle of oar new clfiaers. 

We send greeting to all sabordinate Granges 
and hope they may also have a revival. 

Jan. S, 1S91. Ctrus Jones. 

[Thanks, Bro. Jones. It is very gratifying 
to observe so gocd an old soldier and Grange 
at the front again. Write often.— Eds ] 

Santa Rosa Grange. 

EiiiTORS Pke.ss: — The last meeting of Santa 
Rosa Grange for 1890, held last Saturday, 
found the afternoon almost too short for the 

work to be done. 

For want of time at the last meeting, the 
election of Trustee was deferred until this 
meeting. 

E. A. Rogers was re-elected Trustee, and 
Miss Ella Mnrdock, Organist. 

Mrs. A.J. Mills tendered her resignation of 
Ceres-elect, and Mrs. Fannie Bonner was duly 
elected to that office. 

Installation of officers takes place on January 
10th (second Saturday) at 10 A. M. We hope 
to have a number of visiting Patrons with us on 
that day. We have invited the Worthy Master 
of the State Grange to act as Installing Officer. 
Of course there will be the usual Harvest 
Feast. Grange at 10 o'clock always means 
that. 

A committee, consisting of Bros. Coulter, 
Strong and Chlnn, was appointed to meet with 
a similar committee from the Horticultural So- 
ciety and others interested in the World's Fair 
Exposition, at a public meeting to be held 
Jan. 3, 1891, for the purpose of organizing a 
local association for this county to act in con- 
junction with the State Executive C immittee. 

The following resolutions were offered and 
adopted: 

Resolved, Thaf Sinta Rosa Grange hereby ex- 
presses its earnest protest against the appropriation 
of a million of dollars or any other sum of money 
from the State Treasury in aid of the Columbian Ex- 
position to be held in Chicago in 1893. Also 

Resolved, That Santa Rosa Grange hereby gives 
expression of its approval of the views of Post- 
;naster-General Wanamaker on the postal telegraph. 

That we may be kept fully aware of Con- 
gressional affiirs, the Secretary was directed to 
ask some of our Representatives in Congress to 
furnish us with a copy of the Congressional 
Record, that it may be kept on file in onr 
Grange hall for the use of our members. 

Fraternally, T. L. G , Sec'y. 

Santa Rota, Dec. Slit. 



Executive Committee and Conference 
Meeting. 

Bro. George Ohleyer, at our request, has con- 
tributed so good a mention of the meeting at 
the office of the Secretary of the State Grange, 
S. F., Deo. 31st, that we have concluded to in- 
troduce it in our record of the event as being 
far more agreeable to readers than the usual 
formal official report of such proceedings, viz.: 

The meeting last week of the Executive, 
Legislative and Co operative Committees of the 
State Grange, held at the office of the Secre- 
tary, was well attended; not a member of the 
two former was absent. Never was there a 
more earnest and harmonious gathering of lead- 
log members of the Order than on that occa- 
sion. Each individual appeared to carry the 
good of all at heart and promised ready re- 
sponses to any demand that might be made 
upon his time. The Executive Committee 
audited bills and reviewed their field of labor 
generally, which it is gratifying to know is 
growing in prosperity and numbers. 

Worthy State Master Davis was present in 
excellent health, and Bro. Cressey, improving. 
Bath had much good news to relate about their 
Eastern trip, and especially of their visit to At- 
lanta and the National Grange. Bro. Davis 
presided at the conference, and many subjeots 
of vital importance to the agriculturists were 
discussed with a zeal that presaged success. 

Several measures to come before the present 
Legislature were discussed and the Committee 
on Legislation was instructed to attend the ses- 
sions of the L'tgislature and urge their passage 
before the appropriate committees. Among 
the measures prominently spoken of was a law 
providing for the assessment of property that 
had heretofore escaped. It was stated that 
such losses ran up into the millions, which of 
course had to be made gcod by the property of 
the farmers, which never escaped the eye of 
the Assessor. A statute was favored making 
taxes payable semi-annually, to the end that 
less money would be tie.i up in the State and 
county vaults, thus blocking business and re 
stricting trade and reducing the circulating 
medium which is already below a healthy stan- 
dard. 

County road matters came in for a good 
share of attention, and It was unanimously 
agreed that the roads need more and better 
treatment. A farmer-lawyer and several actual 
and ex-supervisors were among the au<iiencp, 
and all agreed as to the evil, but were not so 
sure as to the remedy. 

The general sentiment, as gathered without 
notes, was that the road districts were too large, 
rendering it impossible for the road-master to 
oversee the roads at the proper time. It was 
stated that in some counties the districts had 
several hundred miles of roads to be looked 
after, which happened generally in sparsely 
populated sections. Small districts and sepa- 
rate elections for road - masters were most 
favored. 

If appointed by the supervisors, it should 
not be done on petitions, as the unworthy 
nearly always succeeded in securing the largest 
list of signers. The utility of hiring out the 
roads to the lowest bidder was doubted and the 
policy was not generally indorsed, thoagh 
plausible arguments were given on both sides. 

The discussion revealed the remarkable fact 
that under the present road law nearly, if not 
quite, all the desirable reforms in road manage- 
ment were possible; that the size of the dis- 
tricts and elections were within the powers of 
the county snpervisors, etc. 

The Australian ballot-law was favored by all 
present, with such amendments as experience 
in other States dictated. Geo. Ohleyer Sr. 

[Farther items of the proceedings will appear 
in our Grange Edition. — Eds ] 

Installation at Stockton. 

Stockton Grange, No. 70, installed its newly 
elected officers on Saturday, Jan. 3d. P. M., 
Thomas G. Ketcham offioiated, assisted by Mrs. 
M. F, Merrill. 

Previous to the installation ceremonies, a 
bountiful lunch was enjoyed by alt, and every- 
thing passed off satisf<ictorily. 

Elk Grove Grange. 

Editors Press': — Elk Grove Grange, No. 86, 
will have a meetine and installation of officers 
Jan. 17. Bro. E, W. Divi., W. M. S. G., is 
exoected to be present. 

Bro. H. E Hayes, W. M, S. G. of Oregon, 
is most respectfully invited to be with us on 
that occasion, also all Grangers who can come. 

A Patron. 

A Worthy Sklection. — We are pleased to 
note that our esteomed contributor, C. E. 
Mack Jr. (Edwin Thistle), has been elected 
Worthy Secretary of Sacramento Grange, The 
bonora of the office could hardly fall upon a more 
able representative. We trust Bro. Mack 
will not allow the duties of bis position to in- 
terfere with his continued enrichment of our 
columns by his facile pen. 

Spechlation in Fdtdres. — Salinas Grange, 
No. 24, P. of H., at its last regular meeting, 
Saturday, Deo. 2';th, adopted the Watsonville 
Grange resolutions petitioning the State Legis- 
lature to pass an Act forbidding speculation in 
futures on the prodaota of the farm. 



Jan. 10, 1891.] 



f ACIFie (^URAL> PRESS. 



2^ 



Farmers' Alliance. 



Subscribers wishing fuller iDformation of the Alli- 
ance can have their names changed to the Grange Edi- 
tion of the Rural FRBes free, much to their advantage, 
this department being continued in the same. 



The Postal Telegraph. 

Some Plain Keasons Why the Qovercment 
Should Adopt It. 

Telegraph service — what is it ? It is a qaiok 
tranamlgeioa of the mails — a sort of rapid deliv- 
ery — bearing the eame relation to the mail serv- 
ice as the multiplication table does to that of 
addition. Both accomplish the same results 
only in a different manner and speed. Time, in 
many cases, is money, and the saving of time 
between the two services, postal and tele- 
graphic, means the saving of many thousands 
of dollars to the people. 

The Constitution of the United States says 
that Congress shall have the power to establish 
a postal service, mail routes and the rates of 
postage. This has been done since the founda- 
tion of our Government, and there can be no 
question that Congress has the eame right to 
extend the present postal service until It em- 
braces all the known methods of transmitting 
news, etc. There can be no more juat right for 
the telegraph to be controlled by private cor- 
porations than that the Gavernment should 
turn over the present limited mail service to a 
private monopoly. Limited, for the reason 
that the people, who, under our system of gov- 
ernment, are the Government, are entitled to 
every advantage that the laws — among which 
are the patent laws — make possible. We would 
be surprised if a railway should refuse to em- 
ploy inventions that would cheapen the cost 
of carrying passengers or freight either by 
shortening of the time taken to transmit such 
freight or passengers, or by acquiring new ap- 
pliances that would render the cost of service 
less. Why, then, should we hesitate to do the 
same thing for ourselves in the carrying of our 
mail system ? There are few, when confronted 
with the question, but who will acknowledge 
that the telegraph should be as much a Govern- 
ment charge as the railway mail service. In- 
deed it would be a very few who would not 
agree that it Is not only right but proper for the 
Governmeot to utilize the steam horse Instead 
of the slow coach. Why ? Because it lessens the 
time. Why, then, shall we not go farther and 
take the next step, and ntiliza that grand force 
of nature, electricity, as used in the transmis 
slon of messages? As Chas. A. Samner, ex- 
representative in Cangresa from this State, said 
in a speech before a committee of that body: 

" First — I lay it down as a proposition that I 
want to have duly considered by this commit- 
tee and the country : That the Constitution 
of the United States, as interpreted by a cen- 
tury of unchallenged legislation, does imper- 
atively require that the Congress of the United 
States shall establish a postal system. 

" Second — I lay it down as a fundamental 
proposition that a postal telegraph is a part of 
the postal system of the Government, the 
postal system of the United States having been 
established for the purpose of ' transmitting 
intelligence between the inhabitants of the 
land.'" 

The next question that would naturally 
strike the reader's mind is. Will it pay ? This 
is a question that always bobs up at ever; 
proposition which is brought forward and is 
both right and proper, as the great mass of the 
people have no more money than they know 
what to do with. The cost of the great West- 
ern Union Company is said to be $125,000,000, 
that of the Postal Telegraph and Cible C om- 
pany, $50,000,000— making a total of $175,- 
000,000. Now is that the true cost? It is 
held by a number of prominent electricians 
that both systems could be duplicated for 
$.S8,860,000. The average message now costs 
32.5 cents, allowing the companies to pay a 
dividend on a stock of nearly $200,000,000 of 
about 12 per cent per annum, on a plant that 
can be duplicated for one fifth of that amount. 
Allowing that the other expenses would be 
equal to what they are at. present, to make the 
same dividend on the actual cost of the plants, 
the cost of messages would be reduced from 
32.5 cents to 8 5 cents. Does any one doubt 
that at that reduction the wires would be idle, 
or that the business would be enormously in- 
creased, giving more profit and allowing more 
people to reap the benefit of the Improved 
service ? 

In addition to this, a greater benefit would 
be given to the people in the nature of im- 
partial press reports. As it is well known, the 
great mass of the people depend on the daily 
press for their news, and how much better for 
them would it be for them to receive their 
news from the servants of the people than 
through the tools of a gigantic monopoly. 
Would not it be more reliable, more trust- 
worthy ? As far back as 1846, Postmaster- 
General Johnson, in his report to the President 
(Polk), said : 

" It becomes a question of great importance 
how far the Government will allow individuals 
to divide with it the business of transmitting 
intelligence — an important duty confided to it 
by (A« ConitiluHon. In the hands of individ- 
uals or associations the telegraph may become 
the most potent Instrument the world ever 
knew to effect sudden and large speculations; 
[what a mantle of propheoF on the old 



Postmaster- General I] to rob the many of their 
advantages and ^concentrate them on the few. 
If permitted by the Government to be thus 
held, the public can have no security that it 
will not be wielded for their injury rather than 
their benefit. ♦ ♦ ♦ The use of an instru- 
ment so powerful for good or evil cannot with 
safety to the people be left in the hands of pri- 
vate individuals." 

Would not we object most seriously if the 
Government should try to (urn over the mail 
service to the Wells-Fargo Express Co. ? Yet 
why would it be any more absurd than to al- 
low private corporations to handle exclusively 
that branch of the postal system, the tele- 
graph ? 

Farmers' Mutual Insarance Co. 

At a meeting of the Garden Grove Club, 
held on Dec. 22d, the question of Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Companies was dis- 
cussed by the different members present. The 
subject was ably presented by Mr. Bsckett 
and Dr. Head. Mr, White related that while 
living in the Eist he had been a member of a 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company for nine years, 
and the total cost for $1000 insurance had 
amounted to $5. 

The following we clip from the Blade con- 
cerning the discussion : 

"Dr. Head gave an elcqaent talk on the 
subject, during which he stited that the in- 
surance business on this coast was controlled 
by a trust, and that so far as the Legislature 
is concerned, he thought they were owned by 
the trust, so that it would be useless to ask 
help from that quarter. He did not know 
what they could do. A voice from the audi- 
ence replied: "Go into the Alliance," "Yes, 
that is it. No honest man can repudiate such 
a just platform as the Alliance is working 
under." He told us also that if our repre- 
sentative, Mr. Smith, were to offer a bill to 
help the farmer it would never get beyond a 
first reading, and would then be buried in the 
committee-room and never have a second read- 
ing, 

"The fact was noticed that insurance rates 
were as high here as in the East, while we have 
no lightning here — a frequent cause for fire. 
Some of the companies, it was claimed, paid 
dividends as high as 35 per cent, showing the 
profitableness of the business, 

" We also have no long, cold winter nights 
to keep warm by hot coal fires to increase the 
risk, 

"The general sentiment was that the farmers 
were letting moneyed trusts and monopolies 
weld a chain around their wrists that. In time, 
could not be broken, and in the Farmers' 
Alliance seemed to be the only hope they had 
to rescue themselves by co-operation. ' In 
union is strength.'" 

The next meeting of the club will be on Jan. 
3 1891. 



Santa Cruz and Santa Clara Counties. 

Prom an Active and Successful Lady 
Organizer. 

Editors Pbess: — Since writing you No- 
vember 13'ab, I have organized II sub-Alliances 
and the 

County Alliance in Santa Cruz County; 
Also organized one sub- Alliance, besides speak- 
ing for five sub- Alliances in Sinta Clara county, 
and attending the County Alianoe of Santa 
Clara; also the sessions of the State Alliance — 
even visiting and speaking for four of the new 
Alliances in Santa Cruz county. You will see 
that there have not been many hours to spare 
for correspondence. » • ♦ 

I hope the Pre.ss does not Indorse the com- 
mnnicition of J. V. Webster in your issue of 
November 29tb, wherein he extols the merits 
of Mr. Wanamaker's postal-telegraph scheme. 
It seems strange that a gentleman of his seem- 
ing clear-sightedness does not see that govern- 
ment control without government ownership 
will simply mean to subsidize the already 
bloated corporations. Tae idea of our Govern- 
ment paying a rental upon a vtluation of SO 
millions of dollars for existing lines which could 
be replaced by government construction for 
from 20 to ^ millions is something which I 
hope every farmer and right thinking person in 
our land will protest against. 

I think time will prove the Wanamaker 
scheme to be thoroughly in Ihe interests of the 
money power, and that it is an attempt to 
longer perpetuate the power which they are 
fearful will slip from their grasp; and if they 
can blind the people, they may well laugh in 
their sleeves at the docility of the farmer, I 
hope the Grange as a body will protest against 
such a measure, either that compromise or any 
half-way measures with the railroads. I would 
like much to hear your opinion. 

Senator Chas. A, Sumner's bill for postal 
telegraph is the only system that has been pro- 
posed in the interest of the people, and the 
monopolists put that out of sight as they would 
this (Wanamaker's) if it were not in their favor. 

San Jaat, Dec. SOth. Kate L. SgpiRE. 

[Our Grange department this week, showing 
the conditions only on which J. V. W. advo- 
cates the Wanamaker plan, will throw some 
light on this subject, while we call on the old 
veteran to give the wide-awake Lady Orean- 
izer the why and wherefore of his faith. Mrs. 
Squire is a most active and successful organizer. 
She will accept our sincere thanks for the 
above. Many of our readers will be pleased to 
bear from her often.— Eds, 



A Sentiment. 

In the war which has been declared by us 
against sectionalism, the farmer and his fireside 
is the citadel around which the heaviest battles 
are to be fought. We are not content in sim- 
ply shaking hands acro-s the bloody chasm. 
Our work is to fill up and efface the chasm. 
We are many as the waves, but one as the sea. 
Sectionalism must not, shall not, live. Upon our 
banner, written above and below the plow, the 
sheaf and the cotton bale, is a new device, born 
of a new era: It is " Fraternity and Unity. " 
From the pilition to Congress adopted by the 
National Farmers' Alliance at Oeala, Florida 



Meeting of the Executive Committee. 

Editors Press: — The Eipcut.ve Cjoimittee 
of n.fc C I'lt roi.Sa'e F rme's' AMiince and 
I HuTrial U lion wi I m et in S n Francisc, 
Mjiid.j,Jin 12 h, 10 o'clock A. M,, ai 220 
Sutter street, B^om 18. 

Jesse Poondstone, Sec'y Ex, Com, 

Orimes, Colusa Co., Jan 6. 



Action by Santa Clara Fruit Driers' 
Association. 

As reported in the Mercury, a meeting of 
the Santa Clara County Fruit Driers' Associa- 
tion was held in San Jose Jan, 3, N, J, Haines 
presiding and W, F. Parker acting as Secre- 
tary. 

The President called for the report of the 
Transportation Committee, explaining that 
one of the points urged when a meeting of the 
association was called, was that all of the mem- 
bers had been informed that now was the 
time to take action in regard to securing a 
reduction in freights. It had been said that 
now was the time to present such a petition 
before the Transcontinental Association had 
concluded its meeting, 

Mr. Gordon said this committee had held no 
meeting. 

George Fleming thought that whether or 
not the committee had a report, this was an 
important point. He said now was the time 
to commence working in this direction, and 
in all probability the rate could be reduced to 
$1.20 or even less. Ha said the association 
must be able to show that a reduction in 
freights was necessary to the prosperity of the 
business; the company would then accede to 
the request. When it could be shown that 
the business would suffer unless reduction in 
freights was given, the company would then 
come to terms. 

J. H. Filckinger thought it would be a waste 
of work and talk to commence the work now, 
as an advance taking effact January 1st had 
already gone into effect. 

James E, Gordon said all the efforts of the 
association should be concentrated upon the 
Southern Pac fic and Stnta Fe roads, as all the 
other roatis had signified willingness to make a 
reduction, 

Mr, Flickinger suggested that the Secretary 
communicate with similar associations through- 
out the State, with the green and dried fruit 
and the raisin men. These combining, it was 
certain the request would be considered and in 
all probabi'ity be granted. He made a motion 
to this effect, bat Mr. Fleming objected to 
combining with the green-fruit men, as they 
already had as low a rate as it would be possible 
to get, and to ask a lo-ver rate for them would 
be to injure the cause of the dried-fruit men. 

Others gave their views, all favoring the idea, 
and the motion was passed, after agreeing to 
drop the green-fruit men and include only the 
growers and dealers in dried fruits. The Sec- 
retary was instructed to do this work under 
the direction of the Transportation Committee. 

James E. Gordon spoke of the fact that 
much inferior fruit was packed and sold in the 
Eist as California prunes. 

George A. Fleming spoke of instances in the 
Eist where egg plums and Victoria plums 
were sold as silver prunes. He knew of no 
way in which this could be stopped. 

W. F. Parker was appointed to fill the 
vacancy on the Conference Committee caused 
by the resignation of Frank Buxton. 

Mr. Fleming stated an organization was on 
foot which would probably be called the Fruit- 
Buyers' Association, the object being to 
establish uniformity in the grades of fruit. 
He said the association would meet to-morrow 
afternoon at 1 :30 to perfect organization, and 
all the fruit driers were invited to be present. 

S. P. Sanders presented his resignation, 
which was laid over for action until the next 
meeting. 

Dues for the months during which the 
association had not met wore remitted. 

Under the head of new business Mr. Flem- 
ing suggested that as there was coneiderabl? 
money in the treasury, it would be a good 
thing for the association to have an enter- 
tainment and banquet. His motion that a 
committee of five be appointed to arrange for 
this was carried, and Messrs. G, A. Fleming, 
W. F. Parker, James E. Gordon, W. D. Morri- 
son and J. H. Flickinger wore appointed. 

Adjourned to meet the first Siturday In 
March, 



The California Legislature of 1891. 



Senate. 

Dist. Name and Party. County 

1— F. McGowan. R Humboldt and Del xNorte 

2 — R. H. Campbell, R, Trinity Siskiyou and Shasta 

3— M. H. Mead, D, Modoc, Lassen, Plumas and 
Sierra. 

4— C. L. Pond, R, died Nov. 29, 1890 Bulte 

5— E. M. Preston, R Nevada 

6— J. H. Sewell, D Mendocino and Lake 

7— rhos. Fraser, R Placer and El Dorado 

8 — H. C. Wilson, D Tehama and Colusa 

9— F. S. Sprague, R Yolo and Napa 

10— J. W. Ragsdale, R Sonoma 

11— G. J. Campbell, R Solano 

12— D. A. Ostrom, D Yuba and Sutter 

13— F. R. Dray, R Sacramento 

14— E. C. Voorhies, R Amador and Calaveras 

• 5-F- C. De Long, R Marin and Conira Ccsira 

16— Eli S. Dennison, R Alameda 

17— W. E. Dargie, R A'ameda 

18 — William Simpson, R Alameda 

19— J. W. Welch, D San Francisco 

20— George H. Williams, R San Francisco 

21— W. O. Banks, R San Francisco 

22— Diniel H. Everett, R San Francisco 

23— W. H. Williams, D San Francisco 

24— J. H. Mahoney, R San Francisco 

25— lames E Britt, D San Francisco 

^6 — John T. Broderick. R San Francisco 

27— John E. Hamill, D San Francisco 

28— Thos. C. Mahler, R San Francisco 

2?— B. F. Langford, D San Joaquin 

30— T. D. Harp, D, Merced, Stanislaus, Tuolumne 
31 -A. W. Crandall, R Santa Clara 

32— W. C. Bailey, R Santa Clara 

33— J. D. Byrnes, R San Mateo, Santa Cruz 

34— G. G. Goucher, D, Mariposa, Alpine, Mono, 
Fresno. 

3S~Thomas Flint, Jr., R Monterey, San Benito 

36— G. S. Berry, D Inyo, Tulare. Kern 

37 — E. H. Heacock, R, Santa Barbara, San Luis 

Obispo, Ventura. 

38— R. B. Carpenter, R Los Angeles, Orange 

39— J. F. McCoraas, R Los Angeles 

40 — H. M. .Streeter, R, San Diego, San Bernardino 

Assembly. 

1 — George B. Robertson, D. . .Del Norte. Siskiyou 

2— A. J. Bledsoe, R Humboldt 

3— E. D. Kellogg, A Humboldt 

4— T. W. H. Shannahan, D Trinity, Shasta 

5— J - T. Jones, R Modoc, Lassen 

6 -F. G. Hail, R Plumas, Sierra 

7— James T. Motlock, R Tehama 

8— r. H. Barnard, R Butte 

9— J. J. Smith, R Butte 

10- H. P. Eakle, D Colusa 

II - George Sturtavant, R Mendocino 

12 — James H. Renfroe, D Lake 

13— H. P. Stabler, D Suiter, Yuba 

14 — Michael Girver, D Nevada 

15 — Thos. Hocking, R Nevada 

i6~Dr. Noble Martin, R Placer 

17 — W. E. Biughman, R El Dorado 

18— Jud. C. Brusie, R Sacramento 

19- Elwood Bruner, R Sacramento 

2j— Gillis Doty, D Sacramento 

21 — Reese Clark, R Yolo 

22— -Frank L. Coombs, R Napa 

23 — Frank J. Murphy, R Sonoma 

24— -J. D. Barnett, R Sonoma 

25— H. L. Weston, R Sonoma 

26 — Charles Duvner, R Solano 

27— J. C. Wolfskin, D Marin, Solano 

28 — Thomas H. Estey, R Marin 

29— J^mes H. Daly, R San Francisco 

30 — Thomas J. Tully, R San Francisco 

31— John Hays. R San Francisco 

32— George E. Lewis, R San Francisco 

33 — F. L. Jones, R San Francisco 

34— A. L. Lux,. R ; San Francisco 

35— William J. Dunn. D San Francisco 

36 -john P. Glynn, R San Francisco 

37— M. W. Coffee, R Sin Francisco 

38 — A. T. Barnett, R San Francisco 

39 - Charles S. Arms, D San Francisco 

40 Thomas W. Dennis, R San Francisco 

41 — H. C. Dibble. R San Francisco 

42 — Louis A. Phillips, R San Francisco 

43 — William C. Tennis, R San Francisco 

44— George A. Wentworth, R Sin Francisco 

45 - Eugene F. Bert. R San Francisco 

46~Lawrence Hoey, R San Francisco 

47 — John T. Steltz. R San Francisco 

48 -J. Windrow, R San Francisco 

49 — Alexander Gordon. R San Mateo 

so— W. H. Galbraith, R Santa Cruz 

51— Frank L. Fowler, R Alameda 

52— Fred Bryant, R Alameda 

53 — J. G. McCall, R Alameda 

54— K S. Culver, R , Alameda 

55 — li- G- Cram, R Alameda 

56— A. Ames, R Alameda 

57— G. E. Carter, R Contra Costa 

58— R. S. Johnson, R San Joaquin 

59— J L. Beecher, Jr., R San Joaquin 

60— F. A. Freeman, R Amador 

61— Alex. Brown, R Calaveras 

62 - I' rank T. Murray, D Tuolumne 

63 E. E. Dow, R Santa Clara 

- J R. Low, R Santa Clara 

65 -George E. Hersey, R Santa Clara 

66— J. S. Alexander. R Stanislaus 

67— T. H. Gould, D Merced and Mariposa 

68— C. G. Cargill, R San Benito 

69— C. F. Lacey, R Monterey 

70— B. R. Woodworth, R Fresno 

71 — W. S. Cunningham, D Tulare 

72— 1-". E. Hunewill, R Alpine, Mono and Inyo 

73— Marcus Harloe, R San Luis Obispo 

74— W. A. Hawley, R Santa Birbara 

75— T. H. Rice, D Kern and Ventura 

76— F. N. Marion, R Los Angeles 

77— J R. Matthews, D Los Angeles 

78— Guy A. Smith, R Los Angeles and Orange 

79— John C. Lynch, R San Bernardino 

80— N. A. Young, R , San Diego 

Senate. 

RepubTcans, 27; Democrats, 12; vacant, t. 

Assembly. 
Republicans, 63; Democrats, 16; American, i. 
Totals. 

Republicans, 90; Democrats, 28; American, i; 
vacant, on account of death, i. 



26 



f ACIFie f^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 10 1891 




Lines. 



Suggested by reading " California Sunshine," by 
Mrs. L. H. Shuey. 

[ Writt«D Cor the RtiRtL Press l>y Ibabsl Darlinq (Lupa).J 

A sudden trill of joyous notes 

Across the summer stillness floats; 

A rippling song that warbles, chirps 

And dies away, then gaily darts 

In merry mockery far up 

Where distance fades and sound grows still; 

Then, with a prophecy of ill, 

It circles down to earth again, 

And whispers of the lily's cup, 

Of grass and dew, and mist and rain, 

But never hints of angry pain. 

Of sullen depths and blasting fire, 

The vengeance of untamed desire. 

Of loneliness and tempting wrong, 

Of agonies of sin, despair, c 

The longing to be blotted out 

Forever from the page of life. 

These lend no quiver to the song. 

Us tones of grief (when grieve they must) 

Are tender, hopeful, breathe of cheer 

And make a rainbow of a tear. 

No giant strength of discord mars 

The clear-voiced flow of restful sound. 

Its power comes of faith and hope — 

'Tis all, and yet it is enough 

To make one dream of harmony. 

Of beauty, peace, of all that's good, 

Of noble life, of truer art, 

Of heavenly "Sunshine " in the heart. 



Doctor Margaret. 

When Madge Harrington, the beaaty and 
madcap of the family, announced her deter- 
mination to study medicine, it created such a 
commotion among her aunts and cousins that 
would be too long a story even to try to tell. 
What protestations there were, what entrea- 
ties, what dismal prophecies of failure, or what 
another outcry there was when, at the end of 
her course, instead of settling In the city, she 
chose to accept Uncle Jeremy's offer of a part- 
nership in his large practice and bnry herself 
in the country. Neither need I relate how 
Ben Harris followed her there for the express 
purpose of offering certain arguments of a per- 
sonal nature on the subject, and came away 
with a decided disinclination to talk of his 
cousin or her doings. Nor even how he begged 
her photograph, and, like the careless fellow 
that he was, lost it before be left the little 
hotel at the Junction. Nor yet how his friend 
and law partner, Robert Cortright, only a few 
weeks after found himself stranded at the 
same dreary little Junction Home, and thought 
himself a very hardly used young man because 
he must stay there nntil morning. 

It was a wretched place; he was angry at 
having missed the train, and altogether in no 
very enviable frame of mind when he> retired 
to his room and tried to lose himself in the 
pages of a railway novel. Evidently it was 
a fruitless effort, for after a half hour he gave 
the book a toss into the farthest corner of the 
room, where, as if ashamed of its own dullness, 
it retired from view behind the washstand. A 
few turns np and down the room served to con- 
vince him that his own thoughts were no bet- 
ter company, and smiling somewhat contempt- 
noQsly to himself, he gave the rickety stand 
a pnsh which brought to view not only the 
book, hot — " By Jove, a photograph," he ejaon- 
lated. " The last occupant has probably left 
his sweetheart's pictare behind him." He gave 
a long whistle of astonishment as he held it np 
to the light; It was no raral Phyllis, but a 
beautiful girl photographed by Strony. 

Mr. Oortrlght was something of a physiog- 
nomist, 80 it was with a purely scientific in- 
terest that he gave It the benefit of a long and 
careful aorutiny. Perhaps longer because 
there was something puzzling abont it. A 
mischievous wrinkle at the corners of the 
month seemed strangely at variance with the 
great earnest eyes and the firm contour of the 
chin. There wai no clew to Its identity except 
the one word " Margaret " written across the 
back. Of course be carried it away with him, 
it would never do to leave it to fall into the 
hands of the next chance comer, and destroy, 
ing a face like that was not to be thought of, 
it would be vandalism, so It was finally depos- 
ited in a secret drawer of his own private desk. 

He had engaged in numerous flirtations with- 
out any serions conseqaencee, to himself at 
least, and now at the great age of thirty-two 
he prided himself upon being quite removed 
from all sentimental considerations. It was 
a task of no small difficulty to reconcile this 
idea with the fact that an unknown face had 
for him a fascination he had never felt before; 
indeed It was so difficult that he gave a great 
deal of thought to it. Certainly there was no 
one else to sit In judgment on the matter, for 
he never thought of showing his treasure trove 
to Ben Harris, who shared his office, his private 
sitting-room at the Windsor, and, up to this 
time, all his secrets. If he had done so. It is 
liard to tell who would have been most aston- 
ished; but all the more surely for this reserve, 



there grew np in his mind an ideal woman, as 
visionary and unpractical as most snch creat- 
ures are, but which be worshiped as ardently, 
and apparently as hopelessly, as the bid scniptor 
hia marble woman — one was stone and the other 
air; he sometimes said to himself that this was 
the only difference. 

Still he did not grow thin and melancholy 
after the orthodox manner, and when in the 
summer Ban proposed a bicycling tour which 
should have for its objective point the Harris 
country bouse, be made his preparations with 
the feeling that after a winter of good hard 
work he had fairly earned his holiday. The 
family were hospitable in the good, old-fash- 
ioned way, and they came and went as they 
pleased, sometimes alone, sometimes with Ben's 
sister Carrie, a gay little witch with a face he 
wonld never have thought of calling pretty had 
it not been for a certain mocking, elusive re- 
semblance to the pictare safely locked away at 
home. Bat the moat adroit questioning failed 
to elicit any information, and Miss Harris grew 
a little impatient. " People seem always hunt- 
ing for resemblances," she cried; "they even 
say I am like Madge Harrington, I am so little 
and dark." 

" What is she like I" he said curiously. 

"Like? I can't describe her, but yon will 
have a chance to see for yourself. She is 
coming here, if measles and whooping-cough 
permit." 

" Measles and whooptng-congh !" repeated 
he, greatly mystified. 

" Why, she Is a doctor, yon know.' 

"No, I don't know, and I devoutly hope she 
won't come; there is one of the species at home, 
the homeliest and most cold-blooded woman I 
ever knew; looks upon her patients simply as 
'cases' — the scientific temperament her friends 
call it. I call it simply abominable." 

" Madge isn't that sort at all, cried Carrie, 
angrily; " she is young and pretty." 

"So much the worse, then," he interrupted. 
"I think all such women ought to be left on a 
desert island, to prey on each other, instead of 
on society." 

" I more than ever hope she will come. I'd 
like to see you fall a victim," was the retort. 

He would hardly have been so rude had he 
not fancied for a moment that he was on the 
verge of a discovery, and that the clew should 
lead to this made him unusnally wrathful to- 
ward the whole medical profession. Measles 
prevailed against Carrie's wish, and he finished 
his visit in peace, which was marred by only 
one dispute, Ben declaring that he had enough 
of ' cycling,' and Mr. Cortright that he would 
carry out his original plan. 

" I'll go home on the oars, like a Christian, 
and be there, ready to receive yon, when yon 
come, if you ever do. There's some awful 
roads about Randolph," Ben added. 

" Madge oan mend his bones, if he breaks 
them," said Carrie, mischievously; "she lives at 
Randolph." 

He adhered to his original intention, In 
spite of all Ben'a argument, and quite pitied Ben 
until the afternoon of the second day, when he 
came to some of the prophesied " awful roads." 
It tried nerves, sinews and temper; and, a; 
the Fall, in which, we are informed by the nn- 
questioned authority of the New England 
Primer, we " sinned ill," was occasioned by a 
woman, so it was with Mr. Cortrlght's fall. 

He was struggling over a particalarly rough 
bit toward a point where three roads met at 
acute angles, all equally bad and all apparently 
leading to nowhere in particular. He wonld 
have dismounted and taken the next few rods 
on foot, had be not discovered a atyliah little 
wagon, drawn by a black pony, rapidly 
approaching the point of intersection. One 
glance enabled him to take In the whole es- 
tablishment, even to the bunches of golden-rod 
on either side of the pony's head, strongly 
suggesting blinders, and to decide that the 
driver must be a young lady, though he could 
not see her face distinctly. She wore a white 
tailor-made gown, and a broad-brimmed hat 
with a white plume, and be classified her at 
once as a summer boarder. Should he meet 
her on foot, Ingloriously dragging his "machine" 
after him? Perish the thought. He would 
pass that corner in a manner befitting the 
captain of the Wheel Club, even if he risked 
his neck in the attempt. But, alas, pride must 
have a fall, and the wheel striking a particalarly 
toagh root, he took a header on a pile of stones 
by the roadside. 

Things seemed very strange and Indistinct 
that night. He was floating around in space, 
and the Margaret of his dream was near him. 
Sometimes she held his hand for a moment 
and spoke to him in a low, clear voice; but he 
could not answer her. Then she disappeared, 
and he slowly came back to earth again, and 
found himself in a large, cool room, with a 
motherly-looking old lady sitting beside him. 
The faint, subtle odor of ether lingered in the 
air, and a dull pain in his head reminded him 
of his fall. The old lady leaned forward eager- 
ly when he began to speak. 

" Will yon please tell me just what baa hap- 
pened ?" 

"Why yes; your leg's broke juat below the 
knee — compound fracture, the doctor called 
it — and there's some bad cuts on your head; 
and you must keep quiet, and the doctor'll be 
here again at 10 o'clock," she said. 

I regret to say that Mr. Cortright made use 
of a naughty word. " You don't mean to say 
that you sent tor that young woman to rednce 
a compound fracture." 

"Now see here," said the old lady, energet- 
ically, " you haven't got any call to worry. 



There wan't no one else to do it, for the old 
doctor Is away out West for hia health, and 
there ain't no one for thirty miles around oan 
equal her on a bone. I called it real providential 
that she was drlvin' along just as you fell off 
your velocipede." 

He subsided into silence and angry reflec- 
tion. He would be likely to make the rest of 
the journey in very different fashion from the 
beginning, and it was worse than all to have 
fallen into the hands of that horrible young 
woman. He wonld send for Ben and Dr. Cum- 
mings at onoe; no, he wonld not. Ben should 
not have the chance to triumph over him in 
that fashion. 

Just then there was a rattle of wheels In the 
front yard, and he looked up in bewilderment, 
as the young lady who had been the unwitting 
cause of his downfall entered, " You are not 
the doctor ?" he said, slowly. 

" I certainly am," was the prompt reply. 

" I told yon all about it, don't you remem- 
ber ?" said Mrs. Brown, but he was abaolately 
speechless with astonishment. She had re- 
moved her hat, and it certainly was the face 
of the pictare. There was the same earnest 
eyes, the mischievous wrinkle about the cor- 
ners of the mouth. He pinched himself to be 
sure he was not dreaming, and answered her 
questions so incoherently that Mrs. Brown 
suggested that his head was not yet quite right. 

It was not imagination, then, when last night 
he thought Margaret was with him and took 
hia hand, but hard professional reality. He 
would not telegraph Dr. Cumminga that day, 
but wait until he became a little used to the 
novelty of the situation. Mrs. Brown found 
her patient anything but tractable that day, 
but attributed It to the natural perversity of 
unrenewed male nature. It was a grievous dis- 
appointment to have all his illusions destroyed 
in this fashion; of course she conld not be a 
doctor and still be the Margaret of his dreams. 
He was a fool, an unmitigated fool, to build np 
a woman just from a face, and then fall in love 
with his own creation. He would telegraph to 
Dr. Cummings that very night just to make 
sure everything was all right, and, then let her 
cure him of his injuries and his folly at the 
same time. This decision did not bring much 
comfort with it, for he found that he did not 
want to give up his folly after all, and so fought 
the same battle over and over again. He was 
cross and almost rude to her, but she never 
lost patience, and when he came to repentance 
and a better mind, received hia apologiea with 
a quiet dignity that made him more unoom- 
forCable than before. But the climax came on 
the day when Ben Harria brought hia crutchea 
from the city and he waa allowed to hobble out 
on the wide porch. 

"What do you think now abont leaving 
all the women doctors on a deaert island to 
prey on each other instead of on sooiety T" Ben 
demanded. 

Mr. Cortright looked painfully, undeniably 
guilty. 

" Ob, yon needn't be so agonizingly peni- 
tent," continued his tormentor remorsefully. 
"Madge don't care, she has no personal human 
interest in you — regards you simply as a case, 
you know." 

" Indeed, I have a very decided human in- 
tereat in any one who ia ao misguided," she said 
kindly, for she pitied his evident embarrass- 
ment. " He must be converted." 

" I'm converted already, but you need not 
withdraw your human interest on that ac- 
count. I have been snch a troublesome 
case, let me try to redeem myself as an indi- 
vidual." 

" If you think you can do any better In that 
capacity, I would be tempted to try you," she 
answered, laughing. 

"I'll hold you to that bargain," was the 
quick reply, but after Ben left be did not 
always find it an eaay matter. When he beg> 
ged to drive with her, ahe indulged him, at 
firat, as she might a whimaical boy, leaving him 
to hold the horse before lonely farm-houses 
while she made her visits. He used to look at 
her curiously; ahe aeemed to him some cham- 
pion fighting the battles of the weak against 
the cruel monaters, diaease and death, and he 
learned to know by her face whether abe or 
the dragona were being worsted in the fight. 

Still their acquaintance progressed rapidly, 
for he had the rare tact which taught him to 
divine her moods aa if by instinct, so that, al- 
most Incessantly at first, she found herself 
leaving many of her anxieties In the darkened 
room ahe viaited instead of carrying them with 
her, an ever-increasing load, to the end of the 
day. He never reminded her of her promise to 
regard him aa an individual, instead of " Cort- 
right, C, compound fracture, serious contusions 
about the head," but flattered himself that ahe 
was fast laying aside the professional manner, 
and even growing to depend on hia companion- 
ship and sympathy. Neither did he ask him- 
self what he expected would result from It, a 
rising yonng lawyer, who bad even diitant 
views of the ermine, oould htirdly be expected 
to devote his life to driving about the conntry 
with a doctor, holding a very sedate black pony 
before the doors of high and low, even if the 
doctor was a young and handsome woman. He 
knew it oould not last forever, and when the 
end came, told himself bitterly that he might 
have expected it from the beginning; for he 
had staked everything on one throw and lost. 

Though Dr. Harrington misaed her patient 
more than she would admit even to herself, 
she thought she did not regret her decision. 
Indeed there was very little time for regret, 
for there was an anninal amount of siokneaa 



that winter, and kind old Uncle Jeremy, who, 
no doubt, wonld have mended Mr. Cortright'a 
bonea had he not been away in qnoat of health, 
died anddenly on the homeward stage of the 
journey. She took long drivea, often extend- 
ing far into the night, and almost as often 
reached home only to find an imperative sum- 
mons in another direction. The month of 
December was intensely cold, and on Christ- 
mas eve the wind swept through the valley, 
carrying the snow in blinding whirls that piled 
high above the fences, and the black pony 
fought his way along almost inch by inch. 
There was a bright fire in the grate and ahe 
aat down and spread her chilled fingers to the 
blaze. It aeemed to her that she bad never 
been so tired; ahe dreaded the morrow and the 
next. Would there be a hundred morrowa like 
it ? Could she endure them if there were ? She 
could bear the cold and the fatigue, for often 
she waa too tired to eat, but the thought that 
to so many people she seemed to hold life and 
death in her hands was terrible. With a sud- 
den, swift impulse, she crossed the room and 
took up a little hand-glasa. Her own photo- 
graph atood on the mantel; Uncle Jeremy had 
placed it there, and ahe had never disturbed 
any of his belongings. She looked from that 
to the face in the glass. There were dark 
rings under the eyes; it was pale, faded and 
anxioua. The lamplight fell full npon her bent 
head and revealed a single, ahining white hair, 
the firat ahe had ever found. She pulled at it 
spitefnily with a queer sinking of the heart. 
" Am I growing gray at twenty-five ? " ahe 
aaid piteously. Her youth aeemed anddenly 
to have fled, and she saw only a ghoet, and 
stretching away before her a aolitary old age. 

Juat then some one atumbled np the atept, 
and there waa a aharp ring at the bell. Moat 
women hesitate before answering a late ring, 
but she only ahivered as ahe thought, "Must 
I go out again to-night ? " A tall man atood in 
the little porch with hia coat-collar turned np 
over the lower part of hia face, and a aealskin 
cap drawn down over his eyes, so that nothing 
waa viaible but a very frosty mustache. "May 
I come In and wish you a Merry Christmas 7 " 
aaid a clear, ringing voice. The tell-tale blood 
ruahed into her face, and there waa a auapicioua 
quiver in her voice as she answered him. 

"I didn't frighten you?" he added. "1 
should not have dared to atop to-night only for 
the light." 

" No, I waa not frightened, only I am rather 
nervous, I think, and your coming waa ao aud- 
den and unexpected." 

Her evident perturbation gave him courage; 
she could not be entirely indifferent, if seeing 
him had power to disturb her ao muoh. 

" You never used to be nervont, and how 
thin and pale you look; you muat be ill." 

"Oh, no," ahe said, struggling vainly to re- 
gain her composure, "I am only tired out; 
there is a great deal of aicknees, and I am busy 
night and day." 

" You are killing yourself," he replied. "How 
many miles have you driven to-day ?" 

" Thirty, perhaps." 

" And you will do the same to-morrow, and 
to-morrow, " unconscioualy repeating her own 
thoughts. "Yon shall not; I have tried to for- 
get you aa you said, and I cannot. I will not 
try any longer." 

Next day a friend of Mr. Cortright, who 
waa atarving in the city, while he waited for 
patients, received a telegram summoning him to 
go to Randolph to take charge of a large oonn- 
try practice. A few weeks later in the season, 
when there was an accident at one of the quiet- 
er winter resorts on the Carolina coaat, and no 
surgeon at band, the local paragrapher related 
that "A very charming lady from the North, 
evidently a bride, improvised a splint, and set 
the broken bone as calmly aa though it waa an 
every-day oocurrenoe." — Oodey't Lady'* Book. 

After Christmas. 

(Written tor the Ritrai. Prkss liy Uaudb .S. Pbahlei.] 
At last the hurry, the excitement, the bustle 

of preparation are over I Christmas, with all 

its joys, is a thing of the past. 

There were some of ua, perchance, who failed 

to finish our presents in time; many, I am sure, 

who put the last tonobea on Cbriatmas gifts 

late Christmas Eve. Does one ever begin in 

time? 

Have any of the readers of the Rttkal Press, 
warned by this aeason's haate and anxiety, 
reaolved to begin a Christmas box at once ? 

This practice, advocated in ao many of onr 
honaehold papera, hae Its good pointa and ita 
weak ones. Let ne try to uae the idea only ao 
far aa is practicable to each one of us. 

Without doubt many enjoyed, as did I, the 
privilege of seeing dainty presents made by the 
Ingeniona band of one friend for another. We 
might have made the aame tbinga had we 
known how or thought of them. 

Right here, then, I'll begin my Christmas 
box. Fearing that my memory will play me 
false at the right moment, I keep a small blank- 
book where I jot down ideas for fancy-work, 
suggestive couplets for decorative purposes, and 
aometimea the quantity of material required for 
an especially admired article. 

This little book I would keep among my ma- 
terials for fancy-work, if I were you. Experi- 
ence has taught me that such things are beat 
kept together. 

Then, aa the months go by, I would snggeat 
adding to thia stock of zephyrs, allks, aatina 
and velveta such odd pieoea or quantities as 
may often be picked up at bargain counters or 
on great sale days, At the same time, I shoald 



V 

Jan. 10, 1891.] 



f ACIFie F^URAb PRESS. 



27 



not bay without some definite purpose in view. 

This may be done whenever an opportunity 
presents itself, provided it is possible to lieep 
an emergency fund to be used in such and 
other ways. 

I have one friend who eet aside for three 
months the eggs she got from her hens as her 
holiday capital. Another began in June to 
drop into a good-sizad china egg with a slit in 
the top every small bit of money she felt she 
could spare. Sometimes she walked home from 
town instead of taking the street-car, and as 
Boon as she reached tiome, she dropped in the 
nickel. Sometimes (they took their meals out 
"at her house "that summer) she bought a 
simple and frugal lunch, and put the extra 
pennies in her bank, as the family soon grew to 
call it. Whenever she denied herself any par- 
ticular pleasure, a new ribbon, a ticket to 
the theater, candy or novels, for instance, 
the price was carefully laid away. She 
couldn't touch the money without breaking 
the egg, so her savings were safer than in her 
purse and served her well at Christmas. 

Now, it seems to me, money is always 
" tight " and hard to get at just about Christ- 
mas-time. Winter clothing, wood and provis- 
ions must be laid in, and then come the taxes. 
They must always be paid, and how often it 
happens that the very money you have de- 
pended on is not forthcoming. 

Jones can't pay your husband that little bill he 
owes him. Smith has had so much sickness in 
his family he must ask you to wait till spring. 
Somebody else evidently never intended to pay, 
for he has left the country without mentioning 
bis bill; and so, at the very time you wanted to 
do Christmas shopping, Harry will tell you how 
hard it will be to pay the taxes and he is so 
sorry, but be can't let you have any Christmas 
money this year. 

Then, if you have been a wise little woman, 
you will think cheerfully of the material you 
bought and stored away last summer, and turn 
a smiling, cheerful face up to Harry as you as- 
sure him you can manage to make a very little 
go a long way. 

Whereupon he will give you an affection- 
ate kiss and an appreciative look as he tells 
you that no one in the world is so — 

There, you know as well as I do what he will 
say, and you know, too, that it sounds much 
sweeter from his lips than it would look on 
paper 1 

" Yes," you say to yourself, as you hurry 
through the evening work so you can get out 
that wonderful box nf many-colored silks and 
various odds and ends, "yes, I can make a 
little money go a long way, but what would 
I do if I hadn't my box to help me out ?" 

Don't say it amounts to the same in the long 
run — the money has to come out of the purse 
anyway, so it may as well be one time as an- 
other. 

You know, and I know, that there are times 
when we can more easily spare money than 
others; and past experience has taught me to 
buy all material possible, even all Christmas 
toys, if I can, before the month of November 
has ended at the very latest. Should it be a 
"fat" Christmas, and money more plenty than 
asnal, then something may be done for the poor 
and needy whom we have "always with us." 

In any event, our nearest and dearest have 
been provided for by timely care. 

I would advise this early preparation in any 
case, so that time, strength and money may be 
given to making some outside heart happy on 
that day — that is really what we are apt to 
neglect on Christmas Day, and it is in all re- 
spects nearer the true spirit of the season than 
all the rest. 

Now, however, it is past and we are free to 
pick up the raveled threads, the ragged edges 
left by the inevitable rush of the weeks pre- 
ceding the holidays. 

One friend said to me the other day, "I'm 
going to begin the day after Christmas and put 
my clothes in nice order. There are six but- 
tons off my best shoes and all my stockings need 
mending." 

I laughed at her then, but I have since had 
to do the same myself, or rather am doing it. 

I hadn't a moment to spare for days before 
Christmas, and it really seems good to get my 
various belongings in nice order again. 

There is apt to come a time of inaction after 
such a strain as the holidays bring. This is 
well enough if not prolonged or indulged in 
until life seems dreary and monotonous for 
want of motive. 

Spring sewing always comes upon us too 
soon. Why not begin sooner ? Surely under- 
clothing may be made up in Januarp and pret- 
tily trimmed with knit or crocheted edgings. 

I know our pocket-books are apt to be empty 
after the late drain upon them, but trimmings 
may at least be made, and what material is on 
hand may be used. 

Often half-made garments are on hand. Fin- 
ish them up one by one, and by the time yon 
are ready for new material you can surely get 
a dollar's worth of muslin to begin work on 
yonr new underclothing. 

You can work on your crazy patchwork, 
too, and your slumber-robe that you put aside 
in November for lack of time. 

That same lack of time was your reason for 
dropping your practice on the piano and your 
daily reading. Begin these again at once, and 
let the busy evenness of your life make up a 
harmonious whole. Make np your mind what 
you will read and what you will accomplish 
during the next few months, and try to have 
the stormy days that we will soon have full of 
beauty of purpose and strength of life. 



^ouj^g]E{olks' QobUJVIN, 



A Suggestion. 

(Written for the Rumi. Press by Dorothy Shirley.] 
I am wondering how many have made New 
Year's resolves, and how many will break 
them. It is the most natural thing in the 
world to have the desire, indeed, to make the 
attempt to start in afresh with the dawn of a 
new epoch, however long or short. 

The greatest trouble with New Year's re- 
solves is that we are likely to make too many 
of them. In the endeavor to suddenly recon- 
struct our characters, we undertake too much. 
It calls for too much self-denial — too much 
effort. 

First one good resolve is broken, then 
another, and finally the whole list is swept 
away in an overwhelming tide of disgust for 
the weakness that each year leads us to make 
New Year's resolves only to break them. 

Much courage and self-respect is in this way 
lost, and it may, I think, be avoided, and still 
we may make, ay, and keep good resolves. 

Hence — a suggestion I 

Sit down quietly and carefully consider your 
faults. Pshaw ! You are brave enough for 
that. Have you twelve ? Have you more ? 
As it may be, consider them carefully and write 
out a list of twelve. Be sare to give a promi- 
nent place to your besetting sin, or, if you 
choose, have twelve without it, and take that 
on^ every month in addition to the one set 
aside for that month. 

Give plenty of time, thought and care to 
yonr list; put it carefully away in some safe 
hiding-place; say nothing of your good re- 
solves; let the result tell the story, and go to 
work bard on the fault laid down for the first 
month, 

Eich month try to carry along with you 
what you have gained on that part of the list 
already checked off. You surely will gain 
strength and self-respect, if your efforts are 
faithful. At the same time each month, pay 
special attention to the fault for that month. 

I cannot conceive any way in which you can 
grow mentally and morally, more rapidly, than 
by co?i3!t<rinflr some one fault each month, A 
month of faithful, persistent effort, hammer- 
ing away on some one fault, will make it very 
easy, methinks, to keep that fault in band the 
rest of the year, and leave plenty of strength 
to "tackle " the new work each month. 

Think of this and give it a trial. 

Shall I further my suggestion by a sample 
list ? Not a model one — for few have the 
same faults to contend against. 

To accompany each month— Control my temper ! 

January — Keep my room in nice order. 

February — Relieve mamma of the care of my 
clothes. 

March — Be faithful in my practice hour. 

April — Try to make some one happier every day. 

May — Be careful about exaggerating. 

June— Be more unselfish. 

July— Think less of pretty clothes. 

August— Quit using slang. 

September — Be more faithful in small duties. 

October — Avoid gossip and slander. 

November — Read fewer novels. , 

T December —Think of the poor. 

An entirely different list may be conatrncted, 
filling the needs of the one who undertakes it. 
Only be honest in making it — honest in carry- 
ing it through the full year. 



Miss Mason's Party. 

It was to be a curio party. Miss Mason was 
an original person and aimed to arrange some- 
thing out of the usual order for her young 
friends. 

In a quiet village on the sea-coast there is 
not a constant succession of church fairs, con- 
certs, lectures or other mild forms of dissipa- 
tion to shorten the winter season ; but boobs and 
papers abound, and every house contains inter- 
esting objects from abroad, trophies from for- 
eign voyages. 

The invitations read thus : " Miss Mason re- 
quests the pleasure of your company on Tues- 
day evening next. She also desires yon to 
bring some curio and prepare a little sketch up- 
on it for the entertainment of others. She 
would suggest complete secrecy upon the object 
selected until that evening," 

The young people were thrown into consider- 
able excitement on the receipt of the dainty 
notes. It was easy to connect curio with the 
carions; but did it apply to works of nature as 
well as art ? They consulted dictionaries and 
discussed, and then each held "his own opin- 
ion still," 

Robert Sayles wanted to take bis baby sister 
as the greatest curio he knew about. Jack 
Strong, who had seen electric lights in a city, 
so longed for one of those to carry. 

What more attractive to a girl heart than a 
real secret ? A girl possessing this feels as 
consequential as a politician just elected to of- 
fice. It shows in her very gait. 

Soon all settled down to the work of prepara- 
tion in earnest. Upon the appointed evening 
they appeared with mysterious packages, which 
were given into the care of the hostess. 

After an exchange of greetings. Miss Mason 
carefully opened one box and took out an ex- 
quisite piece of Japanese workmanship. It 
was a Cloisonne vase. This was brought by 
Rose Lapham, and she was called upon to tell 
something about it. Then she described how 
the metal foundation is prepared, the gold 



wires put on for the outlines of flower and leaf, 
the colors added and burned, and the whole 
ground down and polished to perfection. She 
suggested that this may well be called a 
"patience " vase. 

The next box contained a bird of paradise, 
and the owner told about its home and sur- 
roundings, and made his bearers admire more 
than ever its wonderful structure. 

Then came a specimen of Chinese carving in 
ivory, a ball within a ball, each cut In beautiful 
designs. 

Alice Swan brought East Indian embroidery 
in gold thread npon silken fabrics, and showed 
how the women sit and ply the needle so skill- 
fully. 

Benny Stone brought one pressed flower from 
the spot nearest the North Pole where there is 
any vegetation, and told the story of brave ex- 
plorers who had gone through such hardship to 
reach that latitude. 

Oae specimen looked like a chip from a wood- 
pile; but it proved to be a bit of wood found 
near the bones of a mastodon and buried under 
twenty feet of solid rock and twenty feet of 
peat. It was an object rich in suggestions, and 
carried the company back long centuries. 

One brought a bit of amber, with imprisoned 
insects, and another a quaint figure — half 
human, half monkey — found buried with the 
mammies in E^ypt. 

How the young faces lighted up as different 
facts were unfolded and their minds stimulated 
to gain further information I Indeed, next to 
the exercise of the affections and giving happi- 
ness to others, there is probably nothing so 
pleasurable in life as acquiring Iknowledge, 
learning about the wonders of nature and art. 

Miss Mason skillfully inserted question and 
comment, and made her guests feel how rich 
their lives might be in great thoughts, what- 
ever their surroundings. 

The curio party was Indeed a success, and 
the hostess will long be remembered for her 
kind thoughtfulness. — M. Louite Bobbins, in 
Christian Regitter. 



X)0M£STie QcOJ^OMY 



Cooking Potatoes, 

In an essay before the Garden Grove Farmers' 
Club, Carrie M, Kimball said: 

Amonc the many and various methods of 
cooking the potato, I will only attempt to men- 
tion a few. 

One very nice way, and where one wishes to 
do so quickly, is to peel, slice and boil in milk, 
being careful not to let them burn. Adding 
some water to the milk will prevent this. These, 
after being salted and peppered to taste, are 
very good for a change. Old potatoes may be 
improved by soaking in cold water several 
hours. 

Then we have the potato pie. Grate four 
large potatoes, scald one quart of milk and 
pour on the potatoes; when cold, add four eggs 
well beaten, four ounces of butter, nutmeg, 
and sweeten to taste. 

Potato soup is made by boiling in one quart 
of water a small slice of pork and two onions; 
take eight good- sized potatoes, boil and mash 
fine, add to the pork and onions with one quart 
of milk, boil one-half hour, season and strain. 

I aho have a very nice receipt for potato 
salad. Six cold potatoes, chop fine, one gill 
vinegar, two teaspoons of mixed mustard, one 
teaspoon each of pepper, salt and sugar, one 
large tablespoon of butter, one beet chopped, 
one hard-boiled egg pounded fine, three sliced 
and placed on top. 

Will give just one more receipt of the many, 
and one that I have found very nice. Slice 
cold boiled potatoes very thin, sprinkle a thin 
layer of cracker crumbs in a baking dish and 
cover with a thick layer of potatoes, scatter on 
salt, pepper and bits of butter, repeat the 
layers until the dish is full, then pour on a cup 
of rich cream and bake half an hour In a quick 
oven. 

Tongue Toast. — Take a cold tongue that has 
been boiled, mince it fine and mix with cream 
and beaten yolk of an egg, and simmer on the 
stove. Having first put off the crust, toast 
slices of bread and butter them a little, lay in 
a flat dish and spread over them thickly the 
tongue while it is hot. 

Crullers.— One cupful of sugar, a piece of 
butter the size of an egg rubbed well into the 
flonr, two eggs beaten into the sugar and but- 
ter, one cup of milk, three teaspoonfuls of bak- 
ing powder mixed into a cupful of flour. Add 
a little salt, unless the butter is very salt. 
Flavor with H teaspoonfuls of lemon extract. 
Mix very soft. 

Rice Balls.— Pot a balf-cnp of rice, one pint 
of milk, cook it in a farina boiler until the rice 
has absorbed the milk. Add a half-teaspoon- 
ful of salt, a dash of pepper, about five drops 
of onion juice and the yolk of one egg; mix and 
turn out to cool. When cool, form into balls, 
dip into egg and then In bread crumbp, and fry 
in smoking hot fat. 

Hard Soap. — Dissolve one can of potash in a 
quart of cold water, then stir slowly into it six 
pounds of melted grease; the cleaner the grease 
the whiter the soap. Stir a few minutes until 
it is very thick ; pour into a square pan. If yon 
want to out it in pieces, you must do it as soon 
as cold, or it will harden oo it cannot be cut 
easily. Mixing oatmeal in this soap makes a 
good toilet artiols; it is very good for the bands 



Prevention of Consumption. 

The health department of the city of Provi 
dence has issued the following circular: 

Consumption causes more deaths than any 
other disease the human race is subject to. 
Nevertheless it is to a very large extent pre- 
ventable. It is, though not generally known, 
a contagious disease. Consumption, or pul- 
monary tuberculosis, is in every case cansed by 
disease germs which grow in the lungs In 
enormous numbers. When a person is sick 
with this disease, these germs are coughed up 
in great quantities in the expectoration, and 
when this becomes dry and crumbles, or is 
trodden to dust, the geims float about in the 
air and are liable to be breathed into the lungs 
of any one. If the lungs of the person who 
does breathe them are poorly developed, or If 
the constitution is feeble, the germs are very 
sure to grow and cause the diseaee. Unfor- 
tnnately, we do not know how to kill them 
when they are once in the air-passages. The 
best that can be done is to build up the system 
and strengthen the lungs by the use of cod 
liver oil, good food, and fresh air. 

Much, moreover, can be done to prevent 
the spread of the disease by destroying the 
germs as completely as possible In every case, 

(1) No person with consumption should ever 
spit on the floor or in the street. \i hand- 
kerchiefs or bits of cloth are employed, they 
should at once be disinfected or burned. A 
good plan is to use a small wide-mouthed bottle 
with a rubber stopper. The contents should 
be thrown into the fire and the bottle and 
stopper thoroughly scalded with boiling hot 
water every day. 

(2) The dishes used by a consumptive should 
be at once scalded, and the unwashed under- 
wear and bed-clothing shonld be thoroughly 
boiled as soon as possible. 

(3) When a person with consumption has 
diarrhea, the discharges from the bowels 
should be at once disinfected, as at this time 
they contain the disease germs. A good way 
is to add a balf-teacupful of fresh chloride of 
lime, or fill up the chamber veesel with boiling 
water. 

(4) No one with consumption should sleep in 
the same room with another person, and the 
room occupied by a consumptive should be 
thoroughly cleansed as often as possible. 

(5) No mother with consumption should 
nurse an infant, and children ought never to be 
taken care of by a consumptive person. — 
Boston M. and .9. Journal. 



Brain Workers and Athletics. — Life is 
puzzled over the careers of the late Cardinal New- 
man and John Bay le O'Reilly. The former was a 
frail, slight man of infirm constitution, but 
despite this he lived to a very advanced age; 
the latter was a man of splendid physique, who 
kept his system in training by physical exer- 
cise, athletic sports, and followed all the sug- 
gestions of modern physical culture. Yet he 
died in the prime of life. Shall we uot, then, 
live quiet, ascetic lives, ignoring the body and 
cultivating the spirit ? Or shall we cultivate 
both body and mind ? The latter course is the 
one so much commended to-day: yet it is not a 
sure passport to longevity, as many cases 
prove. In fact, the brain-worker is better if 
he lives a regular, temperate life, and pays no 
attention to the development of bis muscles. 
A little walk, some fresh air, and sound sleep 
are all he needs. Some people, to be sure, can 
be athletes and do brainwork also, but it is not 
the rule. A sound mind should have a sound 
body, but it does not need herculean muscles. 
The best athletic work is done by growing 
boys and adolescents, who have an extra sup- 
ply of vitality. When they have matured, and 
undertaken the responsible work of life, they 
speedily drop out of the championship; and the 
lesson we would draw from the opposite cases 
brought up by Life is that athletics are not 
needed by brainworkers, and will, if carried to 
excess, shorten life rather than lengthen it. — 
Mfdiral Record. 



To Tell the Approach of Death — Dr. 
Chiappoli states that he has frequently noticed 
in patients, apparently very far irom death, an 
extraordinary opening of the eyelids, so much 
so as to give the eyes the appearance of pro- 
truding from their orbits, which he considers 
an invariable sign that death will occur within 
24 hours, In some cases, when only one eye is 
wide open while the other remains normal, 
death will not follow quite so rapidly, but will 
take place inside of 72 hours, there not being 
the slightest chance for recovery after these 
symptoms set in, however remote final disso- 
lution may seem to be, Chiappoli says he Is 
utterly at a loss for an explanation of this 
death symptom, but ascribes it to a diseased 
state of the sympathetic nerve. 



Nutritive Properties ok Cream. — The 
fact is not so well known as it deserves to be 
that cream constitutes an admirable nutriment 
for invalids. It is superior to butter, contain- 
ing more volatile oils. Persons predisposed to 
consumption, aged persons, or those inclined to 
cold extremities and feeble digestion, are espe- 
cially benefited by a liberal use of sweet cream. 
It la far better than cod-liver oil, and besides 
being excellent for medical properties, It Is a 
highly nntritiouB food. 



28 



f AClFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jan. 10, 1891 




A, T. DBWET. 



W, B. EWER. 



PubUshed by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 220 Marlxt St., N. E. cor. Front St. , .S'. F. 
tr Take the Klevater, No. It Front S<.*«» 



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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January lO, 1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS.— New Citrus Varieties; Oranges and 
Lemons, 21. The Week; Orange Crop and Markets; 
Bogus Fertilizers, 28. ^ , 

ILLOSTBATIONS.— Bearing Orange and Lemon 
Trees, 21- Orange Trees in Marysville, 28. Ice 

THe'sTCKJK YARD. — The English Fat-Stock 
Shows. 22. „ 

THE VI .B YARD.— Charles Krugon the Wine In- 
terest; Vine-Oratting, 22. , . 

SHEEP AND WOOLi.— Wool from a Manufactur- 
ers' stand, lOint, 22. The Mohair ^ltuation, 23. 

AGRICDI.TUKaL IlNQINEEB.— Imi'rovement 
of Roads, 23. „„ , 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY. - Farmers and 
Orifinizition: The Master's Desk; San .Jose Orange; 
Siuta Kns» Grange; Installation at Stockton; Execu- 
tive rmumitce and Conference Meeting, 24. 

PABMtiRS' AL,LIANCB — The Postal Telegraph; 
Farmers' Mutual Insurance Co.; A .Suggestion, 25. 

FRUIT MARKETING.— Action by the Santa Clara 
Fruit Driers' Assnciation, 25. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.- Lines; Dr. Margaret; After 
Christmas, 26 

YOUNG POLKS' COLUMN. — A Suggestion; 
Mi<" Maaon 8 Party, 27. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Cooking Potatoes, 27. 

GOOD HEALTH. -Prevention of Consumption. 27. 

QUBRInS AND REPLIES. — Grass for Hillside 
Orchards, He. 29. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES — From the Various 
Counties of i;aliforiiia, 30. 

HORTICULTURE. — Culture of Citrus Fruits in 
Northern Oalifotnia, 32. 

THE FIELD.— Take Care of the Manure-Pile; A 
Substitute for the Potato, 34. 

Business Announcements. ' 

[NKW TUIS ISSnR.) 

P\ows— Oliver Chilled Plow Works. 
, Palermo— Mc,\fee, Baldwin & Hammond. 
Plows— P. P. Mast & Co. 
Stock— Mechlin & Fritsoh, Stony Point. 
Bells, Evaporators, Etc.— .lames Linfortb. 
Dogs— M. P. McKoon, El Caj™. 
Ros.s-Oause & BisselL.Richmoud, Ind. 
Seeds and Plants— Vauahan's Seed stcre, Chicago, III. 
Fruit Trees— W. A Marcuse, Marysville. 
Band I'oup ings — Wells, Russell & Co. 
Seeds- l)ouk& Hupert, Greenwood, Neb. 
Trees— Kinton Stevens, Santa Barbara. 
Olives— F. 8. Gould, Santa Barbara. 
Dividend Notice— People 's Home Savings Bank. 
Seeds— B. F. Wellington. 
Seeds— Alneer Bros., Rockford. III. 
Olives— Frank Kunz, Sicramento. 
Gum Trees— Geo. R. Bailey, Berkeley. 
Olives— John Cooke, Berkeley. 
Peach Pits— Oakdale Cannery Co., Oakdale. 
Peach Pits— C. .1. Berry, Tulare. 
Harness, Etc.— C. L. Haskell. 
Prune Trees- McKevitt & Wood, Vacaville. 

trSee Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

General attention Is turned this week to pub- 
lic affairi. The reoarrenoe of ihowers, not in 
great Tolnme bat oyer a great area, has done 
much to allay the present apprehension, and 
time not reqnired in poshing field orchard and 
garden work is devoted to discuBsing the stir- 
ring events transpiring at the State and Na- 
tional Capitals and at the scene of the Indian 
wars in the new State of Dakota. 

The Legislature of 1891 is now organized and 
at work. The name* of the present race of 
law-makers are given in another column. Be- 
fore the end of the week Gov. Markham will 
have been inaugurated and inaugural-balled 
and set to work in his new place. Ex-Gov. 
Waterman will have retired to private life with 
the coniciouanegs of having labored earnestly 
and untiringly In the promotion of what he 
conceived to be for the public interest. 



Orange Crop and Markets. 

Readers will remember the annoancement in 
our columns of the shipment of oranges from 
Oroville to the Eist about Dec. 10th, A re- 
port on the sale of this fruit is now made pub- 
lic in the form of a letter from the shipper, who 
purchased the fruit from the Oroville growers, 
as follows : 

Los Angf.les, Jan. 2, 1891. 
Dear Sir : I have your letter of December 30th, 
which has been sent down to me at Los Angeles. I 
have to say with regard to the several carloads of 
oranges which we shipped from Oroville to Eastern 
points, that they gave absolutely entire satisfaction 
in every case. The fruit arrived in prime condition, 
and was well received by the trade. A dealer in 
Denver wrote us that it was very superior, highly 



statement telegraphed from Los Angeles on 
Monday of this week states that the orange- 
shipping season has opened up and the harvest 
has commenced. The crop this year is over 
125 per cent greater than last. It was 2600 
carloads then, while this year it will approxi- 
mate 4000 oarloads. The quality of the fruit 
is far aaperior to last year, both in texture and 
brightness. A condition which will make it 
difiBoult to market a portion of the crop is the 
fact that seedlings are running in a great many 
oB sizes in small oranges. The regular sizes 
are from 128 to 226 oranges to a box, while in- 
clusive of seedlings it will run largely from 250 
to .SCO a box, which are very undesirable sizes. 




OlD ORANGE TREES IN A MARYSVILLE GARDEN. 



colored, uniform-siz°d, good flavored fruit. Please 
remember these cars were shipped early in Decem- 
ber. It will be understood by fruit men that our 
Northern California oranges are always bound to be 
a profitable crop, as they reach market at a time 
when there is very little fruit to be had. 

P. E. Platt, Manager W. R. Strong Co. 
This is we believe the first shipment of north- 
ern-grown oranges eastward by carloads, and 
these facts are very important to the many 
growers who have young trees just coming into 
bearing. It now looks as though the product 
would increase rapidly. Northern-grown or- 
anges have also sold well in this city during 
the last month, though they have come into 
competition with unusually large quantities of 
imported .Japanese oranges, which are piled up 
in peddlers' wagons and on the street fruit- 
stands, retailing sometimes asbw as three dozen 
for two bits, though sometimes ranging higher. 
They are poor trash inwardly, so far as our expe' 
rienoe with them goes, and outwardly are rich 
in scale-bugs. No doubt they are picked for 
shipment long before they are ripe enough to be 
eatable. 

AH reports indicate a very large orange prod- 
uct in Southern California this winter and 
rather an interesting trade in the crop. A 



being too small for first-class trade. With 
Navels It is just the reverse. They are run- 
ning to large sizes as compared to other years. 
Safely one-third of them are o£F sizes, being too 
large. The regular sizes of Navels are 112 to 
176 to a box, while this year the crop is run- 
ning largely from SO to 96 to a box. 

The opening of the season's trade is marked 
by an organization among buyers which has 
adopted a style of contract they will use, 
and published a sort of a platform of principles 
upon which they will operate this winter. The 
contract is a simple agreement to sell at a cer- 
tain agreed price, subject to the conditions de- 
scribed on the back of the contract as follows: 

The regular sizes of oranges to be as follows: 
Navels, II2S to 176s, inclusive; Paper rind St. 
Michaels, 128s to 300s, inclusive; Seedlings, and 
all other varieties, 128s to 220s, inclusive; 96s and 
200s Navels, 360s St. Michaels, 96s, H2S and 250 
of Seedlings, and all other varieties, to be 50 cents 
less per box; 64s and 80s Navels to be sold $1 per 
box less. Larger or smaller sizes of Navels than 
those named above to be classed as Seedlings of 
same size. Larger or smaller sizes than those 
named above of all other varieties to be classed as 
culls and weighed back to the seller. 

All oranges to be stem-cut close to fruit, and all 
windfalls, thorned, limb-scratched, bruised, frosted, 
sunburned, buttoned or otherwise injured oranges, 



to be considered un merchantable, and classed a 
culls, and charged back to the seller. 

Seventy pounds to be considered a box of Paper- 
rind St. Michaels, and 65 pounds to be considered 
a box of all other varieties exclusive of culls. 

In their statement accompanying this docu- 
ment, the buyers expressly state that they did 
not consider the prices to be paid for oranges 
and seem to desire that they should not be 
charged with being a combine on the subjeot of 
prices. They agree among themselves conoem- 
ing prices to be paid for packing as follows: 

We establish a uniform rate, to pay per box for 
packing oranges, of three cents per box for graded 
fruit where the work is done by piece-work. Where 
fruit is not graded, four cents per box. Where 
fruit is carried to and from the packers, not to ex- 
ceed two and three-fourths cents per box. 

The dealers, however, seem to apprehend 
some little friction from the enforcement of 
their terms, tor they make the following forma' 
suggestion: 

That it is the sense of this meeting that the 
orange-growers of Riverside and other orange- 
growing districts, be requested to call a meeting, 
and appoint for the whole men to represent thera 
and their interests, at each packing-house in River- 
side and other orange districts throughout the pack- 
ing season, and to remain there and represent them 
in the weighing and culling of oranges, so as to in- 
sure the growers fair treatment, and enable the buy- 
ers to buy oranges in the way that they are com- 
pelled to sell them. 

Whatever the declaration, as stated, of the 
ten buying firms who have agreed upon the 
terms which we have outlined, that they have 
not acted in the matter of fixing prioes, there 
seems to be an impression at the South that 
the arrangement is not so innocent as appears 
upon its face. A Los Angeles telegram of Jan. 
5th is so unkind as to say: " Buyers of South- 
ern California oranges have perfected an or- 
ganization for the purpose of controlling and 
regulating prioes. The combine has held ft 
meeting and the evident intention is to freeze 
out the grower and force him to accept any 
price they may dictate. The result of this will 
probably be an organiz»tion on the part of the 
growers for the purpose of disposing of ^their 
crop themselves." 

This telegram fortunately gives the remedy 
as well as the disease, so that the latter can be 
at once applied, in case of the outbreak of tlie 
former. The Siuthern orange. growers have 
had a good deal of experience during the last 
i ten years, and they are a wide-awake and re- 
sourceful people. They can combine and do 
their own basiness if need be, and do it suocesa- 
fp'.ly. They have done it before. 

No doubt, however, the enterprising mer- 
chants operating in Southern California oranges 
are entitled to reward for their energy and 
business skill, and we trust they will not en- 
deavor to secure more than a fair recompense. 
If they do not, the vast and Increasing trade 
will proceed satisfactorily and enrich all con- 
cerned either as growers or dealers. On the 
other hand, an iniquitous combine will create a 
conflict and occasion vexation and losses all 
around. 

The Marysville Citrns Fair. 

On next Monday, Jan. 12tb, the. Northern 
and Central California Citrus Fair will open at 
Marysville. The event has been fully heralded 
in our columns from week to week, and we are 
glad to announce that our friends in the Marys- 
ville district will give their visitors something 
worth going long distances to see. The ApjHal 
of Tuesday, speaking of the preparations for 
the fair, says: 

It will be a feast for the eye; an astonishing, 
entrancing display of beauty in foliage and 
fruit. Everybody in the State should see 
it, for it will be worth a long journey to be- 
hold. It is to be a proud week for Northern 
California, for Marysville is doing more than 
justice to the occasion. Scores of enthnsiastio 
ladies are lending their skill and taste to volun- 
tary labors of adornment. Some idea of the 
extent of the decoration may be gained from 
the bare statement that thousands of feet of 
evergreen "rope " — literally more than a mile of 
it — has been made for festoons, wreaths and 
ornamental effects, and many thousands of or- 
anges have been used in the ornamentation of 
the walls and ceilings. Such beauty and full- 
ness of decoration as will distinguish this fair 
has never before been attempted in displays of 
oitrns fruits. And the showing of fruit prom- 
ises to he of a completeness, merit and attract- 
iveness corresponding to the decorative effects. 

As shown in last week's Rural, there will be 
excursions from all leading points in Central and 
Northern California, and reduced rates for the 
round trip. There should be a full attendance 
during the week beginning next Monday. 

Visitors will not only see the fair at Marys- 
ville. They oan find within the oity limits 
many old bearing orange trees like those shown 
in the engraving on this page. 



Jan. 10, 1891.J 



f ACIFie f^URAb pREsa 



Ice Spring Craters in Utah. 

The historic Lake Bonneville, which 
was the largest o{ the lakes of the Great 
Basin, waa fed chiefly by the snows of 
the Wasatch and Uintah mountains. Its 
catchment basin embraced about five de- 
grees of latitude and three of longitade, 
containing about 54,000 gquare miles, or 
the fourth part of the area of the Great 
Basin. This region of Utah has been 
made a subject of special study of late 
years by the U. Geological Survey, 
and many facts of great scientific inter- 
est have been developed. 

Of the various volcanic districts of 
Utah, that which is the most interesting 
In this connection occupies the eastern 
portion of the Sevier Desert in the vicin- 
ity of the towns of Holden, Fillmore, 
Corn Creek, Kemosh and Deseret. Near- 
est to Fillmore is the Ice Spring lava 
field, with its cluster of craters. The 
lavas of this locality are the most recent 
within the Bonneville area, and their 
phenomena are typical of sub-aerial 
eruptions. The craters are grouped 
closely together. There have been at 
least twelve snccesBive eruptions through 
as many independent vents within a ra- 
dius of 1500 feet, and none of these 
eruptions appears to have been large. 

One of the largest of the Scoria hills 
is the Crescent, shown in the accom- 
panying engravings. It is a crater 
fragment showing nearly one-half of the 
original circle. It rises 250 feet above 
the eastern base, and the entire crater 
appears to have had a diameter of 2200 
feet. One end of the Crescent is buried 




ICE SPRING OBATERS; THE CRESCENT AS SEEN FROM THE MITER. 




CRESCENT. 

ICE SPRING 



MITER. TERRACE. 

CRATERS; BIRD'S-EYE VIEW FROM THE WEST. 



beneath a lava crater, the Miter. 
The other is cut off by a stream 
of lava fiowlng from the same. 

The Miter, also shown in the 
engraving, is perhaps the most 
recent of the craters. Its rim is 
nearly circular, with a diameter 
of 950 feet. Its highest side, on 
the east, rises 275 feet above the 
central depression. Its history 
has involved at least two over- 
fiows. After it had reached about 
its present size, the lava rose with- 
in it, breached its north side, 
and discharged. 

The discharge was followed by 
explosive eruptions and the 
breach was repaired. 

Between the Miter and the 
Crescent, stands a low cone re- 
sembling the Miter in form, but 
only 400 feet in diameter. 

The Terrace crater lies just 
south of the Miter, with an irreg- 
ular outline and an extreme 
length of 1100 feet; width, 700 
feet. The depth of the crater be- 
low its general rim is 260 feet. 

The name of the Ice Spring lava 
beds is derived from what may be 
regarded as a natural ice-house, 
existing in one of the deeper hol- 
lows of the fields. It is In a natu- 
ral pit among the lava blocks, and 
so sheltered by an overhanging 
ledge that it never receives the 
direct rays of the aun. 



Queries a|4d Replies, 



Grass for Hillside Orchards, Etc, 



Editors Press: — I wish to ask again a question 
which I asked about a year ago, but to which I got 
no satisfactory response. Can any one recommend 
to me a grass, for use in foothill orchards, which 
will not be injurious to trees and which will serve to 
prevent the " wash " of late rains to a certain ex- 
tent ? 

Also, can any fruit-grower give me his experience 
with Routier's seedling apricot in the foothills? — P., 
Stillwater, Cal. 

1, la not the failure to get any satisfactory 
response to the first question due to the fact 
that any grass which would fill the soil with 
roots sufficiently to resist washing would, dur- 
ing the dry season, exhaust so much moisture 
from the soil for its own growth that the trees 
would make small growth and bear small fruit? 
Hillsides usually part with their moisture all 
too soon, even if kept clean and well cultivated, 
and if turfed would receive less by penetration 
from winter storms and would lose more by the 



demands of the grass roots. We imagine our 
correspondent seeks for that which he would 
be glad to be rid of soon afterward; and if be 
obtained what he sought, in the form of a grass 
with running roots to hold the soil, he would 
have something which he would find it very 
hard to get rid of. What say others ? 

2. We would be glad to hear more of the 
Routiers apricot. Perhaps Robert Williamson 
of the W. R. Strong Co., who first catalogued 
the variety, can tell us of its adaptations, etc. 

The Llnasina Tree. 

Editors Press :— With this I send you a photo- 
graph of the South American Linasina tree [Parkin- 
sonia), as it appears growing in our yard. It was 
grown from seed brought by us from the Argentine 
Republic, is four years old, and is about 15 feet 
high. The bark is always bright green on the 
branches and twigs; the limbs are always angular, 
or jointed, with a thorn at each angle, long and 
drooping. The compound leaves are composed of 
a long, flat, slender, midrib (often 20 inches long) 
with a multitude of very small leaflets arranged 
alternately on each edge; these fold across the mid- 
rib at night in a peculiarly graceful manner. The 
flowers are about three-fourths of an inch in diam- 
eter, light yellow, with a delicate fragrance, and ap- 
pear from June to September. The fruit is a slender 
pod, containing from one to seven small beans. 



It is a tree of unique appearance, is quite hardy, 
stands drouth well; will bear some freezmg, but how 
much cold it will stand I cannot say. It makes a 
beautiful lawn tree, is fine for avenues, and one of 
the best hedge trees known, where a useful hedge is 
wanted. It can be pruned and trained as desired. — 
H. Churchman, Whittier, Los Angeles Co. 

The photograph shows in its general features 
the points described by our correspondent, but 
unfortunately is too defective in detail to make 
it available for producing an engraving. Our 
readers may, however, be interested in the de- 
scription as given. 

Prunes at the North 

Editors Press: — I have heard a prominent fruit- 
grower of Western Washington make the statement 
that the Italian prune cannot or is not grown suc- 
cessfully for drying purposes in California. He also 
claimed that that particular variety of the prune 
family grew to greater perfection in the south part 
of Western Washington and in Oregon. I should 
very much appreciate information as to the above 
statement. I have set out an orchard of 1500 prune 
trees (Italian) on newly cleared upland soil, one- 
third sand and two-thirds shot clay. Do you think 
the trees need fertilizing, and in place of barn-yard 
manure, what would you suggest ? 

There are splendid fruit lands all about this town, 
and a large number of fruit trees and vines are be- 



fng set out this fall and winter. — Wm, F. Toles, 

Centralia, Wash. 

We have heard of this claim before. It may 
be true, but we apprehend the reason why we 
grow so few Fellenbergs in this State is not 
that this variety is worse than at the north, 
but that the Petite d'Agen'does so much better 
in every way that it takes the lead. The 
French prune does better than the Italien in 
the orchard, it makes a better prane and it 
sells better. It may be very likely that one 
variety is just the thing for California and the 
other ditto for the North. This fact is not dis- 
creditable to either region. 

Stocks for Soils and Climates. 

Editors Press:— Can you not obtain from prac- 
tical fruit-growers a series of articles on adaptation 
of stocks 10 different soils and climates, as also to 
different varieties of fruit ? It would help many. — 
Grower. 

Our book, "California Fruits and How to 
Grow Them," gives quite full oonslderatlon to 
these subjects, and the Rukal correspondents 
keep the same alive by the recital of recent in- 
dividaal experience. We always enjoy the re- 
ceipt of a letter giving actaal observations on 
stocks for fruit trees. Get the root right and 
the victory is more than half won. 



30 



f ACIFie F5.URAI0 PRESS. 



[Jan. 10, 1891 



jJgricultural J^otes 



CALIFORNIA. 
Alameda. 

Steam Plowing and Seeoino. — Haywards 
Journal, Jan. 2 : A eteam plow is in operation 
on a number of the fields of Irvington, and ia 
attracting a good deal of attention. It doe> Ita 
work very speedily and efifectively; but Bome 
of oar old-time farmers think it looks rather 
nocanny walking over the fields. * • * 
Much seeding has been done by the farmers 
since the recent rains, although the land is a 
little hard in some places for the plow. There 
will be much more adobe planted this year 
than for some years past. Many farmers 
think best to get the seed in early, and if a dry 
season follows it will have the benefit of such 
rains as we do have. SafiBcient rain to plow 
is all that ia necessary for some time in this 
section, as there is plenty of moistare in the 
ground from last season's downpour. 

Butte. 

Earlt Results. — Palermo Progress: J. 
Wheeler, who resides about a mile and a half 
northeast of Palermo, was in town this week 
and presented us with a dcz9n seedling oranees 
grown on his place on trees (et out in 1SS8. 
The oranges are fine, large ones. Lits of the 
Palermo trees are loaded with the eolden fruit 
Mr. Trim has some fine lemons. There is no 
question but that Palermo will raise some of 
the finest oranges and lemons in this State. 

Laroe Peach Orchard — Palermo Prog' 
re«s', .Jan. 2 : R. A. Moorn of Hamilton will 
plant this winter nearly 5000 peach trees. They 
will include the orange, Edwards, Tuscan, and 
other fine varieties of the cling neach, and also 
the early Crawfords, Salnay. Mair and other 
ohoice freestone peaches. Ho will plant his or- 
chard north of his residence 00 the fine rich 
bottom-land adjoining the famoua Hatch & 
Rook orchards. 

Extensive Raisin.(5rape Culture — Chico 
Enterprise, Dao. 29: The Marysville Vineyard 
Co. of Colmena, organized to cultivate grapes 
on a large scale, has purchased 100 acres at Col- 
mena and will begin at once. Kaisins prodaced 
there this year are excellent and the yield is 
good. The -directors are H. Juch, J. M. Bar. 
ry, F. C. Miller, F. H. Greeley and J. H. 
Flint. 

Second-Crop Pears. — James MoPherson, 
Garden Ranch, Dec. 29: I bad a considerable 
second crop in my Bartlett pear orchard and 
when picking the first orop pulled off at least 
two-thirds of the second crop and threw them 
away. In October I picked the remainder 
of the second crop, about 400 pounds. They 
were of good size and seemed to me to contain 
more sugar when mellowed than the first crop; 
80 Butte county is not behind in anything I can 
■ee, except roads. 

Tree Planting Notes. — Oroville Mercury, 
Jan. 2: The Messrs. Power, three miles east 
of Oroville, have IS acres of oranges and are 
now preparing ground for seven acres more. 
They will be content with a 25-aore orange 
grove and about as many acres in peaches, ol- 
ives and figp, which they are now preparing to 
plant. . . .Oroville Regitter, Jan. 2; Obas. Char- 
vot of Thermalito will begin planting next week 
500 oraoee trees. These will be 400 seedlings 
and 100 Washington Navels, He will also plant 
1000 early White Muscat grapes, 300 T^kay 
and 200 French wine grapes, and will set out 
50 White Adriatic figs and 100 Villa Franca 
lemons. Mr. R. Power of Olive district will 
p]ant this winter 22 acres in addition to the 
number of fruit trees now growing upon his 
land, thus miking an orchard of 40 acres. Of 
this, 25 acres will be in oranges, while the re- 
mainder will be in olives, almonds, etc. 

Increased Acreage Seeded to Wheat — 
Gridley Herald, Jan. 3: Grain sowed upon 
summer-fallow land long enough to sprout is 
coming up nicely and presents a very thrifty 
appearance. Winter sown has not been plant- 
ed a sufficient length of time to germinate, 
although we hear of several tracts sown the 
early part of last month upon which a slight 
tinge of green can be seen. From the infor- 
mation at our command, however, we judge 
that the present area of this class of sowing 
will be increased fully one-third during the 
next fortnight, the weather and condition of 
the soil being exceedingly fine for the work. 
In faot, three-fourths of our ranchers seem to 
be thns engaged at this writing. It is safe to 
say that the aggregate acreage sown to wheat 
in Gridley township will exceed that of last 
season over one third, while the season so far 
has been so favorable that ranchers whose 
judgment is generally accepted as reliable, 
predict the Urgest orop harvested since ISSO, 
The indications are that the acreage sown in 
barley will be at least twice that of last 
season, 

OOlUBS. 

A Farmers' Telephone, — Willows, Jan. 1: 
Jeff Garnett has utilized three miles of barbed 
wire fence for a telephone. It runs from his 
old home to his new residence. A small wire 
U attached to a telephone in each house and 
thence to the wire fence, 

Fresno. 

Small Fruits Pay Well.— Fresno Expositor, 
Jan. 3 : There is considerable interest being 
taken among the fruit-growers of Fresno county, 
and particularly the colonists, in the culture of 
strawberries, blackberries and raspberries. The 
strawberry in particular has received mnoh at- 
tention during the past year. One of our col- 



onists has been very successful in producing the 
variety known as the " pineapple," It has a 
fine flavor and grows luxuriantly. The most 
profitable results can be obtained by planting 
out between rows of fruit trees, and they 
usually provide more plant food in the way of 
fertilizers than they take off. They generally 
produce best and grow more readily when 
placed upon ridges where they can be irrigated 
from the ditches. The profits derived from the 
strawberry are very large, as the home product, 
being fresh for the market, is always prefer- 
able. Blackberries are being prodaced exten- 
sively in the orchards, and, like the strawberry, 
they provide fertilizing food in excess of that 
which they consume when planted and culti- 
vated with fruit trees. Several of the small 
land owners in the colonies have adopted this 
plan, and the results have been very satisfac- 
tory. The Kittatinny and Lawton are the 
favorite varieties, and are found to produce 
very largely. The New Rochelle raspberry has 
been a favorite with producers, but the best re- 
sults have not been obtained, owing to the sun 
heat, which overtakes them liefore the ripening 
season. In shaded iooalities they mature and 
are delicioaa. 

El Dorado. 
An El Dobado Nursery. — El Djrado He- 
publican, 3 1: The W. R. Strong Co. of 
Sacramento Is preparing to start a nursery near 
Placerville, and la now negotiating for about 
five acres of land favorably located for that 
business. 

Humboldt. 
Fruit Industry.— Eureka Humboldt, Jan, 
1 : Over 14,000 boxes of apples have been sent 
out of the county during the last six months. 
There are many people Interested in the ques- 
tion of apple-growing. All of the owners of 
the 2000 orchards in the county are beginning 
to feel that good varieties of apples find a 
readier market than the more common prod- 
ucts of the farm. They already know that 
they are a surer crop, and that the labor in- 
volved in fruit cultivation is much lighter 
and pleasanter work than growing potatoes and 
cereals. 

XjOb Anaeles. 
Banana-Growino. — Santa Monica Outlook, 
Dec, 31: John Steere brought into our office 
this morning some large ripe bananas, grown on 
bis premises and picked from a bunch of 65, all 
ripe, Mr. Steere also showed us specimens 
that had attained the remarkable growth of 
eight feet during this year. This is a specimen 
of richness that belongs to at least 20,000 acres 
of land in this vicinity. 

Napa, 

VlTicULTCRAL NoTES, — Napa Regitter, Jan, 
2: There are in the county upward of 640 
vineyards, containing five acres and more each. 
The great bulk of these are located between 
Yountville and Calistoga. From the former 
town to St. Helena the valley is almost a solid 
vineyard, and large fields of vines extend far 
up the slopes of the bills on either side. There 
are 20 or more vineyards in Pope valley, though 
none of them are of great extent. In Conn 
and Chiles valleys and contiguous hillsides 
there are quite a number of vineyards in good 
condition. There are a few excellent vineyards 
on Howell mountain, where a very fine quality 
of grapes is produced in good quantity. Foss, 
Berryessa, Wooien, Capelle and Gordon valleys 
cannot be said to be ranked as grape-producing 
localities. Not bat that vines would flourish 
and bear abundantly there, bnt their isolation 
and the expense of transporting grapes when 
ripe or wine when pressed is too great to justify 
the investing of much capital in this industry. 
In the Sasool hills there are but few vineyards, 
lo Browns valley, the Redwoods and away 
toward and to the Sonoma county line, along 
the highway leading from Napa City to Sinoma, 
are to be found vineyards of greater or less ex- 
tent. In almost all vineyards in the county 
there are to be found two or three varieties of 
vines, viz.: Zinfandel, Riesling and Ohasselas. 
These appear to ba standard wine grapes. In 
very many there are grown from five to 20 
other varieties, many of which are the finest 
wine grapes to be found anywhere on the globe. 
The yield of grapes this season has, in many 
inBtancep,been larger than viticulturlsts counted 
upon in the early summer months; in other 
cases not so much. The quantity is consider- 
able, the quality superior. Good prices ought 
to be obtained for the season's yield. There 
are in the county over 17,000 acres of bearing 
vines. These have yielded from one ton to five 
or more per acre, according to the location, age 
and condition of the vineyards. 

Oranse. 

Thb Potato Crop.— Anaheim Qazetle, Jan, 
1 : Tim Carroll's big potato patch was a scene 
of activity last week, A gang of men was en- 
gaged in digging the second potato orop this 
season. The first orop went 375 sacks to the 
acre, and the second crop will go in the neigh- 
borhood of 150 sacks, worth 2^ cents per pound 
for seed. This potato land has produced on an 
average over 500 sacks per acre the past season. 
The first crop brought in over $4000, and the 
present one will go well up toward that figure. 
Next year Tim will have 100 acres planted to 
this paying crop. J. L. Holly, who some weeks 
ago 'purchased a Prnyn potato-digger, which 
E, A. White procured for him from the factory 
at Hoosac Falls, N. V,, informs us that It 
works like a charm on the peat-lands south of 
town. He digs five acres of potatoes per day 
with it. Mr, Holly has 25 acres in potatoes 
this season, and has just dug his second crop, 
which yielded largely. Next year he will plant 



50 acres. There are several hundred acres 
planted to potatoes in this county. The second 
crop, now being dug, promises to bring prices 
quite as satisfactory as those which ruled for 
the first crop, although no one looks for a re- 
currence of the high prices paid for potatoes In 
the spring. 

San Bernardino. 

Colts Killed by Wire Fence, — San Bsr- 
nardino THmrs-Index.JAn. 3 : James W, Waters 
hid two very valuable blooded colts, for one cf 
which be was offered, a few days ago, $300. 
Thursday morning he had a man take the colts 
from his stable to pasture them. The man 
proceeded with them all right until a dog 
rushed out and frightensd them so that they 
ran into a wire fence, injuring bath so that one 
of them will die from the effects and the other 
will never amount to mnch. The foreleg of one 
of the colts was cut almost off, while the other 
was cut and Injured in several places. Mr, 
Waters will find out whether a wire fence is 
lawful or not. 

Grange-Industry Geowth. — Riverside 
Prem and Hortieulturiit, Jan. 3: Riverside in 
1872 was a poor sheep ranch. In 1880-1 it 
shipped 15 carloads, or 4290 boxes, of oranges; 
the amount yearly inoreascl, nntll in 1888-9 
it was 925 carloads, or 263,879 boxes. In 1890 
it rose to 1253 carloads, or 358 341 boxes; and 
an important fact is that the largest shipment 
was in April (455 carloads, or 130,226 boxes) 
at the time when the snoply from other orange 
regions for the markets Eist had nearly ceased. 

Beets in Deciduous Fruit Orchards. — 
Chino Champion, Jan. 2: The past year 
proved that deciduous fruits brought about as 
large incomes, acre for acre, as citrus. Decid- 
uous fruit trees come into bearing sooner than 
orange and lemon trees. Now that the beet- 
sugar industry is established here, the expense 
of growing a deoiduous fruit orchard can be 
more than met by cultivating beets between 
the rows. This is no theory but a demon- 
strated faot. There are many thousand acres 
of the Chino moist and semi moist lands, which 
are highly suited to this kind of double culture. 
It has been very satisfactorily proven at Wat- 
sonville that over $40 an acre net can be made 
from beets grown in orchards till they are 
three years old, 

Solano- 

Crop Prospects. — Dixon Tribune, Jan, 2: 
It is estimated that the acreage sown to grain 
in this locality will be at least one-third more 
than in ordinary seasons. After the heavy 
rains of last season, however, a very large area 
of land was summer-fallowed, but owing to the 
excessive moisture a large portion of it had 
been overgrown with rank vegetation, which 
exhausted the soil to a considerable extent, so 
the yield, under the most favorable conditions, 
cannot be expected to exceed the usual rate. 
Stanislaus. 

Seeding About Over. — Oakdale Cor. Mo- 
desto Herald, Jan. 1: We have recently in- 
terviewed several leading farmers and find they 
have made the best of the favorable season for 
seeding. The area sown is large and the work 
has been thorough, owing to the favorable con- 
dition of the soil, John McHugh, a prosper- 
ous grain-grower, who resides south of Oak- 
dale, stated to the writer yesterday that a few 
of his neighbors bad finished for the season; 
that all had their work well advanced, and 
with a few exceptions would finish up this 
week. 

Sutter. 

Crop Statistics. — Yuba City Indtpmdent: 
The orop statistics for the season of 1890, as re- 
turned by the connty assessor, are as follows in 
acres: Wheat, 43.412; oats, 380; barley, 4899; 
corn, 106; hay, 4802; number fruit trees, 
185,216; vines, acres, 691. 

Raisin Notes. — Yuba City, Jan. 1: The 
Sutter County Fruit Co. packed 22,500 boxes 
of raisins this season. Wm. Calmes of College 
City sold last year over $5000 worth of raisins 
from 17 acres. No irrigation. There will be 
between 300 and 400 acres of raisin grapes 
planted close around College City this year, be- 
sides a number of large vineyards farther out. 

Grain Crop Items. — Nloolans Cor. Ynba 
City Independent, Jan. 2: The ground was 
never in better condition for plowing than at 
present. The farmers are taking advantage of 
the favorable weather, and a large amount of 
winter plowing has been done. Owing to the 
late rains and the very heavy fogs whioh have 
followed them, the top of the plowed ground 
has been so sticky as to render harrowing ex- 
ceedingly difficult, if not impossible. While 
it has not rained here for nearly two weeks, 
yet the absence of sunlight and continual pres- 
ence of the fog have combined to keep a great 
deal of grain from being sown that would have 
now been in the ground. The acreage sown to 
grain will be the largest ever known here. 
Last winter's water out the acreage very short, 
and so a correspondingly large amount of land 
was summer-fallowed, which, together with the 
winter-sown grain, swells the acreage for next 
year's crop to the largest ever known in this 
community. The summer-fallowed grain is up 
and looks well, and with a reasonable season, a 
large crop may be expected, 
Tulare. 

Poultry-Raising, — Tulare Register, Jan. 2: 
This is a great poultry region, and thousands 
of dollars are Involved, In a ride out over the 
oonntry, great flocks of chickens, turkeys and 
dncka are seen in such numbers that one 
wonders what will be done with them all; but 
they go and good American coin oomes. The 
demand is great at home, while » dense popu- 



lation of non-producers in the bay region ia to 
be supplied. With all the home product, large 
quantities of poultry and eggs are shipped in 
from the East, 

Large Acreage to Grain, — Traver Advo- 
cate, Jan. 1: J, H, and Charles Johnson of 
Dinuba have just finished putting in 1000 acres 
of the Pleasant Valley Stock Farm, eight miles 
west of Huron, into grain. The company that 
owns this land has one of the largest and finest 
farming properties in the State. It baa an 
abundance of water for Irrigation even for its 
wheat-fields, also a large alfalfa-field and a nice 
one-year-old vineyard. Water for irrigation is 
taken from the Pobo and the company is getting 
ready to still further enlarge ilh ditches for ir- 
rigation. This fall and winter has been one of 
the most favorable ever known hero for farm- 
ing. There has been no frost to speak of; the 
rainfall has not been so heavy as it was last 
year up to date, but for the past month the soil 
all over the 76 country has been in excellent 
condition for plowing and the land has been 
rapidly seeded to grain or being prepared for 
trees and vines. Even the adobe wheat-lands 
in toward the foothills, a good part of which 
could not be seeded last winter, or was poorly 
put in, owing to frequent rains causing the soil 
to become sticky and unfit to plow, are being 
seeded successfully this season, and if there is 
an abundance of spring rains the wheat crop of 
the 76 country for the season of 1890 91 bids 
fair to exceed in productiveness the noted sea- 
son of 1889 90. Farmers are ail pleased with 
the outlook for abundant crops and the work of 
seeding goes merrily on. 

Tree and \'ine Planting. — Vlsalia ^Ames, 
Jan, 1: I. H, Thomas estimates that 4000 acres 
of land in Tulare county will be planted to 
trees alone this winter. The acreage that will 
be devoted to vines may exceed this figure. 

Acreage to Raisin Grapes. — Visaiia Delta, 
Jan, 1: About 2000 acres will be planted to 
raisin grapes this spring about Traver. The 
Ciirmelito Vineyard Company, of which S. F. 
Earl is secretary, and which purchased 800 a- 
cres of fine land, is building a nice residence, 
barn, etc, and will this year plant 160 acres to 
raisin grapes. Its ranch is located in the Kings 
river bottom, on the old 76 ranch. 

Large Wheat Ranch, — Traver, Jan. 1- J, 
M, Clark & Brother, who farm for wheat 2900 
acres of land near Traver, are running eight 8- 
horse teams and putting in on an average 100 
acres a day. They drill their wheat; hence their 
success, 

Ventura. 

Ventura's Produce Shipments.— Los An- 
gelei Expresi, Jan, 2: The bean shipments of 
Ventura county have so far this season num- 
bered about 600 oars. There are yet 400 oars 
to be shipped before the entire crop is aent to 
market. This crop is from 18,924 acres planted 
to beans. There were shipped from this county 
during the past season 6000 tons of apricots, 
600 of prunes, .SOO of apples and 200 of peaches. 
The walnut crop measured 150 tons, the orange 
and lemon crop 250 tons. There were 3600 
acres planted to wheat, 60,200 to barley, 7800 
to corn and 193 to oats. This season it is esti- 
mated that the crop will be 20 per cent in ad- 
vance of that of last season. The available 
lands of Ventnra county are being fast taken 
up and profitably cultivated, much of the credit 
for which is due to the Southern Pacific rail- 
road and its extensions. 

ARIZONA. 

Irrigation. — Yuma Times, Dec. 31: There 
are 701 miles of irrigation canals in the Ter- 
ritory, and 295,200 acres of land irrigated. 
The arable land which is practically irrigable, 
amounts to 5,550,000 acres. The Governor 
solicits the General Government to grant to 
the Territory all the public lands within ita 
borders for reclamation and development. It 
is claimed that where irrigated, Ariz}na has 
the richest soil and is the best hay and vege> 
table oonntry in the world. 

Large Reservoir and Irrigating Canal. 
Pfcrcuix Republican: Few of our people are 
aware of the existence of one of the most im- 
portant enterprises in Central Arizona. That 
old pioneer, Wm. A. Hancock, assisted by L. 
H. Orme, J. D. Monihon and N. 0. Murphy, in 
1888, organized the Agua Fria Water & Land 
Company, with a capital stock of $3,000,000, 
for the purpose of storing in reservoirs the 
water of the Agua Fria river, in order that it 
might be used for irrigating the large body of 
land that lies on both sides of that river, that 
on the east side reaching down to the line of the 
Arizona canal, within 10 miles of the city of 
Pbccnix. The lower reservoir site is at Frog 
Tanks, and with a dam 100 feet high, will 
store 8,000,000,000 cubic feet of water. The 
upper site, 10 miles farther up the river, with 
a dam 150 feet high, will store 30,000,000,000 
cubic feet of water. The watershed of the 
river and its tributaries, above the lower dam, 
contains 150,000 square miles, and with an an- 
nual rainfall of 15 inches, it will afford 50,000,- 
000,000 cubic feet, or an ample supply of water 
for irrigation of 150,000 acres. The main canal 
will be 45 feet wide on the bottom and 55 feet 
at the surface of the water, six feet from the 
bottom. The grade will be two feet per mile. 
At the Oalderwood Butte, 12 miles below the 
dam, the water for the land on the west side 
of tlie river will be carried across the river in 
large pipes, supported by a suspension bridge, 
with a fall of 50 feet In crossing the stream. 
The construction of the dams and canals, in- 
oinding 40 miles of laterals, will involve the 
expenditure of probably $1,400,000. 



Jan.vIO, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESa 



31 



The Northern Citrus Fair. 

The California State Citrus Fair for the oonn- 
ties oatside of the 6th Congressional district 
will be held at Marysville, Cal., opening Jan. 
12th and continuing through the week, 6, W. 
Hancock and John Boggs are Managing Direct- 
ors. The o£Scer8 of the local association are: 
Norman Rideout, President; O. W, Harney, 
Secretary; G. W. Peacock, Treasurer; James 
O'Brien, Jr., Superintendent, 

The Southern Pacific railway will return ex- 
hibits free of obarge on presentation to the 
agent at Marysville of a certificate from the 
Secretary of the fair saying that the property 
has been on exhibition, and has not changed 
hands. Wells, Fargo & Co. will also bring ex- 
hibits at their special fruit rates. 

Eater exhibits and apply for space at once. 
Apply to or address G. W. Harney, Sec'y, 2d 
St., Marysville, dl. 

PREMIUM LIST. 

ODsn to Producers Only. 

CLASS I— COUNTY EXHIBITS. 

Best exhibit of citrus fruits by one county. 
First Premium .. $200 oo I Second premium $150 00 
Third premium. 100 00 | Fourth premium 75 00 

CLASS 2 — WASHINGTON NAVELS. 

The largest and best exhibit of Washington Navel 
oranges by one grower. The exhibit to receive an 
award under this premium must contain not less 
than 2000 oranges. 

First premium $200 | .Second premium. . .$100 

CLASS 3— WASHINGTON NAVELS. 

Best exhibit of Washington Navel oranges. (Any 
exhibit competing in class 2 will not be entitled to 
compete in this class.) 

First premium: $50 I Second premium. . .$30 

Third 20 | 

CLASS 4 — BUDDED ORANGES. 

Best exhibit of budded oranges other than Wash- 
ington Navels. 

First premium $25 I Second premium .. .$15 

Third 10 | 

CLASS 5 — BUDDED ORANGES. 

Best 12 budded oranges exhibited and grown by 
one person. 



Third. 
Fifth.. 



10 


Second premium 


...$9 


8 






6 




• ■- 5 


4 


Eighth 


■ •• 3 


2 


Tenth 


. . . I 



CLASS 6— SEEDLINGS. 

Best exhib t of seedling oranges. 

First premium $100 I Second premium $75 

Third 50 | 

CLASS 7— DOZEN SEEDLINGS. 
Best 12 seedlings by one grower. 
First premium $10 Second premium I9 



Fouith 7 

Sixth 5 

Eighth 3 

Tenth i 

-LEMONS, 



Third 

Fifth 6 

Seventh n 

Ninth 2 

CLASS 8- 
Best di'pUy of lemons. 

First premium $50 I .Second premium ... .$30 

Third 20 | 

CLASS 9 — LIMES. 

Best display of limes. 
First premium $ro I Second premium $5 

CLASS 10— SHADDOCKS. 

B?st display of shaddocks an I piim,ilo?. 

First premium $5 | Second premium $3 

Third 2 | 

CLASS n — OLIVES. 

Best display of olives. 

First premium $20 | Second premium $10 

Third Si 

CLASS 12 — PICKLED OLIVES. 

Best display ol pickled olives. 
First premium $10 | Second premium $5 

CLASS 13— OLIVE OIL. 

Best display of olive oil 



.Second premium $25 

Fourth 10 



•$3 



First premium $50 

Third 15 

Fifth s 

CLASS 14— PERSIMMONS. 

Best exhibit of persimmons. 

First premium .$5 | Second premium 

Third z | 

CLASS 15— POMEGRANATES. 

First premium $3 I Second premium $2 

Third i 1 

CLASS 16 -RAISINS. 
Best display of raisins. 



First premium $too 

Third 50 

Fifth 10 



Second premium $75 

Fourth 25 



CLASS 17— DRIED FIGS. 

Best dispUy of dried figs. 



First premium $25 

Third 10 



Second premium $15 

Best display of dried 
White Adriatic figs 20 

CLASS 18 — PRUNES. 

Best display of dried prunes. 

First premium $50 I Second premium $25 

Third 10 | 

CLASS 19— DATES. 

Best display ol dates. 
First premium $5 | Sfcond premium $2 

CLASS 20 — DRIED KKUIT.S. 

Best general exhibit of dried fruits other than 
raisins. 

First premium $100 | Second premium . . . .$75 

Third 50 | Fourth 25 

CLASS 21 - PRESERVED AND CANNED. 

Best exhibit of c-inned and preserved fruits exhib- 
ited by others than packers. 

First premium $15 I .Second premium $ro 

Third 5 | 

CLASS 22 — NUTS. 

Best general exhibit of nuts. 

First premium $15 | Second premium $10 

Third Si 

CLASS 23— NURSERY STOCK. 

Best exhibit of citrus nursery stock $2S 



CLASS 24— PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 

Best exhibit of potted plants and flowers. 

First premium $10 1 Second premium $5 

Third 2 | 

CLASS 2S— ESSAY. 

Best practical essay on orange culture (limited 
to 2500 words) $50 

The essay must be type-written and delivered to 
the Secretary on or before Jan. 10, 1891, unsigned 
but accompanied by a letter giving name of contrib- 
utor. 

CLASS 26— WINES. 

Best general display of wines by maker $;o 

CLASS 27— MOST ARTISTIC DISPLAY. 

Most artistic display $50 

Rules and Regulations. 

1. All exhibits must be in position and readiness 
for examination by the judges at 12 o'clock noon 
Tuesday, and no premiums will be paid on any arti- 
cle on exhibition unless properly entered on the Sec- 
retary's books before that time, and in the place as- 
signed them for exhibition. 

2. All exhibitors must obtain a card with number 
on from entry clerk to agree with exhibit. This 
card must be kept in a conspicuous place near the 
exhibit. 

3. Competitors must be producers except in the 
competition for wines, in which case maker is ad- 
mitted. 

4. No article or exhibit entered for premium can 
be removed before the close of the fair without per- 
mission of the superintendent. 

5. Free cartage in Marysville for all exhibits. 



The best anodyne and expectorant for the cure of 
colds and coughs and all throat, lung and bron- 
chial troubles, is, undoubtedly, Ayer's Cherry Pectoral. 
Ask your druggists for It, and, at the same time, for 
Ayet'a Almanac, which is free to all. 

Don't FaU to Write. 

Should this paper De received by any subscriber who 
does not want 11, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but If it Is continued, through the failure of the 
anbscrlber to notify us to discontinue It, or some trre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time It is sent. Look carefullt 

4T TUB LABKLON TODR PAFKB. 



$500,000 

To LOAN IN ANY AMOUNT AT THE VERY LOWEST 

market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A, SCHULLER, Room 8, 430 Cali- 
fornia St.. San Franrlwo. 



$3,250,000 

To LOAN ON MORTGAGE ON RANCHES AND CITY 

real estate below market rates, HOWE & KIM- 
BALL, 508 California St., S. F. 




Northern • 
california 

WILL BE HELD AT 

JAN.ia^ TO 

(^shRemuJm.^ 

2500. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD! 




DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC 

Before Buytas a Sewing Machine. 
It Is the lead In prkotlcal progress. Send for price lUt 
W. BVANS, aO Post St., S. F. 



Pretty Palermo ! 

THE QUEEN COLONY OF THE NORTHERN 

CITRUS BELT. 



The visitors to the Citrus Fair at Marysville should not make a mistake 
and return home without having seen the pretty and prosperous Colony of 
Palermo. It is but an hour's ride on the Oroville train and the time is well 
expended. 

The Colony comprises about 7000 acres and is situated on the line of 
the branch Railroad from Marysville to Oroville, being five miles from the 
latter place, which, by the way, is the County Seat of Butte County. 

A large tract, which gently slopes from the railroad to the foothills, is 

^ ° LOTS OF FIVE ACRES AND UPWARD, 

And the wide streets, avenues and beautiful drives form a feature of Palermo's 
prosperity. 

A bountiful supply of pure fresh water is everywhere distributed. Large 
and permanent reservoirs assure to the Palermo Colonists an absolutely 
unlimited supply of water for irrigation. 

As an indication of their belief in the increasing prosperity of Palermo, 
it may be mentioned that the Railroad Company has recently purchased the 
Townsite and constructed a commodious depot. Recently the " Palermo 
Progress," a weekly paper, has made its appearance, and telegraph, express 
and post offices were established long since. A general merchandise store, 
church, planing mill, blacksmith shop, etc., etc., form the nucleus of a future 

COMFORTABLE HOMES, 

Surrounded by orange groves, dot the plains of Palermo. Thriving orchards 
and vineyards prove the great value of the various tracts now offered for sale. 

PURCHASE AT PALERMO, PLANT ORANGES AND FRUITS AND 
BECOME PROSPEROUS AND HAPPY, is the advice of 

McAFEE, BALDWIN & HAMMOND, 

REAL ESTATE AGENTS AND AUCTIONEERS, 



10 MONTGOMERY STREET, 



SAN FRANOISOO. 



BLISTER 



FOR HORSES. 

WHAT TO USE. 

For a blister to use on live-stock, 

GOMBAULT'S 

CAUSTIC BALSAM 

Has NO EQUAL. Why? 

Because it is ft perfectly safe remedy for any one to 
use. After applying as directed it needs no attention, 
acts quickly and is effective. Removes all bunches 
or enlargements and gaaranteed not to leave scar 
or blemish. Supersedes all cautery or firing. 
Every bottle sold 13 warranted to give satisfaction. Price 
$1.60 per bottle. Sold by all druggists, or sent by 
express, charges paid, with full directions for its use. 
Send for descriptive circulars. Address I, A WKENCE, 
WILLIAMS & CO.. Cleveland, O. 



PEOPLES HOME SAVINGS BANK, 

805 Market Street, in Flood Buildinnr. 
DIVIDEND NOTICE. 



FOR THE HALF-YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 
1890, a dividend has been declared at the rate of five 
and fifty-two one-hundredthe (5.52) per cent per annum 
on term deposits and four and sixty one-hundredtha 
(4 60) per cent per annum on ordinary deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after FRIDAY, January 2, 1891. 

B. 0. CARR, Secretary. 



The German Savings and Loan Society, 

526 California Street. 

DIVIDE N D N OT I C E. 

FOR THE HALF-YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 
1890 a dividend has been declared at the rate of five 
and forty'-hundredths (5 40-100) per cent per annum on 
Term Deposits, and four and one-half (4J) per cent per 
annum on Ordinary Deposits. Payable on and after 
FRIDAY, January 2, 1891. 

GEO. TOURNEY, Secretary. 



"Neponset" Waterproof Paper. 



NEPONSET MILLS. 



THESE PA- 
persare all 
guaranteed to 
be absolutelv 
water proof, ,/ 
air-tight ami 
odorless. 

For sheath- 
ing and lining 
of buildings; 
,tor roofing of 
a c t o r 1 e s, 
storehouses 
and farm 
buildings. 

They are 
entirely un- 
affected by 
heat, cold, 
snow or rain. 



"NEPONSET" SHEATHING (color black). 

NO. 1 "NEPONSET" ROPE ROOFING (color terracotta), 

NO. 2 "NEPONSET" ROPE ROOFING (color terracotta). 




These papers are in rolls 36 Inches wide, and the; con- 
tain either 250 or 600 square feet per roll, and weigh 
about 20 or 40 pounds per roll, respectively. 

DIMINICK & LOW, Agents, 

221 Front Street. - - San Francisco, Oal. 



SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION 

532 California Street, Corner W, bb; 
Branch, 1700 Market Street, Corner Polk. 

FOB THE HALF-YEAR ENDING WITH 31ST DE- 
cember, 1890, a dividend has been declared at the 
rate of five and tour-tenths (5 4-10) per cent per annum 
on Term Deposits and four and one half (4i) per cent per 
annum on Ordinary Deposits, free of taxes, payable on 
and after FRIDAY, 2d .January, 1891. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 




ECO]STOJ\a:Y 

TO 

Housekeepers'. 

PEERLESS 

STEAM COOKER 

Superior to All Others. 

GEO. W, SHREVE, 

625 Kearuy St., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



THE REGULAR ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
Stockholders of the GRANGERS' BANK OF CALI- 
FORNIA for the election of Directors for the ensuuig 
year, will take place at the oftice of the Bank, In the 
City of San Francisco, State of California, on TUESDAY, 
the 13th day of January, 1891, at one o'clock p. M. 
For Grangers' Bank of California, 

ALBERT MONTPKLLIER, 

Cashier and Manager. 



HORTON & KENNEDY still continue to supply 
the famous 

ENTERPRISE WINDMILLS. 

These Windmills have been advertised in and known 
by the readers of the Pacific Rural Phkss for over 20 
years. The Best is the Cheapest. Write for circulars 
and prices. 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

Livermore, Alameda Co., Cal. 

San Francisco Agency, JAMES LINFORTH, 87 Market St. 



lUtu^i IliumerCAriiCo,Cadi3,Obio. 



S2 



f ACIFI© f^URAb JpRESS. 



[Jan. 10, 1891 



JioRTICULTURE. 



Culture of Citrus Fruits in Northern 
California. 

At the recent convention of fruit-growers »t 
Santa Ornz, under the anepioes of the State 
Board of Horticulture, the following essay was 
read by S. S. Boynton of Oroville. This inter- 
esting paper was first published in the Rural 
of Deo. 13, but is here repeated as espeoially 
appropriate for circulatien at the Marysville 
Citrus Fair: 

The culture of citrus fruits in Northern Cali- 
fornia is no longer theoretical or experimental, 
no longer a conceit, a supposition or a belief, 
but is a solid, enduring, self-evident and living 
fact. The orange and lemon are there not door- 
yard ornaments, set as curiosities, placed in 
sheltered and protected spots, and are not 
grown under conditions more favorable than 
are elsewhere in this State awarded to theee 
fruits. The "Northern Citrus Belt" has long 
been the butt of good-natured ridicule, the sub- 
ject of jest and laughter by those who had in- 
terests to subserve by crying down its merits 
and deriding its possibilities. The time is, 
however, near at hand when its true light will 
burst forth with a vividness and triUiancy lit- 
tle dreamed of by those who have not studied 
its grand capabilities and its enormous territo- 
rial extent. 

Within the next few years such a quantity 
of citrus fruits will be produced and shipped 
from that region as will forever set at rest any 
aspersions or reflections upon that land as a 
citrus-fruit region. The day is by no means 
distant when its orange and lemon trees will 
be numbered by millions, and when its annual 
output of these fruits will amount to thousands 
of carloads. 

We are not talking at random upon this sub- 
ject nor carried away by enthusiasm. We 
have given the subject not only months but 
years of careful study, and know whereof we 
speak. 

For a full score and ten years the historic 
orange tree at Bidwell Bar, in Butte, 200 miles 
north of where we now are, has blossomed and 
borne fruit without the loss of a single crop, 
and stands to-day a mute but eloquent green 
and living witness whose testimony is worthy 
of consideration and belief. While in a hun- 
dred spots throughout the counties of Butte, 
Yuba, Placer and others that might be named, 
oranges, olives and lemons have been in bear- 
ing for the past 20 years, yet oitrus culture in 
its broad and commercial sense is still in its 
swaddling-clothes. 

In September of 1885, in the town of Oro- 
ville, the first suggestion was made of holding 
a citrus fair in Northern California. Then the 
Sacramento Bet caught up the idea and assert 
ed that the citizens of Oroville knew that 
oranges could be grown there, but what was 
needed was to convince others of that fact. It 
urged that a citrus fair held in Sacramento, the 
capital of the State, ought to and would ac- 
complish this purpose. The residents of Oro- 
ville coincided with the statements of the Sac- 
ramento journals and those of other towns fell 
into line. The business men of the capitaj 
city made that exhibition a reality, and fruit 
from 12 different counties was displayed at the 
' first citrus fair of Northern California. That ex- 
tensive, marvelous, and splendid display of the 
semi-tropical productions of the northern part 
of this State, at once, and for the first time, 
awakened the people of that region to the possi- 
bilities of their soil and olimate, and was the 
direct cause of the great planting of citrus trees 
that has since taken place. The first fair was 
held in .January of ISSti, so that the oldest 
trees, set out since that date, and which com- 
prise more than nine-tenths of the total number 
of the whole region, are only four years old at 
the present time. 

It will thus be seen that citrus culture on an 
extended scale is a new industry in Northern 
California. The first man to be aroused and 
stimulated to action was Hon. John C. Gray of 
Oroville, who left the pavilion in which that 
fair was being held, hurried to his home, had 
20 acres of land prepared, went to Santa Clara 
county and purchased 2000 young olive trees, 
and while the fair was still fresh in the minds 
of all, he had these 2000 young trees planted in 
Butte county soil. Ue has since continued in 
the line thus begun and has now 10,000 young 
and thrifty olive trees, and from several hun- 
dred of these he will this year gather fruit. 
That he made no financial mistake is evident 
from the fact that he has since been offered 
$500 an acre for his olive plantation. Other 
citizens of Oroville were quickened to activity 
by his example and an organization of the lead- 
ing business men of that town was speedily 
effected. Thirty acres of good land were se- 
cured; two of the company went to Riverside 
and purchased 2100 Washington Navel orange 
trees, and during May and Jane these were 
planted on the north bank of Feather river in 
what is now the colony of Thermalito. The 
land cost them $100 an acre, the trees were 
$1 25 each, and to this must be added the cost 
of transportation, planting and caring for them 
during the intervening years. It will thus be 
seen that these gentlemen were not afraid to 
back their ideas and opinions of citrus culture 
with their coin. This grove has since been in- 
creased and at present numbers 3300 orange 
trees. They are now loaded with fast ripening 



fruit and this year will yield a large and abun- 
dant crop. 

Citrus-fruit planting was by no means con- 
fined to Batte, but all the other counties of the 
Sacramento valley felt the influence. A second 
citrus fair was held in the capital city in 
December of 1886, two fairs thus being held in 
one year, one in January and the other in the 
following December, and at this last fair fruit 
from 22 counties was displayed. These fairs, 
and liberal advertising by newspapers, caused 
much attention to be paid to citrus culture in 
Northern California, especially in the Sacra- 
mento valley and its adjacent foothills. Trees 
were planted not only in the sheltering foothills 
and on high and well-drained land, but in the 
open valley, and even along the low river bot- 
toms, the very last place where an orange grove 
should be set. As a result of this movement 
continued during the past three years we have 
in the vicinity of Oroville, Thermalito and Pal- 
ermo in Eistern Butte 98,349 orange, 6812 lem- 
on and 49.600 olive trees, a total of 154,761, or 
in round numbers about 1500 acres. The num- 
ber of citrus trees planted in other Northern 
California counties I am unable to state with 
exactness, but know that Placer, Sacramento, 
Colusa,Tehama, have all large numbers, and that 
Yuba in addition to her smaller tracts has 
planted one splendid young orchard of 130 acres 
or 13,000 orange trees in a single body. I be- 
lieve it would not be unjust to the other coun- 
ties in that section to estimate that Butte has 
planted as many citrus trees as all the others 
combined, which would then make 309,000 trees 
or 8000 acres devoted to the culture of citrus 
fruits in that part of the State. 

It is unnecessary that I should go into par- 
ticulars regarding the planting of orange seed, 
the manner of growing the young trees, bud- 
ding and grafting and other practical details 
of that kind. To one point I will, however, 
call particular attention. Hitherto, all the 
young trees — orange, lemon and olive — planted 
in that section have been brought from Florida 
or from Southern California; now there are 
vast numbers of young trees being raised, and 
the future planting will be done with these 
home-grown trees. In the vicinity of Oroville 
there are at least half a million young trees 
from one to four years old, and there are a 
large number of these trees at Palermo, Wyan- 
dotte, Marysville, Chico, Newcastle and other 
places that will ere long be set out in orchards, 
and thus will be largely extended citrus culture 
in that part of California. 

Markets. 

The market for oranges is considered almost 
unlimited. On the north lie the great States 
of Oregon and Washington with a population 
of 600,000, while to the east Ilea a vast terri- 
tory, a portion of which we may with confi- 
dence expect to supply with its citrus fruits. 
With these certain and ever-increasing markets 
in view, the prospect for growing oranges in 
Northern California is an alluring one. The 
profits of those who have bearing trees are such 
as to encourage others who have planted out 
young orchards and are now awaiting their 
coming into bearing. So flattering are these 
prospects that during the present year a ten- 
acre tract of. two-year old Washington Navel 
orange trees at Thermalito sold for $650 an 
acre. Sales at Palermo have also been ex- 
tremely flattering. 

If the citrus-fruit outlook is now so attract- 
ive and brilliant, some may ask why this in- 
dustry was not pushed ahead long ago, for 
orange trees have been in bearing in that part 
of the State for the past 80 years. May we 
ask in turn, are there no other latent and un- 
developed resources left in that and other parts 
of our grand State 1 The olive flourished for 
fourscore years in Southern Ctlifornia ere the 
manufacture of olive oil by Mr. Oooper and 
others attracted general attention to that tree, 
Fig-growing as a commercial enterprise is a 
comparatively new one, yet it has been known 
for 40 years that the fig flourished in all our 
warmer valleys. Fifteen years ago California 
raisins were a rarity, while now our output is 
enormous and is rapidly increasing; yet the 
vine was known to flourish here in great per- 
fection many years ere raisin-making became a 
business. Cork is worthy of attention here, is 
adapted to our soil and climate, and in Spain 
and Northern Africa immense fortunes have 
been made in cork, yet it is a neglected in- 
dustry in our State. It is certain that money 
can be made here in producing camphor, and 
that tree grows readily in all the warmer parts 
of California, yet who thinks of planting 
camphor trees from which to make money ? 
Why is it that we still import rhubarb from 
Europe when It can be so readily produced 
here ? There is money in licorice, yet that is 
among the neglected industries of California. 
Our prune production has grown into a mar- 
velous and gigantic enterprise, yet prune trees 
bore in this State long ere the fruit in any 
quantity was put upon the market. Various 
reasons prevented the earlier planting of oitrus 
fruits in Northern California upon a large 
scale, and one of these by too many has been 
overlooked. 

The orange and lemon have been most suc- 
cessful along the low foothills, as in Butte, 
Y^'uba and Placer. The earth there b mostly a 
reddish clay soil mixed with gravel, and which 
requires considerable water to make productive. 
Nearly all the water for irrigation in those 
localities was brought from the mountains for 
mining purposes and was held at a high price. 
Now, until the general decline in mining, no 
man could afford to buy water for irrigating 
purposes, and from this cause more than any 



other may be traced the lack of planting citrus- 
fruit trees. When mining declined the price 
of water was lowered, men saw that they coald 
afford to experiment, and they began to in- 
crease the number of their citrus trees. An- 
other reason was in the great expense in caring 
for an orange grove and bringing it into bear- 
ing. If the orange is king of fruits, it requires 
a royal revenue to pay the great expense during 
the time it is growing and coming Into bear- 
ing. If to this we add the lack of knowledge 
regarding the cultivation of citrus fruits among 
the residents, and the further fact that 
many believed they could only be grown in 
sheltered and protected spots where the condi- 
tions were unusually favorable, the reason is 
fairly explained why citrus culture was not 
sooner begun upon an extensive scale. 

The first citrus fair at Sacramento was the 
great awakening. When the fruit from 12 
grand counties had been gathered and the 
productions compared, it was seen that citrus 
culture extended over a far broader area than 
people had heretofore realized. The moment 
this fact was fairly Impressed upon the minds 
of the people, an almost instantaneous change 
was effected. It was like the traveler who 
emerges from the dark forest into the open sun- 
light of the broad valley, like the view pre- 
sented from the top of a noble mountain when 
the earth grows at ouce tenfold larger than ever 
before. Vast and almost unlimited possibilities 
spread out before the inhabitants of that region, 
and some of these bright visions they set about 
converting into living realities. Nearly 300,- 
000 orange, lemon and olive trees now growing 
as green and thriftily as they do upon Sicily's 
bright isle attest the faith and belief of the 
people of Northern California in citrus culture 
in the northern citrus belt. In the single 
colony of Thermalito there are 61 orchards, 
many of which are entirely of citrus fruits. In 
the colony of Palermo there are 65 orchards, 
containing 40,348 orange, 5112 lemon and 23,- 
640 olive trees. Arrangements are already 
made to plant to citrus fruits 500 additional 
acres in that part of the State. 

The essays, papers and discussions before 
this honorable body have always been of the 
most practical character. Facts relating to the 
best varieties of fruits, to the growth of the 
trees, to the methods of pruning, the various 
styles of packing and curing fruits, the de- 
struction of insect pests and a hundred other 
useful points are yearly discussed. In present- 
ing some facts upon citrus-fruit culture in 
r^orthern California, I cannot go into these de- 
tails because this industry is yet immature and 
undeveloped. The citrus trees are free from 
scale except in one or two spots, the varieties 
planted are mostly those that experience in the 
southern part of the State has shown are most 
likely to be successful. The young trees in 
nearly all localities are grown without any kind 
of protection. But little attention has so far 
been paid to pruning, and no washes or sprays 
have been used except in the one or two spots 
where the trees have scale. There is none so 
far in Butte county, which is the leading sec- 
tion. In the matter of grading, packing and 
boxing citrus fruits, no new or novel ideas 
have been developed. I have only been able 
to present general facts to you without those 
practical and useful details that have made the 
meetings of this honorable body of such great 
value to all the fruit-growers of California. 

That a grand future opens before the north- 
ern part of this State as a citrus-fruit region I 
am fully convinced, and ask your indulgence a 
moment longer, in presenting some figures that 
may be of interest. You are all aware that to 
grow citrus fruits successfully, three climatic 
conditions are necessary: First, that the annual 
average must not be too low; second, that the 
winter average must not be below 40 degrees; 
and third, that at no time during the winter 
must the cold be so great as to kill the trees. 
In order to present the claims of Northern Cal- 
ifornia in a fair and candid manner, we have 
selected ten places in the citrus regions of 
Italy, ten in Southern California and ten in 
Northern California, and given the annual aver- 
age, the average of winter and the lowest tem- 
perature of the winter. For convenience we 
have arranged these in tables. 

LOCALITIES IN ITALY. 

For Year. ForWinter. Lowest. 

Palermo 63° 53' 28° 

Naples.. 61 48 23 

Rome 60 48 19 

Florence 58 44 '2 

Pisa 60 46 26 

San Remo 60 48 25 

Genoa 6j 44 10 

Mentone 61 49 23 

Nice 59 4^ 26 

Cannes 60 49 30 

The average of these ten places for the win- 
ter is 47.7 degrees, for the year 60.2 degrees, 

and the lowest temperatures run from 10 to 32 
degreep. 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

Av. Winter. Av.Year. lowest. 

Colton 52' 64° 20* 

Daggett 47 65 20 

Santa Barbara 54 61 30 

Los Angeles 53 6° 3° 

San Diego ... 54 60 32 

Newhall 48 6° '8 

Riverside 5' ^ "5 

Poway 5° 59 21 

San Bernardino 49 So 

Spadra 54 64 28 

•these figures give the average for winter at 
50 degrees, for the year at 60.5 degrees, and the 
lowest temperatures run from 18 to 32 degrees. 



NORTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

A V. Winter. Av.Year. Lowest. 

Auburn 46° 59° iS" 

Chico 47 64 2c 

Oroville 52 65 29 

Orland 52 67 26 

Williams 48 63 22 

Knight's Landing. .. . 48 63 30 

Sacramento 48 62 19 

Redding 48 64 24 

Red Bluff 47 62 22 

Marysville 50 64 24 

A recapitulation shows that the winter aver- 
age for Europe is 47.7 decrees, for Southern 
California is 51.2, and for Northern California 
48.6. The annual average for Europe is 60.5 
degrees, for Southern California is 61.8, and for 
Northern California is 63.3. The lowest tem- 
peratures may be seen by inspecting the table. 

These figures are taken from the best author- 
ities and may be considered correct and reli- 
able. Upon the evidence of the figures here 
presented we see no reason why even the most 
prejudiced should hesitate in believing that 
Northern California will become famous in time 
as a citrus-fruit region. We firmly, honestly 
and sincerely believe that in years to come its 
low foothills and extended valleys will become 
as noted for their fruit as its mountains have 
for their gold and its wide plains for their 
grain. It is true the Almighty Creator in His 
infinite wisdom has wisely withheld from man 
the ability to foresee the future with certainty 
and precision. The Elijahs and Jeremiahs of 
old are no longer with us. That Supreme 
Being has, however, given as, in thought, 
fancy and supposition, the power to rend aside 
the mystic veil that bides the morrow from 
to-day, and permitted us to picture to our- 
selves in the roseate hues of hope and anticipa- 
tion what the coming years will bring to pass; 
and as we gaze with prophetic eye into the un- 
numbered cycles of time when the land we 
have attempted to describe shall be enriched 
by the labors of ourselves and our children, we 
behold that vast region teeming with millions 
of happy, prosperous and progressive people; a 
country made thrifty and productive by their 
enterprise and their energy; a land bright with 
fruits and gay with flowers; its foothill slopes 
covered with extensive, luxuriant and profit- 
able olive orchards rivaling in extent and rich- 
ness those of Italy and Greece; its broad and 
beautiful valleys dotted here and there with 
splendid groves of that noble tree, 
" Laden with fairest fruit, 

Blossoms and fruit at once of golden hue;" 

Its warm and sheltered nooks adorned with the 
continual blooming and ever -bearing lemon; 
far-spreading vineyards laden with grapes so 
large, sweet and delicious that none but Cali- 
fornia soil could have produced them. Mag- 
nificent fig trees lift their gigantic tops, filled 
with rich and luscious fruit. Lofty and tower- 
ing date palms, of which the poet says: 

" To man the palm is a gift divine, 
Wherein all uses of life combine — 
House and raiment and food and wine," 
Ornament the pleasing and fruitful landscape; 
and as we note the hill-slopes adorned with no- 
ble forests of chestnuts and walnuts, and the 
valleys green with vineyards and fair or- 
chards — orchards of prune, pear, apricot and 
almond — orchards where 

" Peaches glow neath sunny skies, 

Like maidens' cheeks when bluslies rise" — 

Orchards where 

" Pomegranates, rich and sweet. 
Show the print of the sunbeams' feet " — 
Orchards where 

*' On the grass land on the fallow 
Drop the apples red and yellow' — 
May we nnt apply the thought if not the exact 
words of the poet and say, 
" This is the land of the orange and vine, ■ 
Where the ftowers ever blossom, the beams ever 
shine " — 

A land so rich, bountiful and prolific in the 
most favored fruit for man's use that all within 
the borders of our grand and noble State will 
be proud of it; a region so promising, so hope- 
ful, so assuring, and one In which we have such 
unbounded faith and confidence, that I would 
the power were given to us for a moment to 
sweep aside the dim, opaque and mysterious 
curtain that hides futurity and permit us to 
see Northern California in all her splendid and 
crowning glories as she is destined in reality to 
become. 8. S. Boynton, 

Oroville. 



With his thumb, a boy is said to have saved the Neth- 
erlands from inundation. Many people hare been saved 
(rum the Invasion of disease by a battle of Xyer'a Sarsa- 
parilla. This medicine imparts tone to the system and 
strengthens every organ and flber of the body. 



SucceBsful Patent Solicitors. 

As Dewey & Co. have been in the patent soliciting busi- 
ness ou this Coast now for so many years, the firm's name 
is a well-knowTi one. Another reason for Its popularity 
It that a great proportion of the Pacific Coast patents 
issued by the Government have been procured tnroorh 
their agency. They are, therefore, well and thcrougmy 
posted on the needs of the progressive industrial classes 
of this Coast. They are the best posted firm on wtiat 
has been done in all branches of inaiistry, and are able 
to judge of what is new and patentable. In this they 
have a great advantage, which is of practical dollar and 
cent value to their clients. That this is understood and 
appreciated, Is evidenced by the number of patents 
issued through theUr Soikntifio Pkkss Patent Agency (S. 
F.) from «>^eAk to week and v«Ar to ve*r. 



STEINWAY PIANOS.' 



Acknowledged 
by ftU leading 
arti-Hts to be 

the best toned luid best wearing PIado in the world. 

MATTHIAS GRAY CO., 206 & 208 Post Sk 



Jan. 10, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RE88. 



ss 




Malleable Iron. All Sizes. 

These Couplings are the best In the world, most pow- 
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right and left screw and work freely. We use them ex- 
tensively in our Tank Building Department. 

WELLS, RUSSELL & CO , 

Meclanics' Mills, Cor, Mission & Freiont Sis., S. F. 



rirsTiTEE-jsooriimusDOFi, 

SIDING, CBII,ING, SHEATHING, &c. 




Used extensively on Houfes, Factories, Warehouses, 
Etc. Absolutely Water-proof Send 2c for Illustrated 
Catalogues and Samples. 

AGENT FOR PACIFIC COAST, 

304 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



THE 



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Cream Separator. 




Has taken every first prize where exhibited this year. 
The uuly Separtttur huviii{; autuiiiabic sight teeiiCr. 
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the oream. 

Twenty per cent cheaper than any other Separator. 
More work with less power. 

Guaranteed to give 2 per cent more butter than any 
other Separator and 10 per cent more than pans. 

£. D. SH&RPLES, Pacific Coast Agent, 

203 Fremont Street, San Franclco, Cal. 
i^'PIease mention this paper. 



PAY'S PATENT 

Manlllo - Leatber Roofing 

And Waterproof Building Manilla. 

Used for Roofing and Covering the Outside and Inside of 
Buildings. 

CHEAPER THAN SHINGLES OR METAL 

And Lasts Longer. 
Insurance Companies make no diecriminatlons. Can 
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boy can lay from 1000 to 1600 feet per day. The cheapest 
thing in the market for barns. Ice-bouses and outbuild- 
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Estimates Furnished for Goverlne Roofs or 
Entire Buildings. 

Cottages for Snmmer Resorts or Camping 

BUILT TO ORDER. 
Write for Calalogue and Samples. 

PACIFIC ROLL PAPER COMPANY, 

SELLING AGENTS, 

80 & 82 First Street. San Francisco, Cal. 

JOHH r. WTHAN, 8BNIRAL AOEMT. 



THE KRIEBEL ENGINE 

And Plain Vertical Boiler. 
Bloanted on a Combined Base. 

A very Cheap and Economical 
Engine. 

Made of the very best material. 
2 & 8 HOBSEPOWER. 

Write for Prices. 

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T Ur /-\ I f\ %/ Compli-te LADIES GUIDE 
I W rV V-l L- W Y Alice K. Slockham, 0. D. 

The very best book for AGENTS. Sample pages free. 
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TIE OEY TRUE FERTIIIM 

Is the GENUINE Compound of the MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 
COMPANY prepared from GUANO and rendered soluble by the application 
of adds. 

This manure is an ENRICHER of the soil and not, like others, a 
STIMULANT only; it will do for the land what no other can in rendering it 
PRODUCTIVE without IMPOVERISHMENT. 

Its analysis is reliable; its work is immediate and effective, and for 
results we point with confidence to the ORCHARDS of RIVERSIDE, where 
it has been liberally used for the past three years. 

It can be prepared to suit any land, with or without potash, as occasion 
may require. It is rich in PHOSPHORIC ACID, and can be made as rich in 
NITROGEN as the most deficient soil may exact. 



WE GUARANTEE ALL WE CLAIM FOR IT, 

Viz.: TO BE THE MOST COMPLETE FERTILIZER ON THIS COAST. 



For Sale in Lots to Suit by 



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309 & 311 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANOISOO, OAL. 



N. B.— By courtesy of the Southern Pacific Company we have low rates 
on this Fertilizer to all parts of the State. 



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You can Whitewash your GRAIN HOUSES, Chicken Houses, 
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Treesprajing is made easy and cheap byusing " THE BEAN." 
With our LARGE pump four strong sprays can be used. 



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Bowens Academy, 

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PREPARATORY, COMMERCIAL AND ACADEMIC 
Classes. References to parents of pupils who have 
entered the University from this School. Send for Cir- 
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CHESNUTWOOD'S 

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24 POST ST., 8. F. 

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Its graduates In every part of tha State. 
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a. 8. HALKY. Secretarv. 



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33 songs— each one a gem. Price si in heavy paper, 
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PIANO CLASSICS. Vol. 1, . . 44 pieces. 
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34 



f ACIFie l^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 10, 1891 



Take Care of tlie Manure-Pile. 

Editors Press : — It has been determined by 
actnal experiment that nearly one'balf of the 
fertilizing properties of horse manure pass away 
if the manure-pile is exposed so that any oon 
siderable amount of leaching takes place. If 
this is true in a locality where there is only 
an occasional shower, how much more so must 
it be true along the P^icific Coast daring the 
rainy season. 

Not only are the manure-piles in the open 
yard, but more often they are located where 
eaves rundown upon them or upon a hillside, so 
that the liquid that escapes can run away with 
little hindrance. 

The time is not far distant when the farmers 
along this coast will appreciate the value of 
barnyard manure as highly as the farmers of 
the Eastern States. 

Farmers use too little litter in the 
stables. In a land of such an abundance of 
straw, why not give the stock a good, clean, 
dry bed, and at the same time convert the 
straw into a valuable adjunct for larger and 
easier productions? 

A manure shed can be made a convenient 
■belter for young stock, and tools may be run 
under the shed for protection from the contin- 
notts damp weather and rain during the wet 
season. 

When the horse manure and that from the 
cow stable is mixed aud well put up in square 
heaps, there is lens loss than from either when 
alone. Prof. Roberts of the New York Experi- 
ment Station carried on an experiment which 
indicated that there was little loss when the 
manure was thoroughly dried by exposure to 
the sun without allowing the rain to fall 
upon it. 

Another practice which to my notion is 
wholly Impracticable is the method of leav- 
ing the manure in small heaps in the field 
before spreading. It does not require any 
more time to spread the manure direct from 
the wagon than to unload it in piles and spread 
it afterward. This practice is followed no 
doubt with the idea that the manure will lose 
its fertilizing properties if not plowed under 
immediately. 

The loss by escaping into the air is not. If 
there is any at all, so great as the loss from 
leaching in these piles and the loss from an un- 
even distribution of the litter over the ground. 
Where a pile of manure stands for any length 
of time, especially if there have been seTeral 
good showers upon it, the crop following will 
show the presence of more fertilizing elements 
than on the surroundiog portions of the field. 
If it is a wheat crop, the spots can be seen a 
long distance, and the wheat will not fill on 
these spots as well as where the straw does 
not get BO much stimulant; spread the manure 
and let the showers take the fertilizing ele- 
ments, evenly distributed, into the soil, where 
they will be retained for the needs of the snc- 
oeeding crop. 

Some one has said that the manure-pile is the 
pivot of successful farm operations. Certain it 
is that the management of this important factoi 
will determine largely our successes or failures, 
onr profits or losses. H. T. French. 

CrvalUs Or , Dec ISlh 



A Substitute tor the Potato. 

Albert Meyer, a chemist, while in conversa- 
tion, recently, with the editor of the St. Paul 
Olobe, spoke quite enthusiastically of a new 
tuberiferous plant which he thought would do 
exceedingly well if introduced in the North- 
western States. He said: 

A few years ago a scientist discovered in Ja- 
pan a plant resembling the potato, and sent 
samples of it to Berlin and Paris to be experi- 
mented on. These experiments have been de- 
cided successes, and the new potato has been 
extensively introduced in Berlin and Parip, es- 
pecially in hotels and restanranti, A number 
of farmers in our vicinity, with whom I con- 
versed on the subject, are willing to experiment 
on the plant next season. The Royal Prussian 
Society of Barlin has taken pains to make ex- 
periments with the plant. The scientific name 
of this plant is Slachys luberi/era, but as to 
their form they might be called pine cones. 
Stachy$ affinin is anotlier name, and lately they 
have given it the name Staehyt Sieboldii. The 
cultivation is the same as the potato, and there 
have been found over 100 knolls in one hill; 
some say as many as 300, but this is probably 
exaggerated. They are, of course, not as large 
as our common potato. According to the Oar- 
den Flora, the organ of the society, the analy- 
sis of the fruit is: 



Water.. 
Protein . 
Amide . . 
Fat. 



78.33 
1 .10 
1 87 



Carbon hydrate (Priocipi tralactan) 16 67 

Cellulose 0.73 

Ashes 1.03 

There is neither starch nor sngar, but galac- 
tan, a substance between both, fitachys affinis 
or tuberifera is an agreeable tasting vegetable 
when boiled in salt water and served with but- 
ter and parsley sauce. Some people like them 
seethed in oil, but that is merely a matter of 
taste. Prepared like pommes de ttrre f rites 
(potatoes out in small lUoesand fried in butter), 
^hej ue claimed to be a delioions dish, The 



taste is at first like that of a sweet potato, but 
one will soon feel a very fine piqnant taste. 
They do not need to be peeled, bat are only 
washed clean in water, which is another bless- 
ing to the housekeeper. They are kept in the 
ground as late as possible, and preserved 
packed in sand in the cellar daring the winter 
months. 

Exposed to the air, they will shrink and lose 
their nioe, white mother-of-pearl-like color. 
The plant is winter-hardy, and thrives in any 
soil. Frost does not hurt them, and to have 
them always fresh, they are left in the ground 
and dug as wanted. In onr climate it Is best 
to keep them in a ditch or in sand In the cellar. 
W. Perring. Inspector of the Royal Botanical 
Garden in Berlin, informs me that the produc- 
tion is very large, and that there are many en- 
thusiasts in favor of the new plant in that city, 
which prophesies for the plant a great future. 
The expectations of high prices and large yields 
will induce a good many farmers to make a 
trial with the new plant. I have already quite 
a number of orders for seed. 



McBean & Co. of San Francisco have ob- 
tained the contract to construct the sewage 
system of Victoria, B. 0. The contract price 
is J245,970. 



Cough- Cures 

Are abundant; but the one best known for 
Its extraordiuary anodyne and expectorant 
qualities is Ayer's Clierry Pectoral. For 
nearly half a century this preparation has 
been in greater demand than any other rem 
edy tor colds, couglis, bronchitis, and pul 
monary complaints in general. 

" I suffered for more than eight months 
from a severe cough accompanied with liem- 
orrliage of the limgs and the expectoration 
of matter. The physicians gave me up, but 
my druggist prevailed on me to try 

Ayer's 
Cherry Pectoral- 

I did so, and soon began to improve; my 
lungs healed, the cough ceased, and I be- 
came stouter and heaUliier than I have ever 
been before. I would suggest that the name 
of Ayer's Cherry Pectoral be changed to 
Elixir of Life, for it certainly saved my life." 
— F. .T. Oliden, Salto, Buenos Ayres. 

" A few years ago I took a very bad cold, 
whifh settled on my lungs. I had night 
sweats, a racking cough, and great soreness. 
My doctor's medicine did me no good. I 
tried many remedies, but received no bene- 
fit ; everybody despaired of my recovery, f 
was advised to use Ayer's Cherry Pectoral, 
and, as a last resort, did so. From the first 
dose I obtained relief, and, after using two 
bottles of it, was completely restored to 
health."— F. Adams, New Gretna, N. J. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral, 

rKErAUEI) BY ■ 

Dr. J. O. AYEB & CO., Lowsll, Mass. 
Sold by all Druggists. Price $1 ; six bottles, $.'>. 




PIANOS. 

DNEQUALED IN 

Tone, Touch, Workmanship and Durability. 

Baltihors, 22 and 24 East Baltimore Street, 
New York, 14S Fifth Ave. Washington, 817 Market Space. 



SMEDBERG & MITCHELL, 

GEO. M. MITCHELL, W. K. SMEDBERG— 314 CALI- 
fornia Street, San Francisco. Managers iiao Fran- 
cisco Department New Zealand P. and M. Insurance Co., 
Auckland; Orient Insurance Co., Hartford. City Agents 
Maijclicster Fire Assurance Co., Manchester; Caledonian 
Insurance Co., Edinburgh; American Insurance Co., 
Newark, N. J. 



THE SUCCESS TRAP 

Will hold Animals from a Gopher to a Coyote. 
Price for 30 days, postpaid, 25 cents. One dozen, $2.00. 

STJCCESS THA-I* CO., 
Stockton, Cal. 



KNABE 



A L. BANCROFT & CO 
* 133 PostStreei 



Itisafact universally con 
ceiled that the K.nabi aur 
passes all other instruincntB 



PIANOS 



Wholesale anj Retail Dealer in 

H.4^RNE88, SADDLES, BRIDLEi, WHIPS. 
SPURS, BLANKETS, 

No. lu Bush Street, and Market Street, one door below 
Battery Street, San Francisco. 



BrMth-Loadfr 
S7.75. 




Allkiodi cheaper than 
elsewhere. Before you 
bur, send stamp for 
Caulotue. Addreia 
POWF.IL * CLE.»IEJT, 
, 1 MO «. In street, 

F.ic. CUclnnatI, Uhlo, 



All Steel and]' 

Malleable^ Iron 



"Lightest Draft Plow 
Ever Made." 




SIMPLICITY AND PERFECTION ARE COMBINED IN THE 

TRICYCLE PLOWS. 

The above is no idle boast, but actual facts determined by thorough, 
severe and practical tests plowing from 6 to 15 inches deep. 

Sent to any responsible farmer on trial, and If not found as represented, 
can be returned at our expense. 

P. P. MAST & CO.. 31 Market Street. San Francisco. 



ESrABLISHED 
I8 60. 




'"Mining and 

ScientiTi^ Press 

FcLcific . 

Rural Pies5* 



S. iXJUAyC IS CO, 




Occupies two elegant buildings, containing over 70 rooms. Employs the ablest teachers, hag the largest 
attendance and is the most hii^hly recommended of any private school on the Pacific Coast Board, Room and 
Tuition for six months, $128. Board, Room and Tuition for Sfty-two weeks, 9244. 

CVClrcalars containing Bales, Rates of Tnltioq snd Board, and Coarses of Stndj sent 
free to any address; also, beantifal specimens of Penmanship. .Iddress, 

TRASK & RAMSEY. Stockton. Cal. 



BEET SUGAR FACTORIES 

E. IX- IDYBn dh OO., 

Sngar Cbeiists, Enigneers anil DrangMsmtn, anil Praclical Mannfactnreis of Beet Sngar. 

The members of this iirm have spent many months in the largest beet sugar factories of Europe, studying the 
details of Oerman and French methods uf mauufacturini,' sugar from beets, and also at works of the leading manu- 
factories of beet sugar macbinerx . Having had many years' experience in manufacturing sugar from beets in Cali> 
tornia, and having fully demonalVated the feasibility of producing sugar from beets in this country in almost unlim- 
ited i|uantities, and in successful competition with cane sugar imported from foreign countries, we arc prepared to 
furnish designs for factories, pUns and drawings of the latcRt improved machinery now in use in Europe and this 
country. Can also furnish skilled cn'.,'incer8 to superintend the construction of factories, and the necessary technical 
skill to operate the works successfully when completed. Will make personal examination of localities with regard 
to their fitness for the production of beet sugar, free of expense, except traveling expenses. Successful results 
guaranteed when the conditions arc considered favorable. 



p. & B." PATENT IDEAL ROOFING & PRESERVATIVE COMPOOND. 

Cheapest, Most Durable and Fire-Resisting Roofing in the market. 

PRE8BRVATIVB COMPOUNDS FOK WOOD, IBON OR METAL. 

Acid and Alkali-Proof. 



Water- Proof and Odorless. No Dearer than Common Sheathing. 



PARAFFINE PAINT COMPANY, 

116 BATTEKY 8TUKET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Jan. 10, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 



35 



THE " □rE,iTrDyc:PH 



53 



SPADING HARROW! 

The Best f^ulverizer in the ^Vorld. 



JUST THE THING 



FOR WORKING 



Summer Fallow Land. 




Specially Adapted 



FOR 



ORCHARDS AND VINEYARDS. 



FOR TWO HORSES. Works the soil about six feet wide. Angle of teeth adjustable to work the soil at desired depth. THIS HARROW is something entirely new. IT IS 
THE GR4,NDEST ACHIEVEMENT of its inventor, C. LA DOW, who is the recognized authority on Harrows, there being but few leading harrows at the present time not 
built under his patents. We have made exclusive arrangements for its sale and it can be obtained only through us or our agents. 

THE NAME " SPADING " refers to its action on the soil. The action of each cutter is like that of a small spade, lifting and turning the soil from a depth of four to six 
inches, doing more perfect work than is possible with any other Harrow in the world. THE BLADES are made from spring steel, in operation vibrating and shaking off sticky 
soil. IT NEEDS NO SCRAPERS to clean the revolving cutters. 

Considering the immense amount of labor done, the draft is very light, as the pulverized soil passes through .the gangs of revolving cutters, being left smooth. THE 
GANGS are so arranged that the most uneven ground is thoroughly harrowed and left level. IT LEAVES NO FURROW or ridge; when the field is harrowed it is all left smooth. 
10, 12 and 14-ft. sizes in stock. Send for circular. 

H. C. SHi^W FLOW WORK©, 



WHEN YOU BUY, 



BUY 



THE BEST! 



THE 



Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of its 
kind In the martcet. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description wiii tell you that it does 
good work every time. 



MK8BR8. H. H. Moore & Sons, Stockton, Cal.— Gkntlk- 
men: In answer to your inquiry, would state tliat I uaed 
your H. H. H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Menlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
lieved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
still suffering from the sprain gave the largest authen- 
ticated quantity of milk ever given on this coast (10} 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
sate, as inexperienced men can do no harm with it, as 
they can with the more powerful blisters. Respectfully 
yours, FRiNK H. BUKKE, 

Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berkehires. 

Menlo Park, Cal., January 22d, 1889. 



MANUFACTURED BY 



H. H. MOORE & SONS, 

THE DRUGGISTS, 

248 MAIN STRECT, STOCKTON, CAL. 



J. L. HEALD, Pres. 



C. B. MORGAN, Seo'y. 



HEALD MFG. CO. 

Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boiiers, 

TRACTION ENGINES, , 

PortaWe Straw-Bnrnig Boilers & Engines. 

IRON AND BRASS CASTINGS. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Orape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators 
Wine Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used In 
Wine Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps Beald'o 
Patent Eoglne Qovernor, Etc. 



SPRAY PUMPS! 




star Spray Pump 



llie Goalds Spray Famp. 



WITH BAMBOO EXTENSION ALL FITTED UP. COMPLETE WITH HOSE. BARREL AND SPRAY NOZZLE. 
These cuts show in faithful operation our Gould's and Star Spray Pumps. They are utilized for spraying Fruit Trees, 
Orange Groves, Vines, and in fact, all trees or shrubbery infested with the destructive insects which infest and do so much 
injury to Orchards, Viueyards, Orange Groves, etc. They are made entirely of brass, with the exception of frame and 
handle, and are strong and heavy; the valves being made entirely of metal or rubber, and will not be affected by the corrosive 
solutions such as Caustic Sods Acids, Lye, or any other sohition that may be used to kill the destructive insect. Send for 
Special Circular and Prices of Spray Pumps. NOTICE. - oNGERTH'S LIQUID TREE PROTECTOR ia the best 
Spray for killing Red Scale, Black Scale, White Cushion Cottony Scale, San Jose Scale, or any other insect. Send for 
Special Circular. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 
SAN PRANOISCO, OAL. 

IKOORPORATBD APRIL, 1874, 



313 & 314 Market Street, junction of Bush, 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAI,. 



THE BLUE RIBBON CART. WITH PHAETON BODY. 



1^ $35 



Has a seat wide enough for two, with box underneath for parcels. The 
body has been lengthened, is securely framed and strengthened by malting 
the panels in "ne piece. Sarven wheels, steel axles, and curved dash. Fin- 
ished in scarlet lake or brewster green. The " Blue Ribbon " has proved to 
be the best built, most popular and best selling low.priced Phaeton Cart ever 
brought to this market. With Patent Spiral Spring Lazy Back. 
Shipped securely orated. Weight, 176 pounds. 




FRANK BROTHERS, 



33 & 35 MAIN STREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



yUTAWAY 

HARROW 



SUPERSEDES the pLOW 

Makes a 
PERFECT SEED BED. 

Send for Smf lAT. CTRCULAIt. 

mkm MANUFACTURIN6 




CORPORATION 



Sole Manufacturers HiGGANUM,CONN. 
NewYorkOffice,189&!9i Water St.NEWYOWC. 




. i 

■ 

Aathorlced Capital SI. 000,000 

Capital paid Hp and Reserve Fand 800,000 
Dividends paid to Stockholders.. 63 7,000 
OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashlerand Manager 

FRANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

Oeneral Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Sliver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

July 1, 1889. A. MONTPELLIER, Hanagei. 

VINE PRUNERS, ATTENTION ! 




GRAPE BRUSH RAKE. 

With whioli one liorse and a boy c:iu do thu work of eight or 
ten men in gathering and liunching the primings ready for 
loading on wagon. Its cost will be saved in one season's 
work on 65 acres of vines. Address TRUMAN, HOOKER 
& C(^., 427 Market Street, San Francisco. 



.JAMES M. HAVEN. THOMAS E HAVEN, 

Notary j-ublic. 

HAVEN & HAVEN, 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

No. 630 California Street, ' 
Tdaphono No. 17«6.::r::^ftj||.tSAN FRANCISCO.ICAL. 



36 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



[Jam. ,10 1891 



STEAM VERSUS MULES-MAMMOTH AND PRACTICAL HAULING. 




BESTS TRACTION ENGINB HAULING GRAVEL IN SACRAMENTO. 



THE ACCOMPANYING CUT 

la from a photoprraph taken while at 
work. 



It is Cheaper and More 
Expeditions. 



Ooe Traction Eogioc will do tbe 
work of 60 mules. 

Beet's Traction EoKines have been 
in practical use for over twu years, 
haulintr coal, lumber, cravel and 
grain, one of which is now hauling 
cane in the Swdwich Islands. 



It will do the work of 
100 Hones. 



Plowing reduced to a minimum 
cost, and from 3.'' to 45 acres plowed 
each day at an expense of 60 centi 
to 60 cents an acre. 

Three sizes built, 30, 40 and .SO- 
horae power, and 

24 Best Traction Engines 
at Work Now. 



It hauls the Gang Plow and Har- 
row, propels the Best Combined 
Steam Harvester and moves along 
majestically with a train of wagons 
loaded with grain for the warehouse. 



GOLD MEDAL 

Awarded the Best Traction Engine 
by the State Agricultural Society at 
Sacramento, 1^. 



BEST'S TRACTION ENGINE 

IS "THE BOSS OF THE ROAD" AND "THE MONARCH OF THE FIELD." 

SoM-d fox- C±xrcu.la.x*s. A-c^ rl X'ogiai: 

SAN LEANDRO 



PROPRIETOR OP THE 
DANIEL BEST 

AGRICULTURAL WORKS. 



id-A_d^tieXj best. 



Alameda Co., Cal., U. S. A. 



THE PACIFIC GAS OR GASOLINE ENGINE. 




Patented June 17, 1890 — Nos. 430,504, 430,505, 430,506— also In Great Britain and Other Foreign Countries. 



ox* EzxiDorioixcoci iEnslnooi*. 



The Engine uses from 20 to 25 feet of Coal Cas, or 
about one-elsrhth of a gallon of Gasoline, per hour per 
horse-power. Is now In use for Pumping Purposes, run- 
ning Printing Presses, Small Factories, Elevators, Jewel- 
ers' Lathes, Polishers, Dairymen's, Agricultural, Mining 
and Wood-working Machinery. Well Boring and all other 
purposes requiring cheap and convenient power. Persons 
having but little space will find this the most suitable of 
all Motors. ^^^^^^^^^ 

xjse; inxr boj^lts- 

The Ccmpiny irakes a Specialty of 

ENGINES FOR SMALL BOATS AND LAUNCHES. 



PACIFIC GAS ENGINE CO., 

230 FBEiaONT 8TRBBT. ... 8AN FRANCISCO, OAL. 
Send for Circular and Price List. 




Our Perfected " Safety " Engines Cost to Run only 1-8 Gallon of (Gasoline per Horsepower per Hoar. 





Pumpine Mants.Yachtsi Launches, I CI CPTDIP l/ADHD CMPIkllT Pfl I Complete PLuitH o( ali kinds. Station 
Street Cars, Fire Engines, Water I t^tw I niU fMrUn CPiUinb IfU. ary or Mounted on Wheels 



WorkB, Etc. 



ai8 Oallfornis St., San Franolsoo. 



8. AND FOREIGN PATENTS 




BEST TREE WASH. 

" Greenbank " SS degrees POWDERED OAC8- 
TIC SODA (tests 99 3-10 per cent) reoommended by 
the highest authorities In the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, eto., for sale by 

T. W. JAOKSON di CO., 
Mannfaotarera' Asents, 
104 Marliet 8t and 8 OsUfomia St., S. P 



- MANUFACTURER OP 



LE^TBCEH, BELTIZSTG". Il.^CI]srG}- 



The Armstrong Antomatic 

PORTABLE 

EVGIfiZ and BOILER. 

The Best, Lightest, Cheapest 
Engine in the world. Can be 
arranged to Burn Wood, Coal, 
Straw or Petroleum. 6 or 8 B. P. 
Mounted on skids or on wheels. 
TBCMAN, HOOKKR * CO.. San FranolM*. 




Jan. 10, 1891.] 



Patent Hoop-Clamp for Tanks. 




F.Q. 2. 

The accompanying cut shows a device, the prac- 
tical efficiency of which has been proven. 

A in Fig. i are the hoop ends, which are looped 
around the cylinder outer ends of the heads B. The 
inner or adjacent ends of these heads are formed 
with hemispherical seats b, and in these are fitted 
hemispherical nuts at liberty to move in their seals. 

D is the adjusting or tightening bolt of the clamp, 
having one end provided with a right-hand thread 
and the other end with a left-hand thread, and at 
the center with a collar or wrench-hole, d. The 
threaded ends of this bolt pass freely through elon- 
gated apertures in the seats of the head and are 
connected with the hemispherical nuts in the sock- 
ets. An enlarged view is shown in Fig. 2. 

The operation of the clamp is as follows: The 
ends of the hoops are looped around the heads as 
shown and then a wrench is applied to the central 
collar, d. of the tightening bolt. The bolt is turned 
and as its reverse threaded ends work in and 
through their respective nuts the heads are drawn 
together, thereby tightening the hoop. The strain 
being in a curve, deflects the heads from a straight 
line, the hemispherical nuts through which the bolt 
passes turning in their hemispherical seals in the 
proper direction to enable the clamp to conform it- 
self to the curvature of the hoop, thereby exerting 
its strength in the line of said curve instead of in a 
straight line tangential to it. As before mentioned, 
the nuts will remain steady in the direction of rota- 
tion of the bolt. 

This invention supplies a great want, particularly 
in dry and hot climates, where shrinkage of lumber is 
considerable. No device heretofore in use for the 
purpose of tightening hoops has been satisfactory, 
for the reason that the draft was not straight and 
therefore not direct on the hoops. The advantage 
of a clamp hoop over a riveted hoop, particularly in 
heavy tank work, must be apparent to all. To 
tighten a riveted hoop requires tools, scafifolding 
and capable men. It also mars the paint and in- 
jures the iron. To lighten with a clamp, working 
freely, requires simply a ladder and a wrench in the 
hands of anybody. 

Clamp bands are convenient in transportation; 
heavy bands for large tanks can be handled in sec- 
tions without folding. Mechanically considered, 
the device may be described as a right and left 
draw buckle, acting on ball and socket joints. It 
therefore works equally free, powerfully and effect- 
ually on long or short draft and on large or small 
circles. 

The device has proved a great success and is now 
being used extensively in the tank-building depart- 
ment of Wells, Russell & Co., Mechanics Mills, cor. 
Mission and Fremont Sts., S. F. 



List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

Beported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Ooast. 

FOR THE WEEK ENDING DEC. 30, 189O. 

443,739.— Pin-cushion— G. F. Atkinson, S. F. 

443.897. — Protecting Piles — James Clark, 
Tacoma, Wash. 

443.898. — Disintegrating Slag— James Col- 
quhoun, Clifton, A. T. 

443,901 — Separating and Grading Ores— 
E. L. Craig, S. F. 

443,650. — Clevis — John Duncan, Shedd's, Or. 

443,641. — Wind Engine — Geo. S. Eastman, 
S. F. 

443,827.— Sea-Water Storage Tank — John 
Farnham, S. F. 

443.644. — Elevator Valve — C. I. Hall, S. F. 

443,942. — Match- Box and Cigar Punch- 
Emil Heinrich, Sacramento. 

443,648 — Straw-Dump Attachment for 
Harvesters — Alex. McDonald, Franklin, Cal. 

443,836. — Concentrator — J. H. Miller, San 
Jose, Cal. 

443,545.— Device for Injecting Powders— 
W. H. Rowland, Albany, Or. 

443,800. — Extension Ladder. — J. P. Smale, 
Pasadena, Cal. 

443.878.— Pessary— C. P. Tatro, Spokane Falls, 
Wash. 

443.806. — Machine for Pointing Fence 
Pickets— J. M. Vance, Eureka, Cal. 

443 734.— Lawn Sprinkler — D. C. v.'iigus, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

443,808.— Petroleum Burner— D. C. Wilgus, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

' 443,639.— Needle for Grain Binders— T. C. 
Wilkin, Independence, Or. 

443,558.— Street-sweeper— J. A. Wilt, Eu- 
reka, CaU 

443,702. — Pneumatic Door Check and 
Spring — F. J. Wood, Los Angeles, Cal. 

NOTB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mall 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patentt 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coast 
Inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 



To Subscribers and Readers. 




A Handy Paper Binder 
— A. T. Dewey's patent 
elastic binder, for periodi- 
cals, musicand other printed 
sheets, is the handiest, and 
very cheapest of all econom- 
ical and practical file bind 
ers. Newspapers are quick 
ly placed in it (as received) 
and held neatly, as in 
cloth-bound book. It 
durable, and so simple a 
child can use it. Price (size 
of this paper. Harper's 
Weekly, and Scientific 
American), 75 cents; post- 
age 10 cents. Postpaid to 
purchasers of this paper, 50 
cents. For sale at this of- 
fice. Send (or illustrated 
circular. Agents wanted. 



Nebraska Seeds. — Our readers who desire 
to experiment with seeda from another climate 
may be interested in the advertisement of 
Book & Hupert of Greenwood, Cass Co., Ne 
braska. We have received their catalogue for 
1890, in which we see notice of a new mnsk- 
melon, the Persian Monarch, which the cata^ 
logne says is called the "Shah " in Persia, and 
was introduced in 18S9 by Johnson & Stokes. 
It is said to be " unapproacbed by any other, 
either American or foreign, in delicious flavor, 
wonderful productiveness, hardiness and dis' 
tinctive appearance." Bouk & Hupert announce 
that their catalogue for 1891 will be ready in a 
few days, and it will no doubt be sent to those 
-who desire it. 



Harness. 

Mr. C. L. Haskell, No. lo Bush St., wholesale 
and retail dealer in harness, saddlery, etc., has one 
of the largest stocks of goods in his line in San 
Francisco. He makes a specialty of manufacturing 
team and buggy harness and has gained a high rep- 
utation as a reliable dealer and skillful manufactur- 
er. Anything in the way of horse clothing, boots, 
whips for the farmer, ranchman or horse-breeder can 
be bad at his store. No. 10 Bush St., at bottom 
prices. 



Skillman's Late Importation of 
Norman, Suffolk and Shire 
Horses. 

(Written for the Rdral Phesb by J. C. H.J 

A Rural representative made a visit last 
week to the " Red Stable," East Petalnma and 
Magnolia Stock Farm near Petaluma, to see the 
horses lately imported by Mr. Skillman. Of 
this lot of Normans are Lignent 13810, a dark 
dapple-gray, foaled at Nogent • le Rotrou, 
France, May 9, 1887, a very fine colt. Ksglan 
14739 was foaled April 1, 1885, at Orne, France, 
weighs 1800 pounds, and sold to Mr. Blondin 
of Livermore. Superbe is a dark dapple-gray, 
stands 17 hands high, foaled March 5, 1885, at 
Normandie, France, and registered in Stud- 
book of Stallions, Paris, France. He is what 
his name indicates, superb, and li considered 
by expert horsemen one of the grandest 
stallions ever imported. 

The Suffolk Punch horses include Winston 
1997, bred at Woodbridge, England, took all 
first prizes, and was never beaten in the show 
ring. He has been sold at a long price to 
Hiram Corey of Salinas City, Monterey county. 
Glpsey Girl 2473 is a Suffolk Punch mare foaled 
is 1888 at Guilford, England, and sold to Hiram 
Corey. Ohilesford Duke 2d 1769, bred at 
Chilesford, England, 17^ hands high and foaled 
in 1887. A photo-engraving of this grand 
horse, with a fuller description, will appear in 
the Rural soon. 

Hero 1871, foaled in 1886 and recorded in 
Vol. 4, Suffolk Stud-Book. This horse won 
high mention at every place he was shown. 

Among the Shire horses is Count Counsellor 
2340; will weigh at maturity 1800, and now at 
two years of age turns the scale at 1600 
pounds. 

Good Enough, a fine specimen of a draft 
horse, rare bone and muscular development, 
sold to Hiram Corey of Salinas City. 

Mr. Skillman has three fine French coach 
stallions imported In 1889, together with a 
number of Normans at Magnolia Stock Farm, 
His importation this year is rated by good 
judges the best that has ever been made during 
any year since he has started in this great en- 
terprise and which covers a period of ten 
years. Mr. Skillman has been one of the 
largest Importers of high-class draft horses on 
the Pacific Coast, and the importance and ma- 
terial benefit to our State can hardly be real- 
ized until the coming years shall demonstrate 
the improvement in this class of horses. 

A fine illustrated catalogue has been issued 
by Mr. Skillman giving a full and detailed de- 
scription of the history of the different classes 
of horses he has selected, together with their 
pedigrees and breeding. There has been a 
large number of visitors from all parts of the 
State to see this notable importation, and of the 
lot it is considered safe to say that five have 
been sold to prominent breeders. His persistent 
effort and skill in selecting animals has given 
him a widespread notoriety as a sagacious and 
reliable dealer. 



Please Remit. 

The beginning of a new year is a good time to 
settle up the debts of the old ones. We are obliged 
to remind those who owe the Press on subscrip- 
tion account, that it will be a great convenience to 
us if they will soon remit what is due. Those who 
can also pay in advance will also do us timely and 
well-appreciate'i favor. We are doing our best to 
present a very valuable paper, representing carefully, 
earnestly and conscientiously the welfare of its in- 
telligent readers and the best interests of the arts, 
sciences and mining and mechanical industries of 
the Pacific States. 

To do this we deprive ourselves of some of the 
most lucrative lines of patronage available to the 
average newspaper. 

By paying as promptly as possible, friends, you 
will greatly encourage us in our sincere efforts to fa- 
vor you jnd the best interests of your calling. 

Oliver Chilled Plow Works. 

* This mammoth plant, situated at South Bend, In- 
diana, has become one of the largest manufactories 
of plows in the world. It has advanced step by 
step in capacity and improved features for the plow 
that seems to be in keeping with the growth of the 
United States and the wants of extensive and i 
proved cultivation. Their policy has been to spare 
no expense to make a plow that was suited to the 
small farmer, ranchman, and all conditions of the 
soil. In its construction all portions are numbered 
so that the agriculturist can duplicate any part there- 
of, whether moldboard, landside, standard, share, 
beam or handles, and virtually build a new plow 
without the aid of a blacksmith. Several plows have 
been built, among which is the celebrated Vineyard 
plow, especially for this State. 

The Pacific Coast branch, 37 Market St., under 
the able management of Mr. E. K. Lindsey, has 
extended its agencies to all the principal towns and 
cities west of the Rockies, and the growing popular- 
ity of their plows seems destined to give this great 
enterprise the leading place in furnishing the efficient 
and economical plow for the agriculturists of the 
Pacific Coast. 

CaiCAQO, MILWAUKEE St ST. PAUL 
RAILWAY. 

Electric-Lighted and Steam-Heated Vestibuled 
Trains between Omaha, Council Bluffs and Chi- 
cago. 

Steam-Heated and Electric-Lighted Vestibuled 
Trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 
Finest Dming Cars in the World. 
Free Reclining Chair Cars between Omaha and 
Chicago. 

Fast Mail Line between Chicago, Milwaukee, St, 
Paul and Minneapolis. 

Transcontinental Route between Omaha, Council 
Bluffs and Chicago. 

5700 miles of road in Illinois, Wisconsin, Minne 
sola, Iowa, Missouri, South and North Dakota. 
Everything First-Class. 

First-Class People patronize First-Class Lines. 
Ticket Agents everywhere sell Tickets over the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 
W. T. ALLEN, 

Pacific Coast Passenger Agpnt, 
San Francisco. Cal 
Office. No. Jj8 Montgomery St., under Ocddent 
at Holfl. 

Compiimeutarv Samples. 

Persons receiving this paper marked are re 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub 
acription, and give It their own patronage, and 
as far as practicable aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
known to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully serves. Subscription, 
paid in advance, 5 mop, $1; 10 mos., $2; 15 
mos., $3. Extra copies mailed for 10 cents, 
if ordered soon enough. If already a anb 
^ariber, pleann nhnw the paper tn nthers. 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 




:k ALNEER'S 

RELIABLE 



SEEDS 



vie give you BKST Seeds and 
Save you U'm l>loney. Bay 
direct from the If rower«. Pkte. 
only 2 and 3 ctw. Smd for onr 
Havdsi mif, l lluwt'd Cntnloffue 
mailed tST FREK. Market Oar- 
deners a^k/or Wholesale Prire List, 

AliNKER BROS. 



Extra inducements will be ofTered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No. 220 Market St.. .S F 



iALIFORNIA IRUITS 



HOW TO GROW THEM. 

MANUAL OF METHODS WHICH HAVE YIELDED 
GREATEST SUCCESS; WITH LISTS OF VARIETIES 
BEST ADAPTED TO THE DIFFERENT 
DISTRICTS OF THE STATE. 

BY EDWARD J. WICKSON, A. M. 
OoDtents. 

PART I: General.— The Climate of California and Its 
Local Modifications; Why the California Climate Specially 
Favors the Growth of Priiits; The Fruit Soila of California; 
The Wild Fruits of California; California Mission Fniita; 
Introductiou of Improved Fruit Varieties. 

PART II: Cultural.— Clearing Land for Fruit; The 
Nursery; Buddiug and Graftmg; Preparation for Planting; 
Planting the Trees; Pruning Orchard Trees; Cultivation; 
Fertilizers for Fruit Trees and Vines; Irrigation of Fru 
Trees and Vines. 

PART III: Orchard Fruits. The Apple; The Apri- 
cot; The Cherry; The Peach; The Nectarine; The Pear; 
Plums and Prunes; The Quince. 

PART IV: The Grape.— Rise and Progress of the Grape 
Interest; Propagating and Planting Vines; Pruning and Oare 
of the Vine; Grape Varieties in California. 

PART V: Semi-Tropical Fruits. —The Date; The Fig; 
The Olive; The Orange; The Lemon, Lime, etc.; Minor Seml- 
Tropical Fniits. 

PART VI: Small Fri its.— Berries and Currants. 

PART VII: Nuts. -Nut-Growingi n California. 

PART VIII: Fruit Preservation. -Fruit Canning, 
Crybtallizing and Drying. 

PART IX: Fruit Protection. Injurious Insecta; 
Suppression of Injurious Animals and Birds; Protection 
from Winds and F-osts. 

PART X: Miscellaneous.— Melon Growing; Fruit 
Packages. 

LARGE OOTAVO-675 PAGES. 
PRICE $3, POSTPAID. 

PUBLISHED BT 

DEWEY & CO., 

Publishers Pacific Rural Press, 

220 Market Street, Elevator 12 Front Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Raisin, Fruit and 
Grain Lands 

At Eitremel} Low Prices, 

Seven miles S. W. of Tulare city. 164 acres of rich land 
is offered for eale, with well-improved homestead, large 
flowing artesian well, reservoir, alfalfa, orchard (seven 
years old), pasturage, one of the healthltst and most 
comfortable seven-room, two-story residences in Tulare 
valley Must be seen to be appreciated. Will be sold 
soon at a very low price and extraordinary reasonable 
terms to a good purchaser. Some S20 acres of good and 
well-cultivated land adjoininx is also oflered low. 

Address K M. Dewey, Publisher, PortPrville, Tulare 
Co • A. T. Dewey, 220 Market St, 8. F.; or call on C»pt. 
Thos. H. Thompson, TuUro City, Cal. 



SAVE WOOD AND AVOID FIRE. 



FARNHAM'S 





It is a perfect SPARK ARRESTER as well as a FUEL- 
SAVER. Not a spark can escape through the pipe when 
'he damper is properly turned, and for this reason alone, 
should be on every stove. 

It is especially adapted to cooking stoves. If the 
oven is slow to heat, the drum will correct this fault , 
throwing more heat around the oven. It will last from 
10 to lb years. Parties desiring can give it a fair trial on 
their stoves before purchasing. 

This drum is sold at the modest sum of $5 and is war- 
ranted to give ENTIRE SATISFACTION. For further 
particulars apply to 

M. P. FARNHAM, 

GBRMANTOWN, COLUSA COUNTY, CiL. 
US' AGENTS WANTED. 



FRANK KUNZ, 

Proprietor of the Union Narsery. S1S9 Tenth 
Street, Sacramento, 

HAS FOR SALE A FINE LOT OF OLIVES, 

Grown in the open ground, namely: Manzanillo or 
Queen's Olive, Nevadillo Blanco, PIcholine, and a fine lot 
of Chamrope Excf l-ior, which he <.ffers at very low rates. 



I? 



PACIFIC 
PRESS. 



1891. C 



HANDY 
ALENDAR. 



Jan.. 



llarch 



April. 



May. 



June.. 



July. 



Oct., 



Rov. 



Dec, 



1 



38 



f ACIFie I^URAb PRESS. 



[Jan. 10, 1891 



fireeder;' Directory. 



six llnee or leas In this Directory at Mc per lln* per month. 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



J. B. ROSE, Lakoville, Sonoma Ca, Cat, breeder of 
ThorouRhbred Uevons, Roadeters and Draft Horses. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, ColusaCo., Importer & Breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

WILD FL,OWEB STOCK FARM, Fresno Co. 
A. Heilbron & Bro.. Props., S ic. Breeders of thorouKh- 
bredstrainsandCruikshank shorthorns; also Kegistered 
Herefords: a line lot of young bulla in each herd for sale. 



CHARLES B. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Gal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Kecorded Uolstein-Friesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

BROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holeteio and Jersey Cattle. None better. 



REGISTERED HOLSTEIN CATTLE. Also 
best thoroughbred Poultry and Eggs. Address llibbard 
It Ellis, Sante Rosa Breeding Association, Ual. 



P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal., Breeder of 
Recorded Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 



OOTATB RANCH BBEEDINQ FARM. Page's 
Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



PURE-BRED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN Cattie 
for Sale. Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Hollister, CaL 



JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 



J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., 0»L, breeder 

of Registered Holsteln Cattle. 



M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer In 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hol- 
Btelns, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 



GEO. B. POLHBMU8, Coyote, Cal. Holstein-Frles- 
Ian cattle, comprising males and females on advanced 
register. First premium in great milking test at 
State Fair, 1889, was won by a member of this herd. 

PBTBR 8 AXE Si SON, Lick House, San Frandsco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 18 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

HENRY HAMILTON, Westley, Cal., breeder of 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
steln Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules tor sale. 



JERSEY BULL No. 408 P. C. J. C. C. for sale 
cheap. A fine foui-year-old animal. Address Dellwood 
Poultry Yards, Napa, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



T. D. MORRIS, Agua Caliente, Cal. Fine Poultry, 
Bronze Turkeys, Toulouse and Embden Geese, etc. 



GEO. TREFZB B, 911 E St. , Sacramento, Cal. , breeder 
of Houdans, Black and White Leghorns, Prize Winners 
at late State Fair. B^ggs, (2 60 for 13; U for 26. 



DELLWOOD POULTRY YARDS, Napa. Light 
and Dark Brahmas, Buff Cochins, Langsbans, Plymouth 
Rocks, Silver and Golden Wyandottes, Houdans, 
Minorcas, Spanish, Brown, Black and White Leghorns, 
Pekin Ducks. Birds for sale. Kggs, $2 per 13. 



CALIFORNIA POULTRY FARM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



R. Q. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 

JOHN McFARLTNO, 706 Twelfth St., Oakland. 
Cal., Importer and Breeder of Clioice Poultry. Send 
for Circular. Thoroughbred Berkshire Pigs. 



IF YOU KEEP ANY B:iND OF FOWLS, 

Pet Stock, Dogs, &c., it will pay you to send your ad- 
dress at once to C. R. Barker, Santa CInra, Cal. You can- 
not afford not to do it. It will cost you but one cent 
and you will receive something worth ten times that. 

B. P. MUSSON, San Leandro. Box 156. Fine stock. 



W. C. DAMON, Napa. Fowls and Eggs, 82.00. 



O. J. ALBBE, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 



SHEEP AMD GOATS. 




THE BEST FENCE YET! 

Cheap, Durable, Portable and Safe. 

THE SPALDING HUMANE WIRE PENCE 
la composed of ei^ht No. 12^ galvanized eteel wires, 
woven iuto four cables of two wires each; iuterwoven every 
five feet a cornig;ate(l iron Htay or guard, and held In place 
by the cables, thereby holding the cables firmly In place, pre- 
venting them bt'ing feprt-ad apart and letting stock through. 
The BtayB or iiuards are corrugated and an inch and three- 
quarters in widtli, making the fence as visible as a board fence, 
which is A very «iifient>lml point. Write for circulars aud 
prices. Addreas BIRD-TVllKKITLl^ MFO. CO., 

195 l>a Malle Ht„ Chicago. 



PURE 



TRUMBULL, STREAM & ALLEN 
SEED CO.. 
Griit, Field. Garden and Tree Seeds, Onion Seta. Ete. 

Sead for Oat&legnai. MaUed Free. 
14a«-«4a* mr. Immt* Mm.. KANSAS CITY, MO. 



SEEDS 





AMERICAN RIVER BREEDING FARM. 

ImporterauJ Breeder u( ABEKDKKX AXUS CATTLE, rroinietor, J E. CAMP, Sacramento, Oal. 



Registered Herd Book Stock of the Aa^gis, Netherland, Nep- 
tune, Clifden, Artis and other families. None better. 

Ot the Coomassie, Alphea and other choice strains. 

Poland- Ohina and Berkshire Pigs. 

I»OXTXjTH.'V— Nearly all Varieties. 

Third Edition PODLTKY & STOCK BOOK, 60 cents 
~ * by niail postpaid. Tliirteen years experience on this coast. 




S«. Oxxe>i<^vi.AX-t:ox7 of Grx*A,lxx Food- 



TT'RAUDULENT PARTIES 
have been sellinK an 
article, claiming theirs to be 
the same, and, in order to 
mislead, have added a prefix 
to " Manhattan. " Oar gen- 
uine food is called simple 
" Manhattan Food," with the 
Red Ball Brand. 

6S3 Howard St.. San 
Francinco, Cal. 



Alameda Gonnty Fine Stock Farm. 

MOHR BROS., Proprietors. 




E. W. WOOL8EY & SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
ft breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale. 



B. H. OBANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England tor sale. 



KIBKPATBIOK d> WHITTAKBB, Knight's 
Ferry, Cal. , breeders of Uerlno Sheep. Rams tor nle. 



b. U. 8HIPPEB. Stockton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
ol Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys ft Berkshire Swine high traded rams for sale 



ANDBB W SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't. 



SWNE. 



JOSEPH MBLVIN, DavlBTllle, Cal., Breeder ot 
Poland-China Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, Oal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pies. Circulars free. 



TTLEK BBAOH, San Jose, CaL, breedai of 
Ihoreugbbred Berkshire and Essex Bogs. 



ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't 



APIARIAN SUPPLIES. 

Italian Queens, ^.BO each; Black Queens, }1 each. 
Swarms from $2.50 each; Smoker, $1. Comb Founda 
tlon, tl.26 per pound; V-groove Sections. %i per 1000 
Oomb Hooey wholesale and retail; Hives, eto. W 
8TVAN k BON. The Bnmeetead Apiary, Ban Hatec. Oal. 



<3r. -W. XJIJVtlCKt, 

l:KKEL,ER OF REij 1-^ r EJ; El> 

Htaortborm. Al>«r<leen ■ Anyiu 
and Jlar*«y Cattle. 

Yoims Stock (or Sale. Oorreapondence ^» 
BoUolted. U. «r.v»iVICK, HBbbartI, O: 




IMPORTED AND HOME-BRED REGISTERED 
Clydesdale Stallions and Mares, weighing from 1600 
to 2000 lbs each, from prize winning families. Holstein 
Fricsian Bulls and Heifers of the most noted families. 
All Registered. Also Registered Berkshire Pigs. Call 
on or address H. P. MOBK. MOUNT EDEN, ALA- 
MEDA COUNTY, CAL., 20 miles southeast from San 
Francisco. Take train for Haywards station, on broad 
gauge, or Mt. Eden on narrow gauge railroad. Pare GO 
cents. Conveyance at depot if notice is given. Visitors 
welcome and inspection invited. 



COLTS BROKEN. 



THE SOUTHER FARM, 

One and a half miles northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda Oonoty, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colta properly. Rates very reasonable, 
Horses boarded at all times. 

THE SOUTHEB ?ABM, 
QTLBBRT TOMPKINS, Proprietor, 

p. O. Box 149. Han Leandro, Oal 



HWILBKY & CO., PETALUMA STABLES, 
• Main Streg^, opposite PliEa. 
We will soil all oirtlmported French 



and English Draft Stallions, that 
have proven themselves good foal- 
getters, at a bareain, as we desire, to 
close u partnership business. Parties 
intending to purchase will please ex- 
amine our stock. No reasonable 
offer refused. Address H. WIL3EY 
& CO., Petaluma, Cal. 



BADEN FARM HERD. 
Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 




CoDSigDmeot of Six Clydesdale 
Stallions and Foor Mares. 




JUST ARRIVED FROM AUSTRALIA. APPLY TO 
O. L. TAYLOR, No. 428 California Street, or 
,IOHN SCOTT, Park Louvre Stables, Bay District Race 
Track, San Francisco, Cal. 



J. C. SMITH, IMPORTER. 

Imported, Registered Percheron Stallions 

FROM TWO 10 FOUR YEARS OLl>. 

ALSO, 

FIVE SELECT MARES. 

Having spent over one 
year iu Fraucu aelectiug 
abuve Btock, tbiok I liave a 
better grade than bas ever 
before l>een offered for Hale 
in tills State. Having bet:u 
bere one year, they are 
thoroughly aciiimated. For 
furtlier particulars, address 

J. C. SMITH, 

1422 Eighth St.. Oakland, or 
No 1 Howard St.. 8. F.. Cal. 




Catalogues and Prloee on appllcatioo to 
BOBEBT ASHBUBNEB. 
Bftdsn 8tAtloD« - San Mateo Oo.. OaL 



INIPORTEDJTALLiONSI 

HOLBEBT & CONGER, 

Los Angeles, Oal., 

Import Direct from Europe 
and sell Full- Blooded 
Torkahire Cleveland 
Bay, Oldenbnrg Ger- 
man Coach and Kd- 
Kllsh Shire Draft Stal- 
lions. Tlic best Coach and 
Dr«ft Horses in the world. 
Stables permanently located. 
Third Importation. We give Eastern prices and guar- 
antee our horses. Correspondence solicited. Address 

lOOa Olive St., Los Angelea, OaL 
Our Uorae« are full registered la Europe and^ America. 




MECHAM & FRITSCH, 

IMl MHll'.R.S AND ERKSKEK.S OK 

Red Polled Cattle. 

We have 19 head of Imported Stock. 

YOUNO BI LI.Sand CKOSSBRF.DS ON DEVONS for Sale. 




Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep. 

They were all imported from England in '83, or bred 
direct from Imported Stock, and all registered. 




XX. IWXZIOXX^IVE, 

Breeder of American Merino Sheep AVIth- 
ont Horns. 
The only flock in the United States. When we bsught 
our sheep Eatt 20 years ago, among them was a ram with- 
out horns. He grew to be a fine laige sheep, shearing at 2 
years old, a 12 months' fleece, 35 lbs. o( long white wool. 




I have bred from him and his get erer since and have 
never made an out-cross and never used the same ram 
but one year on the same ftock. My rams at two years 
old will weiu'h from 160 to 180 lbs., have a strong consti- 
tution, without wrinkles, and will shear on an average 
about 26 Ibn., a 12 months' fleece, of long white wool. 
Rams and Ewes for sale. P. O. Address, 

Stony Point, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

K. R. Station, Petalnma. 

New Importation ! 




THEO. SKILLMAN 

Has juBt arrived in Petaluma with a new 
importation of 

CHOICE YOUNG STALLIONS 

Consisting of 

PERCHKKONS. SUFFOLKS, SHIRKS AND 
FRENCH COACHKRS. 

Prices moderate and terms liberal to suit the times. 
Catalogues for 1891 on application. THEO. SKILLHAN. 



PACIFIC COAST HORSE MARKET, 

1616 and 1618 Mission St., 
Telephone No. 6093. SAN FRANCISCO. 

WATKINS & DUHIG, Froprieton, 

I,IV£ STOCK & GKNKRAI. AVCTIONEEB8 



Horses bought and sold. Auction Sale., every Wednes- 
day and Saturday at 11 A. H. A full line of Draught, 
Driving, Saddle and Business Horses. Particular atten- 
tion paid to country sales. Special inducements to 
parties having sale horses. Stock sold on commission 
and boarded at low rates. 



DR. A. E. BUZARD, 

VETERINARY SURGEON. 

Uomber of the Royal College of Veterlnar>- Surgeons, 
London, England. 
Okadvatbd April 22, 1870. 
Advice bj Mall, 9a. 

OFFICE AND PHARUACT: 

No, 11 SeTentb St„ sear Market, Sai Francisco, Cil. 

Open Day aod Night. Telephone, No. SMS. 



Jan. 10, 1891.] 



f ACIFI6 I^URAIo PRESS. 



PoJlT1Y» Etc. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 



Oor. 17tb St Oaatro Sta, 



Oakland, OaL 



Uannfkctory of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR »nd 
BROODER. Aeenoy of 
the celebrated Bilver Snlsb 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
I Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances In great variety. 
I Also every variety of land 
_ j and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes" wter'ever exhibited. I^gs for 
Hatching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Qulde, price, 40c. Send 4c. stamp for 80-page catalogue. 
Illustrated In colors, to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 
1817 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 




DROP IT 



If you are in any business 
not paying you, drop it, 
and buy a Petaluma Incu- 
bator. PBIC£S KE- 
DUCED. A Urge 32- 
page Illustrated Catalogue 
describing Incubators, 
Brooders,BroodingHouses, 
How and What to Feed, 
How Long to keep them 
in the Brooder, Drinking 
Fountains, Diseases and 
their Cure, Egg Testers, 
Bone and Shell Uills, Wire 
Netting, Thermometers, 
Lath Fencing, Flood's 
Roup Cure, "Creosozone," 
the only thing that will 
exterminate vermin among 
chickens, in fact, more in- 
formation than is given in many 25-cent books. Sent to 
any address on receipt of four cents in stamps. 

PETALUMA INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma. Cal, 




EXCELSIOR 



INCUBATOR 



Simiilc, Perfect, 



Self-Regulating. 




Pat«nt«e and 

Sole 
■annfftctarer 



GEO. H. STAHL. Quincy. 



POULTRY- MEN, ATTENTION! 

Every disease known to Poultry can be cured, and 
every nock made to lay, now, when eggs are high— 
by using 

Wellington's Improved Egg Food, 

The standard for 12 YEAKS. Do not get discour- 
aged because you foolishly tried some preparations 
"called Egg Food" and got no results, but immedi- 
ately get some of Wellington's Improved Egg Food, 
and you will have no more trouble. You will then 
have healthy Poultry and plenty of Eggs. It never 
has failed and it will not now. You try it. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, Proprietor, 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 WASHINGTON STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 
" Every merchant keeps it." 




■ THE- 



HALSTED INCUBATOR 

COMPANY, 
1813 Myrtle Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 




COOKER SPANIEL PUPPIES 

Fox- SaIo. 

THE HANDSOMEST, MOST INTELLIGENT, MOST 
companionable, best house, watch and carriage dogs 
in existence, as well as the best ALL-AROUND sports- 
man's dog with the gun. Mention this paper, and for 
particulars address M. P. McKOON, El Cajon, San 
Diego County, California. 

OnePercheronMare 

COLOR, BLACK; WEIGHT, 1650. IMPORTED BY 
Levi Dillon, Normal, Ills. Due to foal March 1. 1891. 
Address W. B. ELLENWOOD, Atlanta, San Joaqain 
County, Cal. 



Will lie Soil Very ReasonaMe, 
TWO PERCHERON STALLIONS, 

One black and the other gray. Both seven years old 
last spring. Can show their colts. Weigh 1760 and 1840 
pounds. 

SACKRIDER & CHISHOLM, 

Mo. 870 £leTentb Street, OAEXAND, OAI.. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 



PATENT OWNERS Ot 



JUDSON POWDER. 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stnmp and Bank Blasting, From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root olear 
ont of ground at less cost than grnbbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers nse no other. 

Ai other makers IMITATE our Giant Powder, so do they Jndson, by Manufacturing 
a second-gfrade, inferior to Jndson, 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN ii CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 

NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 

NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Eiplosires in ttie f orll 




FRESNO CANAL. DITC HING AND LEVELING SCRAPERS. 

FiREBATJGH, CAL. (Poso Farm), November 8, 1889. 
Mr. Jas. Poetkous, Fresno, Cal.— Dbar Sir: lo^nswer to yours ol 6th inst., will say that 1 have lound 
your new style four-horse Scraper the best all-round Scraper I have yet tried. Respectfully yours, 

J. W. SCHMITZ, Supt. Miller & Lux. 

SEND FOB CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

SHIPPINGS COMMISSION HOUSE, 

OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Warehoaae and Wharf at Port Oosta. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Grain in Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Fall Cargoes of Wbeat famished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricultural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

B. VAN EVERY, Manaeer. A. M. BELT, Assistant Manaeer 



PRICE, 
$80 

—TO— 

$145. 

Received 
First 

Premium 
State 
Fair 
1890. 




ITfflCi 

• FOR SALE BY 

SMITH McGARVIN.SanJose.Cal. 



MANUFACTURED AND FOR SALE BY 




S. W. Comer Kearay and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

|jtVFree Coach to and from the Boas*. J, W. BEOKBR, Proprietor. 



Coin|i)i$3ioii piercliapt;. 



MOORE, FERGUSON & CO.. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

—AMD— 

GenertI Commission Merchints, 

810 Oallfornla St., 8. F. 

Uembeis ot the San Frandsco Produce Exchange 
JVPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vanceu made on Consignments at low rates ot intereal. 



DALTON BROS., 

Commission Mercl:\ants 

AKD DIALIR8 IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 ft 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1936.1 
jWCoDBlgnments Solicited, 



ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 

SDCOBSSORg TO 

LITTLBPIELD, ALLISON & CO.. 

601, 608, 606, 607 and 609 Front Street 
and 800 Washlngcton St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Frodace and 
Wool. 



[BSTABLISBBD 1864.] 

GEORGE MORROW « CO., 

HAT and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 
89 Olay Street and 28 Oommeroial Street 
Sam Francisco, Cal. 
tr SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECIALTY. 



Edsbni J. Grbqort. [Uatabllsbed 1862.] Frank Orboort. 

GREGORY BROTHERS CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF 

CALIFORNIA FRUIT AND PRODUCE. 

126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco Office, S13 Davia St. 



WETMORE BROTHERS, 

Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Conglgnments solicited. 418, 416 k 417Wasblngt0D 81., 
San Frandsco. 



EYELETH ft NASH, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers In Fruit, Produoe, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 888, 
226 and 227 Washinsrton St., San Frandsco. 



WITTLANS ft FREDRICKSOH, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Orean and Dried Fralta. 
Consignments Solicited. 324 Davis St., S. F. 



The Perfection Horse Tail Tie. 





BETTER THAN CLEANING A MUDDY TAIL. ALL 
Polished Metal. Samples, 25 cents. DES MOINES 
NOVELTY CO., 127 Fourth St., Des Moines, Iowa. 
Mention this paper. 



All Steel. LIGHTNING FullOrci.f. 




K.C.HAY PRESS CO. KANSAS CITY, MO. 



FARM ENGINES 

Upright and 1 'orizontal, 
Simple, Effective, Dnrable. 
Write us before buying. 
For free Pamphlet address 
THE JAMES LEFFEL & CO. 

8PRENGFIELO, OHIO, 
or 11.0 Llb«rtr St.^ Mew Tork, 




40 



f ACIFie I^URAIo f RE88. 



rjAN. h\ 1891 



Market Review. 



DOMESTIC PBODDOB, BTO 

San Francisco. Jan. 7, 1891. 

Rains followed by clearing weather have imparted 
a more cheerful feeling to the trade, which is supple- 
mented by a feeling of greater confidence in the fut- 
ure, due to a greater acreage seeded to wheat, more 
tree and vine planting and more attention to other 
farm industries, and also to all information going to 
show that money will be fairly easy. Trading in 
farm products is still light. The Eastern wheat 
markets after advancing fell back slightly. Foreign 
wheat markets fluctuated to stronger prices. The 
following is to-day s cablegram: 

Liverpool, Jan. 7. — Wheat— Firmly held. Cal- 
ifornia spot lots, 7s s'Ad to 7s gd; cargoes off coast, 
38s 9d; just shipped, 38s; nearly due, 38s 6d; car- 
goes off coast, firm, on passage, quiet but firm; 
Mark Lane wheat, firm; English and French coun- 
try markets, firm; wheat and flour in Paris, steady; 
weather in England, hard frost. 

Forelsn Grain BevJew. 

LONrxJN. Jan. 5.— The AfarA Lane Express, 
in its review ol the British grain trade, says: The 
market has been a little belter since the new year, 
but the efffcts of frost have not been as embracing 
as holders had hoped. In English wheat, prices are 
well maintained. Foreign wheat shows some signs 
of a better feeling, but no advance is quoted. Maize 
is id dearer. Oals advanced 3d. 

LilverDOOl Wtieat Market. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

Jan. Feb. Mar. April. May. June. 

Thursday 

Friday ...79S4<i rs9.1 isSd 7s8id TsSJd TpSJd 

Saturday 7t8id 7B8jd 788}d 7»8}d 7s8jd 787 Jd 

Monday 7f8Jd 7»9J 7i-9d 78.S3d 7t81il 7B8d 

Tuesday 789d 769Jd 7B9id 789jd TsSd 7BS}d 

The following are the prices for California cargoes 
lor off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

0. C. P. S. N. D. Market. 

Thursday 

Friday 38b6d SSsOd 3886il Advancing. 

Saturday 3889d 38g0d SSsSd yuiet. 

Monday 3889d SSsOd SSsBd Strong. 

Tuesday .' 3889d 38sOd 3886d Firm. 

Baatern Oraln Mar&eta. 

The •ollowing shows the closing prices of wheat 
at New Vork for the past week, per bushel: 

Day. Jan. Feb. M»r. April. May. July. 

Thursday 

Friday 103§ 104J .... 104} 

Saturday 103| 104} 104J .... 104j 

Monday. ... 1045 .... 106^ .... 106 
i^esday 103J 104i IC-Sj ... 105} 

The closing prices for wheat have been as follows 
\\ Chicago for the past week, per bushel: 

Day. Jan. May. June. July. 

Thursday — 

Friday 99i 

Saturday 97J 

Monday 988 

Tuesday 97S 

New York, Jan. 7. — Wheat— $i.o55f for cash, 
$i.04J-8 for February, $1.05^ for March, $1.04% 
tor May, and 99HC for July. 

Chicago, Jan. 7. — Wheat— <;7K for May. 
The Prune Market. 

New York, Jan. 5. — Francis Cutting, the Cali- 
fornia fruit-packer here, sold a line of California 
prunes, 60s to 90s, Saturday, at iic ^ ft., spot. 
Visible Supply of Grain. 

New York, Jan. 5. — The following is a state- 
ment of the visible supply of grain, aHoat and in 
store on Jan. i. 1891, as compiled by the New York 
Produce Exchange: Wheat. 25,847.000 bushels, an 
increase of 83,000 bushels; corn, 2.758,000 bushels, 
an increase of 137,000; oats, 3,326,000 bushels, an 
increase of 100,000; barley, 4,059,344 bushels, a de- 
crease of 126,000. 

Wool. 

New York, Jan. 4.— The holiday week brought 
only a light wool business here, although eastward, 
where the observance was less marked, trade is 
active and encouraging, while prices are strong and 
stock statistics are admitted to favor the selling side. 
Heavy woolens will start about the middle of Janu- 
ary. The confidence of manufacturers is indicated 
by their willingness to have the refusal of certain 
lines which they will need after the recent heavy 
purchases are worked down. 

Boston reports more liberal dealing in wool. All 
grades are supported in prices, especially fleeces, 
Michigan X to XX ranging from 29c to 34c. There 
were sales of 437,000 lbs. of foreign and 1,970,000 
lbs. of domestic, including 115.000 tbs. of California 
Spring, The fall stock of wool on this market 
shows a falling off of about 2,000,000 lbs. from that 
of a year ago in the supply of domestic wool on 
hand and about (he same amount in foreign sup- 
plies. To offset this the receipts of domestic wool 
have increased nearly 100,000 bags, while those of 
foreign have fallen off about 44,000 bales. The 
sales during the past year have been nearly 20,000,- 
000 pounds greater than those of the previous one, 
the increase being entirely of domestic wool. 

Boston, Dec. 31. — The American Wool Report- 
er, in an annual review of the wool trade ol the 
United States, will say to-morrow: The amount of 
wool on hand in the most primary markets of the 
United States is now excessive. The supply in Bos- 
ton is considerably lighter than a year ago. A re- 
capitulation of stocks in the principal markets, to 
which is added the estimated amounts in other mar- 
kets, concealed supplies of wool in pullers' hands, 
gives a total supply of 92,819,882 pounds against 
99,284,459 a year ago. The figures for the first ten 
months of 1890 for the whole United Slates show 
the total importations to have been 87,944.194 lbs 
in comparison with 110.721,456 for the corresfKjnd- 
ing time last year, and in consequence the lessened 
amount of foreign wool on the market, and the fact 
that there is a very marked improvement in the 
woolen-goods business, supplies of wool in the Unit- 
ed States cannot be considered burdensome. The 
only weak spot in the outlook is the probability of 
increased importations ot foreign wools after the 
beginning ol the year. 

Hops. 

New York, Jan. 4. — Compared with last week 
the best Slate hops are marked ac off; Pacifies, ic. 



There was not enough doing to test the situation, 
but it may be said there was no general weakness. 
Other grades were neglected. The receipts here 
for the season were 2000 bags above last year, while 
the exports were 5500 bags less. 

London Agruultural Gazette, Dec. 15: Trade 
for hops continues in the same quiet state that has 
marked the course of business for the past few 
weeks. Factors have on hand a limited stock of 
new hops which they are trying to sell at the prices 
made for similar qualities when the market was ac- 
tive; but the merchants are not disposed to give 
those values, and, as sellers will not yield, the trade 
has come almost to a deadlock. The arrivals of 
American and Californian hops are on a very limited 
scale, and are likely to fall off still further unless the 
prices obtainable here advance considerably upon 
present rates, which are much below the quotations 
that rule at New York and San Francisco. Belgian 
hops continue in fair demand on account of their 
relative cheapness. For all other Continental pro- 
duce the inquiry is dull. 

Dried Fruits. 

New York, Jan. 4. — Apricots are steady, and 
quoted in sacks at 18;; boxes, 19c. Prunes are 
quoted as follows: Forties, 13c; fifties, I2%c\ six- 
ties, I2c; decent small, ii@iij^c. The marked 
difference in the quality of raisins kills the speculation 
noted in other seasons. Prime in boxes are not too 
abundant lor owners to carry them for a prospective 
trade. No one wants to venture upon common 
bagged stock. The future of low grades is uncer- 
tain. Pie-fruit dealers and consumers expected 
to help out, but that means dictation of prices. 
Three carloads were recently taken at 5Kc a ft; 
Good bagged were the same as last week. Layers 
in boxes, $i.9o@2 25; fancy Three Crown, $1.80. 
ordinary, $i.6o@i.70. 

Local Markets. 



H. 

Thursday 

Friday 154J 

Saturday.. .. 153 

Monday 152} 

Tuesday 154| 



BARLIT 

Buyer Season. Seller 1891. 



Buyer 1890. 
H. L. 



liS 
162| 



Seller 
Season, 

Thursday.... | J* 

Friday | {" 

Saturday | {" 

Monday ..\^ 

h. 

I 



WBRAT 

Buyer 
1891. 



Ul} 

150 

160} 

160J 



149 
1481 



Buyer 
SeaeoD. 



144* 
144 
144J 
144} 
1431 
I43I 
143} 
143^ 



Seller 
1891. 



Tuesday 

BAGS— The market is dull at 6K@6Kc May- 
June delivery. 

BARLEY — The sample market has held strong 
with an advance established. Receipts are light 
and demand fairly active. In futures, trading has 
been quiet owing to operators being afraid of the 
situation. The following are to-day's Call Board 
sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer season— lootons, $1.53^; 
200, $i.S3>i; 100, $1.53^; 100, $1.54; 100, 
$i.53?4. No. I Brewing, buyer season— 100 tons, 
$i.6oJ^; 100, $1.61 ^ ctl. Afternoon Session: 
Buyer season — 100 tons, $1.54}^: 100, $i.54K. 
Seller i89t — too tons, $1.06; 100, $t.o6>4 }ff cil. 

BUTTER — The market is settling to lower prices. 
Sellers appear to be forcing sales, fearing heavy re- 
ceipts. The receipts show a steady increase, chiefly 
from the south, where there is better pasture and 
more fresh cows coming in. 

CHEESE— The stock is light, as are the receipts. 
The demand is good, which keeps the market strong. 

EGGS — The market is still sinking under fair re- 
ceipts and lessened buying points. The lessened 
outside demand is owing to better local supplies. 

FLOUR — The market has a steady tone for favor- 
ite brands. More outside brands from up north are 
offering. 

WHEAT — The sample market closes fairly 
strong. In futures, trading has been fair. Eastern 
quotations appear to be taken as a guide in dealings 
in futures. This is wrong, for the New York and 
Chicago markets are largely controlled by freights, 
the latter by railroad and also ocean freights, while 
the former is controlled by ocean freights. In last 
October wheat was sent from New York to Liver- 
pool as ballast, but now 3d a bushel is charged. The 
following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1891 — 100 tons, 
$1.49. Buyer season— 1300 tons, $i.43Ji ^ ctl. 
Afternoon Session: Buyer 1891 — 200 tons, $1.48^. 
Buyer season— 700 tons, $i.43K ^ ctl.. 

Market Information. 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce at this port for the week end- 
ing Jan. 6th, were as follows: 

Flour, qr.sks 38,866 Middlings, sks. . . 1,666 

Wheat, ctls .271 ,303 .\lfalfa, "... 219 

Barley, " 12,216 Chicory, bbls.. 110 

Kye '■ Broomcorn bdls.. 998 

Oats " 2,018 Hops, bis 91 

Corn " 7.239 Wool, " 2 

•Butter " 423 Hay, tons 838 

do bxs 318 Straw " 61 

do bb s Wine, gals 92,310 

do kegs Brandy, " 29,660 

do tubs 19 Ka'sins, bxs 900 

do M bxs 62 Honey, cs 45 

tCheese. ctls 265 Walnuts, sks 

do bxs 28 Flaxseed, " 

Eggs, doz 27,360 Mustard, " 

do " Eastern. 25.380 Almonds, " 46 

B"ans, ctls ...... 2.323 Peanuts, " 

Potatoes, sks 16,789 Popcorn, "20 

Onions, •' 711 Beet sugar, bbls.. 50 

Bran, •■ 8,330 do do sks aoo 

Buckwheat" 97 

♦Overland ctls. tOverland ells. 

Cereals. 

Mark Lane (London) Express, Dec. 15: During 
the II completed months of exports the Russian 
Empire h.-is sent off 10,863,588 qrs. of wheat, of 
which 4,107,000 qrs. have been received at United 
Kingdom ports. These figures, to which little at- 
tention has yet been paid, are certainly worthy of 
considerable notice, lor they reveal the proportion 
of Russian exports received by us, and enable us to 
estimate the importance of Russian weekly exports 



much more clearly than has hitherto been the case. 
It has been assumed that a clear half of what is ex- 
ported reaches us, but we now find that 40 per cent 
is enough to allow. 

The local wheat market has ruled fairly strong. 
The offerings are light. Buyers hold to the opinion 
that with continued favorable weather, farmers now 
holding wheat will begin to sell. This opinion is 
doubtless grounded upon the fact that the acreage 
seeded to the cereal is the largest on record, and 
consequently with well-distributed rains in February 
and March an exceptionally heavy crop will result. 
While it is well to look on the favorable side for a 
large crop ouiturn, yet the fact must not be lost 
sight ol that on or about harvest-time a " hot 
norther " may set in and thrash out more grain 
than can steam thrashers. We have not had hot 
north winds for several seasons past, and it is to be 
hoped that with extensive tree and vine planting the 
climate may have been so changed that il they 
should come, it will be too late to do any damage 
to crops. Wheat receipts from up north continue 
free, which give buyers here enough to keep them 
from having pressing wants to be met. Now that the 
United States Senate his virtually stifled partisan 
legislation, leading grain farmers are hopeful that 
a free-coinage silver bill will be passed so as 
to advance the price of the metal and increase the 
cost of Indian and Russian wheat. With these 
costing more, our wheat will appreciate. Tonnage 
in port is light, as it is in the Columbia river and 
Puget Sound. The tonnage on the way is larger 
than at this time last year, but the increased duty 
on foreign goods may lessen the supply on and after 
next June, in which event wheat charters -will be 
higher and against wheat-sellers. It is the farmer 
who has to foot everything. 

The Australian wheat harvest is in full blast, which 
causes sbips to load coal from thence to this port to 
ask high freights. The high rates deter coal im- 
porters from chartering freely. 

Barley has held fairly firm. The demand has 
been good, although at the moment it is reported 
more quiet, but quotations remain unchanged. The 
^pply in this State and up North is light. Many 
dealers believe that the supply will be about ex- 
hausted belore next harvest. The acreage to be 
seeded is quite large. 

Oats do not show any material change. Both 
receipts and demand are moderate. An increased 
acreage, it is said, will be seeded in this State, but 
there is more led out each year. 

Corn is quiet but strong. The available supply 
appears to be held in, or at least we judge so from 
the strength exhibited by the market. The high cost 
of barley and oats causes more corn and its product 
to be fed. 

Rye is steady at full quotations. 

Feedstuff 

The market for ground feed is strong under light 
receipts and a fair demand. Honolulu is drawing 
quite fre'ly, steadily increasing its purchases of 
rolled barley. 

Hayisstrong. The receipts continue exception- 
ally light, while the demand is good for the season 
of the year. Backward pasture is in favor of hold- 
ers of hay, but then the supply of the latter to draw 
from is quite light. It is generally claimed that the 
crop this year will be very large. More alfalfa has 
been sold than ever before, while many fields have 
been seeded to grain to be cut for hay. But the 
quantity fed is not only very large but is steadily 
increasing. 

Uve-stocK. 

Bullocks are offering fairly free. As a rule, they 
are in good condition. Hogs are a shade strong 
for the block, but lor packing there is no material 
change. Mutton sheep are higher. Milch cows 
are without change. Average dairy cows can be 
bought, as they run, at from $20 to $30, while se- 
lected are higher. One dairy is offering the cows 
at $20, and another at $25. It is their intention to 
sell the cows and lease out the land. Horses are 
unchanged. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off firom the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per centi: 

HOGS — On foot, light grain fed. 4H@4Kcl^tb 
dressed, 7@8c ifi ft.; heavy, 3J-i@4 jfc ft. ; 
dressed. 6 ><;@7J^cl? ft. Stock hogs. 3@3'ic |^ ft. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 7@—c I? ft. ; grass fed, extra, 
6M@— c ^ ft.; first quality, 55<@6c }P ft.: second 

Suality 4)i@Sc ft.; third quality, 3%c@^M ^ 
>. ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3C ^ ft. 
VEAL— SraaU, Stggc <?ft.; large, sH®7yic 
MUTTON— Wethers, 7(^8c}?ft.: ewes. 6%@ 
7'Ac ^ ft.; lamb, 8@9c ^i* ft; spring lamb, 15c. 
Fruits. 

In reply to a patron of the RURAL Press, living 
at Riverside, we will state that in using small boxes 
for oranges, the 5 to 6 inches deep grape-boxes are 
brought into service. 

The receipts of oranges are increasing, but con- 
sumers are as yet a little shy, owing to their being 
too many green. Thoroughly ripe fruit is quickly 
taken by dealers, for which top prices are given. 
It is very generally claimed that receipts from now 
on will steadily increase, while the consumptive de- 
mand will broaden. Hucksters are taking few, 
while retail dealers are carrying more in stock. 

Lemons and limes move slowly. 

Apples are in large supply with receipts free. Sup- 
plies are coming in from all sections and under 
more competitive selKng the market is shading. It 
takes choice gilt-edged apples to fetch over $1.50 a 
box. Hucksters, owing to_their cheapness, are en- 
abled to do a good peddling business. Oregon and 
the northern counties of this State send us the large 
est quantities. 

Pears and also grapes are hardly worth quoting, 
owing to light supplies and light demand. 

Raisins are dull, but there appears to be a pre- 
vaiHng feeling that the market will do better in the 
spring months. The advance in railroad freights 
on raisins, dried fruits, etc., more than offsets any 
advantage that higher duties might have given to 
fruit-growers. The railroads get the duly and 
growers get left. 

The stocks of dried fruits are not large, yet there 
is a dull market for all kinds, except peaches. It 
looks as if better prices can be reasonably looked 
for in the spring months. Peaches are strong with 
slightly better prices bid. The demand is chiefly 
from points at the East, where the crop was light. 
The supply of yeacbes here is said to be only fair, 



and any marked increase in the demand will cause 
higher quotations soon. 

Vesetables. 
Early spring vegetables are coming to hand from 
the southern part of the Slate, but in such limited 
quantities as to make correct quotations very diflU 
cult. 

Onions, after declining under free supplies, are 
again tending up for the more choice good keepers. 
The season has tieen favorable for a large increase 
in planting in the southern counties, while more 
attention will be given to their planting in the bay 
and river counties. 

Potatoes are barely steady, outside of the more 
choice Burbank seedlings, which are higher. The 
receipts are light, but the well-established fact that 
large quantities are held back, keeps buyers from 
stocking up, while in the southern part of the State 
the second crop is large. There will be a large in- 
creased acreage planted this season in California, 
Or<gon and Washington. 

Cabbages and root vegetables are unchanged. 
The former are being shipped more freely. Choice 
hard good-keeping heads are wanted. 

Miscellaneous. 

From the Commercial .\ews of Jan. 6th the fol- 
lowing summary ol tonnage movement is compiled: 
On the way to 1891. 1890 

Sin Francisco 271,884 189 015 

SanDego 4.085 11.368 

Sin Pedro.... 7478 2,735 

Oregon 31 7«6 25 96J 

Puget Sound 22.955 17.170 



Totals 338,118 246238 

In port at 

San Francisco, disengaged 9 346 11.546 

■' engaged for wheat. . 43 038 77,796 

San Diego 2,613 "1 

Sin Pedro 2,009 " Ii476 

Columbia River 15 754 J 

Puget Sound 



Totals 72.660 90818 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From July i, 1890, to Dec. 31, 1890, the following 
are the exports from this port: 1890. 1889. 

Wheat, cils 5,859.269 6,233.523 

F.our, bbls 567,116 546302 

Bariey 176.369 815,865 

in poultry there are no changes except in turkeys 
and large broilers. The former are lower, while the 
latter are tending up. 

On Monday and yesterday wild game came in 
freely and sold for less money. 

Honey is in light supply. An advance on our 
quotations can be obtained for desirable consign- 
ments. 

There appears to be a slightly better tone to the 
wool market, but it is not so pronounced as to de- 
serve ptrticular attention at this writing. The ad- 
vance in overland freights is against the market. 

Beans are quiet but firm. 

There is a continued free demand for grass seed, 
particu'arly for orchard and alfalfa. 

Exports by sea the past week aggregate as fol- 
lows: F"lour, bbls, Honolulu, 1608; Liverpool, 
15,460; Central America, 10,874. Wheat, ctls, 
Havre, 57,286; Liverpool, 175,694; Dunkirk, 85,208. 
Barley, ctls, Tahiti, 63; Honolulu, 4561; New York, 
4i2t. Rolled lUrley, fts, Honolulu, 231,175. 
Beans, fts, Tahiti, 1275; Honolulu, 3272; Central 
America, 2503; Panama, 29.716, Wine, gals, Ta- 
hiti, 920; Honolulu, 7872; Liverpool, 1407; London, 
823: New York 14.633; Central America, 3207. 
Corn, ctls. Honolulu, 461. Brandy, gals. New 
York, 1148; Central America, 360. Dried fruits, 
fts, Honolulu, 2110; Liverpool, 7190. Hay, bis, 
Honolulu. 850. Potatoes, sks, Honolulu, 844. 
Onions, Honolulu. 306. Oats, ctls, Honolulu, 
1087. Cotton, tons, Liverpool, 50. Sugar, fts, 
Panama, 26.369; Honolulu, 46,543; Jaluil, 3488; 
Central America, 400. 

Dried Fruits, Etc. 

The qiiotatiouB gtvea below are for average prioea [Mhld. 

SoiiietbiDt{ very fancy fetch au advauoe ou the higbeat qiu> 
tutjiiDB while riour aelts slightly below the lowest uuotatious 
Prices named, uoless other .vise Boecifi d, are for fruit iu 
sacks. Add (or 50-R>. boxes per ft)., aaid for.S&-lb boxea 
fc to Ic per ?b. 

Apples, suD-dried, quarters, common — 

" " " prime 7 W - 

■' " '* choice 8@ — 

V " sliced, common 7|v — 

" prime . 8 @ - 

•* " choice 8|@ - 

• R*»p »»i*»H«ihM<l. rin? W»-th hoTwi .. 10|(S 1I( 
Apricota. suu-drled. unblea-^hed. common 8 @ - 

*' *■ " prime 10 w — 

" • " choice % — 

" " bleached, prime 16 $ — 

" " choice 17 @ — 

" " faooy 18 - 

* Evap. choice, in boiea ^ — 

" '■ fancy. " 19 ® - 

Pigs, sun-drittd. black Z & 4 

white - @ 

" " " wwihMl (a 

" " " fanc7 8 M 

" " " pressed 9 ^ 

" Smyrna Ik)xcs 12 (ff 

" do sack? 10 

Grapes, sun-dried, stemless 3 

impt.4>niniMd t V 

Nectarines. Red. sun-dried ^ 

" evaporated, in boies 13|(u 

" white, sun-dried ^'^ ^ 

" HvaporattHl 17® 

Peaches, sun-dried, unpeeled. common, bleached 8 

" prime, *' 10 

** " choice, " 13 

" ** fancy 14 

" evaporated " choice IS 

" ' " fancy 16 

" sun-dried, peeled, prime, bleached 19 

" " " choice 'Z2 

" fancy 2* 

" evaporated, ** fa boxes, choice 25 

" " fancy 

Pears, suo-dried, quarters 

sUced 

" evaporated, " in boxes 

" " ring *' 

Plums, pitted, sun-dried 

" " evap. In box*^ « holce 11 

" " " ancy 13 

" unpitted 3i< 

Pruoes, Cal. French, ungraded sU « 9 @ 

graded 90 to 100. .. 

80 to 90 9 'a - 

" 70 to 80 9i^f - 

" " 60 to 70 10 la 

" *■ BO to flO 11 <o 

' *' " 49 to 50 12 

Fancy sell for more monay. 

RAISINS. 

Halves, quarters and eighths, 35, SO and 75 cents higher 
respectively thau whole bux prices. 

London Layers, choice V bz $1 lb (a 2 00 

fancy, " 2 10 (S 2 26 

Layers, Vbz 1 35 @ - 



10 
11 
14 
124 

33 

3 
13 
14 

19 




Jan. 10, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



Loose MuBcateUi, common, $ bx 1 IS @ 1 35 

" choice, '■ 1 60 @ 1 75 

fancy, " 1 80 (3 1 90 

UttStemmed " In sacks, 4@ 6 

Stemmed ** " " 4 ® 7 

Seedless " " " 6 @ 7 

■' ^ 20-lb bi 1 15 @ 1 25 

" Sultaoas, unbleached, in bis 1 15 @ 1 26 

" " bleached " 1 25 1 30 

CALIFORNIA HONEY. 

Comb, dark, 3-lb. frames, 60-lb. cases, $ lb 5 @ 6 

'* amber, " *' cs. new " 7 8 

•' white " 11 (a 13 

" " im '■ " " " 134(Sj 15 

Extracted, darli, 5-gaI. cans, 2 cans to case, $ lb. 4i@ 5 

" amber, " " " . 5i@ 6i 

" white, '• " " . 6i(g 7 

Oomb, 2-tins, 2 doz. to case, ^ doz — @ — 

Extracted, " " ~S ~ 

" 4-Ib. tins, 1 doz. " — @ — 

Beeswai, per pound 22i<& 95 



Domestic Produoe. 



Extra choice in good packages fetch an advance on top 
QUotatiouB, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 



Quotations. 

BEANS AND PEAS. 

Bayo, ctl 3 50 (3 3 95 

Butter 2 65 @ 2 95 



Pea 

Bed 

Hnk 

Small Wbite 
Lima. . . 

Fid Peas.blkeye 1 65 
do grpen .... 2 50 



2 50 @ 3 00 
2 50 @ 2 90 
2 20 @ 2 40 

2 50 @ 2 80 

3 20 @ 3 55 
1 85 

2 90 



10 ro» 
13 @ 
13 @ 
13 @ 

11 @ 



27i@ - 



25 ® 
22J@ 
27 .i@ 



do NLes 1 60 @ 1 75 

SpUt 4i@ 61 

BROOM OORN. 
Choice toBxtra65 00 @ 80 00 
Pair to Good. .47 50 <a 60 00 

Poor 40 00 @ 45 CO 

CHICORY. 

OaUfomla bi@ 6 

German 6 @ 6^ 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

CaL Poor to f air.lb 15 @ 
do good to choice 30 @ 
do Giltedged... 37|,@ 
do Creamery rolls 33 @ 
do Eastern tubs 30 ® 
do do dairy. ... 20 @ 

OHBE8E. 

Oal. choice mild 12 @ 
do fair to good 
do eilt edged . . 
Young America 
N. York Cream. 

Western 

Eoas 
OaJ. ranch, doz. 
do do Bol'cted 

do. store 

Eastern, fresh . , 
do selected.. 

FEED 

Bran, ton 22 00 @23 OO 

B'eedmeal 27 00 @29 00 

Or'd Barley S2 50 @33 50 

Middlings 24 00 (826 On 

Oil Cake M<"al. 26 nn -028 CO 
ManhattanFood ifilOO lbs 7 60 
HAV 

Compressed ...13 00 (818 00 
Wheat, per ton. 12 00 ^17 00 

do choice 18 01 & — 

Wheat and Oatsl2 00 ^16 60 

WUd Oats 11 50 @14 50 

Tame do U OO @14 00 

Barley 10 50 @14 00 

Barley and Oats 10 00 mi 00 

Alfalfa 12 00 @13 50 

Straw bale 70 @ 80 

FLOUR. 
Extra, CityMills 4 10 @ 4 25 
do Co'fcry Mills 4 00 @ 4 25 

SuperHne 3 00 (g 3 50 

GRAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl. 1 45 @ 1 51i 
do Choice 1 52J@ - 
do Brewing... 1 55 @ — 
do do Choice. . 1 67i@ — 
do do giltedg'd 1 624@ — 
Chevalier cooe 1 575@ 1 621 
do com to good 1 40 (a> 1 52:' 

Buckwheat 1 40 @ 1 65 

Com, White.... 1 333 3 1 37 
Yellow, large... 1 32?^ 1 36: 

do, small 1 32 J@ 1 36 j 

Oats, milling.... I 90 @ 1 95 

Surprise 1 90 

Choice feed.ch'c 1 90 

do good 1 80 

do fair 1 70 

do Gray 1 80 

do Black 1 70 (» 1 90 

do do for seed 2 10 @ 2 45 

Rye 1 30 (q! 1 35 

Wheat, milling. 
Giltedged.... 1 43J@ — 

do Choice 1 41i@ — 

do fair to good 1 38|{^ — 
Shipping, oho'ce 1 SSi 

do good. 1 35 

do fair 1 30 

Sonora 1 325@ 1 36i 

HIDES. 
Dry Ight to h'vy 9 (g 

Salted 6 @ 

HOPb. 

Oregon. 1890 30 & 

Cal 1890 Choice 37m 
do Fair to O'd 30 (§ 
NUT8-J0BBINO. 
Walnuts, Oal. lb 8 @ 

do Oh'ce 10 @ 

do paper shell 11 @ 
do Ohitti 9 @ 



Wkdnesdat, Jan. 7, 1891. 
Almonds, bd shl. 6 7 

SoftsheU 14 @ 15 

Paper shell... 15 @ 16 

Bt&zil 19 @ 20 

Pecans small. . . 12 @ 14 
do large.... 15 @ 18 

Peanuts 5 @ 6 

Filberts 12 @ 13 

Hickory 7 @ 8J 

Chestnuts 12 @ 15 

Pine nuts 7 @ 8 

ONIONS. 
Silver Skin .... 2 50 @ 3 20 
POTATOES. 

" 95 
1 30 



Early Rose, sks. 
Tomales 1 10 1 



River Reds. . 
Burbanks, river. 

do Salinas... 

do Petaluma. 

do Oregon . . . 
Jersey Blues. 



2 00 



1 92; 



1 37 
1 324 



1 10 W 1 3) 
90 @ 1 10 
1 30 (a 1 60 
1 10 @ ) 15 
1 30 (8 1 60 
1 00 @ 1 25 
POULTRY AND OAMK. 

Hens, doz 5 00 @ 6 50 

Roosters.old.... 4 60 (S 5 60 

do young 6 00 @ 6 50 

Broilers, small 3 00 4 00 
do large 4 50 @ — 

Fryers 4 50 @ 5 OO 

Ducks, tame 4 00 @ 6 50 

do large 6 00 @ 7 60 

Geese, pair 1 50 (a 2 00 

Turkeys, Gobl'r. 13 @ U 
Turkeys, Hens.. 12 & 14 

do dressed 13 @ 15 

Pigeons 1 75 2 50 

Rabbits, doz.... 1 25 @ 1 60 

Hare 1 50 (a 2 10 

Quail- - (a) 1 25 

Snipe, English. 2 00 (g 3 OO 

do Jack 75 (« 

Ducks, Mallard 2 60 3 50 
do Canv'sback 4 1 (a G 00 

do Sprigs 1 26 (a) — 

do Ti?al 76 (* - 

do Widgeon... 1 00 1 25 

do Small 76 <t> — 

Geese, Giay 2 60 (te — 

do white 1 25 (S) 1 50 

Brant 1 50 (<i — 

Honkers 4 00 W 5 00 

EGG FOOD. 
Manhattan, # lb 12 @ - 
PROVISIONS 



Cal . Bacon , he* vy , lb 


lOK 


i 


Medium 


12 C 






13 (t 


S - 




9 C 


i loj 


Oal. Sm'k'dBeet 


11 (t 


i 12 




12}@ 13 


do Eastern... 


\3i& 14 


SEEDS 






Alfalfa 


9 ^ 


i 9i 




3I( 


i 4 


Clover, Red.... 


Oil? 


i 10; 




17K 


i 20 




20 C 






2 i 


» 3 




4 e 


i 5 


ItalianRyeGraas 


10 m 11 


Perennial 


7 a 


i 9 


Millet, German. 


6 ( 


1 61 


do Common . . 


5 ( 


* fi 


Mustard, yellow 1 


90 (S 


1 2 25 


do Brown .... 


2K 


1 3 




m 


1 n 


Ky. Blue Grass. 


25 5 


i 27 


Sweet V. Grass. 


75 ( 






14 ( 


* 16 


Hungarian.. . 


74( 


1 8 




274C 


i 40 




7 C 


1 8 




6 C 


1 7 



TALLOW. 

Crude, n> 3 @ 

Refined 6 # 

WOOL - Spring, 1890 
Hmub't &Men'cino 19 
Sac'to valley. ... 
Free Mountain. 
8 Joaquin valley 
do mountaiu . 
Cala'v & F'th'll. 
Oregon Eastern. 

do valley 

80 'n Coast, def . . 
So'n Coast, free. 

FALL— 1890. 

North'n, choice 16 (fi 

do defective 
Mountain Free 
S.Joaquin, def. . 
Southern do. . . 




14 (a 
13 <a 

9 @ 



Fruits and Vegetables. 



Choice selected, 
quotations, while 
quotations. 
Bananas, bunch 1 

Cranberries 10 

Limes, Mex 4 

do tCalifornia 1 

do do 
Lemons,Cal.,bx. 1 

do Sicily, bx.. 6 

do Malaga.... 7 
Oranges. 

do "Winters. . 1 

do "Vacaville. . 

do tRiverside . 1 
Seedling Oranges, 
do tRiverside. . 
do tLos Angeles 2 
Navel Oranges. 

do tRiverside.. 3 
do tLos Angeles 2 
do Duarte 3 



In good package*, (etch an advance on tot 
very poor grades sell less than the lower 

WE0NB8DAY, Jan. 7, 1891. 
50 @ 2 76 iPineapples, doz. 4 00 @ 6 OO 
50 ("14 00 I Apples, com box 60 (a — 

50 @ 5 50 ! do good 76 (8 1 00 

60 f<« 1 75 do choice.. .. 1 00 1 25 
50 (a 76 I do Giltedged .1 25 (a 1 75 
00 @ 3 00 Lady apples, box 1 00 <a 1 25 
00 @ 6 60 : VEGETABLES. 
00 @ 8 50 !Okra, dry. Tb.... 10 m 
Parsnips, ctl.... 1 25 @ 
Peppers, dry, lb 12 (a 

Turnips, ctl 75 @ — 

Beets, sk — @ 1 00 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 50 @ 61 

Carrots, sk 30 @ 46 

Marrowfat,ton 12 CO (815 00 

Hubbard 15 00 (rt-20 00 

GarUc.lb 8 f« 10 

Apparagus, lb . . — @ — 
* Small box. t Large box. 



00 <a - 

75 (B 1 00 
75 (» 2 50 



00 @ 2 75 

00 @ 'i 25 
00 (a 3 25 
25 V" 4 00 



17i 
20 



Rope. 

Baling, Duplex, lb 10 

** Manilla, lb 13 

Twine, for hops, balls, tarred, lb, Manilla 15 

" " grape vine, balls, lb " 14J 

" •* " coils, lb ** 14i 

■■ spring, tt) 16 

•' binder (660 ft. to tb), lb 14 

Duplex twine 3c per lb less. 



PAOIPIO COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication In this paper by officer in charge of branch Signal office. Division of the Pacific] 



Olympla. 



Portland. 



EurelKa. 



Rn. 



Bed Blufi. 



Sacramento. 



S.Franclaco. 



Fresno. 



.08 



50 Nw 



Keeler. 



W CI 
E CI. 



L.03 Angeles. 



.12 



San Diego. 



12 



CI. 
CI. 
01. 
CI, 
Cy. 
PC 
CI. 



Explanation. CI. for clear; Cy , cloudy; Fr., fair; Cm., calm; indicates too small to measure. Temperature wind and weather at 5 P. 
of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. P C, partly cloudy. Rn., rain. 



. (Pacific Standard time) with amount 



Land to Rent. 



A Splendid Opportunity 

To rent on exceedingly favorable terms, either lor cash 
or a reasonable portion of the production, 164 acres of 
well-tilled land, a very comfortable house, with abun- 
dant shade trees, and splendid well of excellent healthy 
artesian water flows through the garden and door- 
yard. Water sufficient to irrigate 100 acres or more. 
Much of the land leveled, checked and ditched. Large 
barn and convenient outhouses. About 25 acres of alfalfa, 
and seven of orchard. The land is conveniently fenced 
into subdivisions, including a good pasture, large reser- 
voir, etc. This place is one of the pleasant, healthfully 
located places in the Tulare valley, seven miles S. W. of 
Tulare city. Possession given immediately. Also, 156 
acres adjoining on the east side and 160 acres on the 
west side of the above tract, making FOUR HUNDRED 
AND EIGHTY ACRES all well-tilled, productive land for 
all kinds o( grain-growing, etc. Also 640 acres three 
miles from Pixley, and 160 acres within one mile of 
Tulare city, also on very favorable terms. 

Apply soon to Capt. Thos. H. Thompson, Tulare; 
E. M. Dewey, Portervllle; or A. T. Dewey, 220 Market 
Street, San Francisco. 



Oar Agents, 

Odh Friends can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
Huenoe and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

H. Kkllby — Modoc and Lassen Cos. 

Obo. Wilsok — Sacramento Co. 

J. P. QuiNBTTE— San Francisco. 

J. C. UOAO — San Francisco. 

M. E. DOLAN— San Francisco. 

J. H. Crossmak— San Bernardino Co. 

F. W. Knapp— Amador Co. 

Georgb Evans- Sinta Clara Co. 

Mrs. M. E. Dddlhy— Ventura Co. 

W. W. Wadsworth— Sutter and Yuba Cos. 

Wilson McNickle— Fresno Co. 

Andrew Kbid— Monterey Co, 

Frank S. Chapin— Colusa Co. 

Helen B Kino— San Benito Co. 

Wm. M. Hilleary— Oregon. 

Wm. Holdkr— Oregon. 

H. G. Parsons— Sonoma Co. 

John Simpson— Oregon. 



WHERE TO GO. 

While we have little fancy and still less space for 
"puffs," so lavishly indulged in by the average 
newspaper, we have no hesitancy in bestowing a 
word of commendation where it is clearly deserved. 
We deem it at least a part of the mission of true 
journalism to furnish the reader with the most reli- 
able information obtainable concerning the various 
business institutions of the country. Among these 
are the hotels, of which the American Exchange, 
319 Sansome street, San Francisco, will be found 
to fill every want of the business man and the gen- 
eral traveling public, being quiet and well con- 
ducted. The rooms are large, neat, airy, and well 
furnished, the table supplied with the best in the 
market, while the charges are quite reasonable. 

In brief, the liberal patronage retained from year 
to year is a sufficient guarantee of the popularity of 
this hotel as well as its gentlemanly proprietors, the 
Montgomery Brothers. * 



OARLAWN FARM. 

380 PERCHERONS 

Largely Brilliant Blood, 

tP 106 FRENCH COACH HORSES, 

Large, Stylish, Fast. 

This aggregation, that, for supe- 
riority in individuals, combined 
with the Choicest, Rarest, 
Breeding, was never before 
equaled in the history of 
Horse Importing and 
Breeding now comprises the 
STOCK ON HAND 
at this Greatest Establishment of its kind 
on earth ; among them the 
Winners ot Thirteen First Prizes 
At Universai. Exposition, Paris, 1889, and 

FORTY FIRST PRIZES 

At the Great French Fairs. 

PRICES BEYOKD COMPETITION. 

For information and Catalogue, address, 

M. W. DUNHAM, Wayne, Illinois, 

Thlrty-flve miles west 01 Chicago, on C. & N.-W- 
K'y, tjetween Turner Junction and BlKin. 




FANCHER CREEK NURSERY, 

FRESNO. OAL. 

OFFERS A LARGE ASSORTMENT OP 

FRUIT AND O RNAM ENTAL TREES. 

SPBOIALTIBS: 

WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS. OLIVES. PLUMS AND PRUNES ON MYROBOLAN 
ROOT. GRAPES. PALMS. ROSES AND OLEANDERS. 



THE TRUE SMYRNA FIG, ALSO THE WILD OR CAPRI FIG. 



New Descriptive Catalogue mailed free on application. Correspondence 

Solicited. Address 

GEO. 0. ROEDING, MANAGER, FRESNO. OAL. 



FIELD AND GARDEN SEEDS. 

CUB ILLUSTKATED CATALOGUE SENT FKEE. 

Ser.d 4c In stamps and we will send a packet of the gre»t novelty, THE PERSIAN MONARCH 
MUSKMEIjON. the finest flavored melon grown. 

B- BOUK & HUPERT, Greenwood, Neb. 

(Mention this paper.) 



JAMES LINFORTH, 

37 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 

BLYMYER BELLS-CHURCH, SCHOOL & FIRE. FARM OR PLANTATION BELLS. 
ZIMMERMAN EVAPORATORS, SORGHUM MILLS. SUGAR MILLS. 
COFFEE MACHINERY. RICE MACHINERY. 
BUTCHER MACHINERY AND TOOLS. TANKING OUTFITS, LARD KETTLES. 
FARMERS' BOILERS. HORSE-POWERS. STEAM ENGINES. 
WOOD SAW MACHINES, ENTERPRISE WINDMILLS. PUMPS. 



Please send (or Illustrated Price List, mentioning for which goods. Our Sorghum Hand Boole sent free on 
application. Valuable to all Sorghum growers. 



N. B.— SHIPMENTS MADE DIRECT FROM FACTORIES WHEN TO THE ADVAN- 
TAGE OF PURCBA8ERS. 



STILL IN MHE LEAD! 




McLEAN'S 



OROHARD 
AND FIELD 



CULTIVATOR. 



Slmnle Strone Superb. Guaranteed to do a greater variety of work than any other Cultivator on the Pacific 
' Coast Awarded first premium wherever exhibited. For catalogue and price list, address 

N. McLEAN, WATSONVILLE, OAL. 



THE JUDSON RABBIT-PROOF WIRE & PICKET FENCE. 

fence colored BSD by bolUne Id a chemical solution that preserves the wood. 



CHEAPER and BETTER than Ever. Their 2-ft. high 3-cabIe 
fence has taken the trade. Farmers put barbed wire above 
It and have the CHEAPEST good Fence that can be made 
In ANY WAY. Rabbits cannot Bet through. Hogs cannot 
brea^ it and Horses or Cattle cannot get over it. AH our 
Address JUDSON MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 14 and 16 Fremont Street. San Francisco. 



42 



f AGIFie I^URAlo PRESS. 



[Jam. 10, 1891 



$eed3, t)|apt3, tic. 



FRUIT TREES 

FOR SALE. 



25 OOO BARTLBTT PEABS, 

10,000 FRENCH PRUNES. 

5,O0O OREGON SILVER PRUNES, 

12,00O ROYAL APRICOTS, 

2.000 MOORPARK APRICOTS 

And Various Other Varieties. 

All guaranteed in good condition, free from Scale' 
5 to 7 feet high. For sale in Iota to 8uit. For particu 
lare, inquire of 

M. A. MAROUSB, 

HarysTille, Oal. 



JOHN S. CALKINS' 

NURSERIES, 

POMONA, LOS ANGELES OO., 

CALIFORNIA. 

OLIVE TREES, 4 to 5i FEET HIGH, 

SOFT-SHELL WALNUT, 

GUAVA. 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUB?, Etc. 

Write tor General Price List. 

NAPA VALLEY NURSERIES^ 

ESTABLISHED 1878. 

GENERAL NURSERY STOCK. 

Spacial attention to magnificent stock of 



LEONARD COATES, 

NAPA, OAL. 

(Proprietor Sausal Fruit Farm.) 



PALM AND CITRUS NURSERY. 

I OFFER THIS SEASON A LARGE AND SELECT 
stock in PALMS (50 varieties), in CITRUS— Eureka, 
Lemon, Washington Navel, Indian Kiver, etc.; in 
OLIVES— Mission (100,000), Italian (Frantoio, Morinello, 
etc.) from imported trees; also the French and Spanish 
varieties. Large selections in PINEAPPLE and 
BANANAS. Also the largest collection of Tropical 
Fruit-Bearing Trees in the State, a few of which are; 
Alligator Pear, Cherinioya, Mango. Sour Sop, Sugar 
Apple, Star Apple, Cashew Nut, Rose Apple, Cocoa 
Plum, Elephant Apple, and others too num<;fOU8 to 
name. Send for Desciiptive Catalogue. KINTON 
STEVENS, Santa Barbara, California. 



OLIVES! 

26,000 FOR SALE. 

MANZANILLO, NEVADILLO BLANCO, PICHOLINE. 
Also other choice varieties in limited numbers, 
ranging from 1 to 4 feet in bight. Price according to 
size and variety. JOHN COOKE, Nurseryman, Berkeley, 
Alameda County, California. 



BLUB AND RED GUM TREES, PROPERLY 
transplanted in boxes Blue Gums, 6 to 10, 8 to 12, 

or 12 to 18 iiiclics hiirli at §10 per 1000. Red I ; urns, same 
Bize*, at from 5;15 ta ^'20 per lUOO. Monterey Cypress, 6 to 
10 inches, sl5 per 1000; 8 to 12 Indies at 420 per luOO; 12to 18 
inclies at S25 per 1000; or J8 to 24 inches at S30 jier lOOO. 
All trees can he cut out from boxes witli a iJiiuare block of 
earth attached to roots in proportion to size oi trees. Bam 
pie boxes, of any number wanted, will l>o stupped to any 
address at same rates. Ktamp.s taken in payment for small 
orders. The best trees, for the least money, in the State. 
Orders for 10,000 lots, at special rates. GEO. R BAILEY, 
Park Nursery, Berkeley, Cal. 



ALFALFA, GRASSES, Every Kind, CLOVER, VEGE- 
TABLE, and SEEDS of Every Variety. 

Seeds and Improved Egg Food, 
425 WASHINGTON STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



HERE'S YOUR PRUNES! — A FEW 
thousands clean healthy stock of the followini;; vari* 
eties still to offer; French, Silver and Tragedy Prune, 
and Clymau Plum, or Myrobolan seedling roots, Clyman, 
Tragedy and Royal llative r>ii Peach, and Bartlett Pears. 
Address, at once, McKEVlTT & WOOD, Vacaville. 



A CHOICE LOT OF TWO AND THKEE-YEAR-OLD 
Ptcboline Olive Trees in open ground. Low prices. 
UBS. C. W. CRANB, 1117 Nineteenth St., Oakland, Ala- 
meda Co., CaL, or 0. J. BACKUS, 61i Battery St, S. F- 



CITRUS AND DECIDUOUS TREES, 

PLANTS AND PALMS IN VARIETY AT ALOHA 
NURSERIES, Penryn, Placer Co , Cal. A few French 
Prnne on Almond stock left. FRED C. MILES, Manager. 



H Q ■ K| A r A practical treatise by T. A. Qarii 
U II A ll 11 t Srl^K. results of long expert 



CULTURE K 



ence In Southern California, lit 
pages, oloth bound. Sent port-paid 
at lednced price of 76 ct8. per copy 
by DSWn fc 00., Pabllahen, B. W. 



BARREN HILL 

NURSERY, 



SPECIALTIES: 



NUTS, PRUNES & GRAPES, 



The largest and tinest collection of " NUT.BEARING " 
TREE-! to be found in the United States and excelled 
nowhere in Europe. 

Headquarters of the 

Proeparturiens, or Fertile Walnut, 

Introduced into California in 1871 by Felix GUlet; and 
also of the great market walnuts of the world, 

Mayette» Franquette and 
Parislenne, 

The " HARDIEST" walnut varieties known, and which 
render walnut culture possible as far north as the State 
of Washington. 



19 VARIETIES OF WALNUTS, 

1 1 VARIETIES OF CHESTNUTS. 

8 VARIETIES OF PRUNES, 

241 VARIETIES OF GRAPES. 



APRIL CHERRIES, (our varieties, the earliest kinds 
ever introduced in California. 
PEARS, APPLES, PLUMS, APRICOTS, etc., etc. 
ORANGES and LEMONS. 



GRAFTING THE WALNUT, 

By FELIX GILLET of Nevada City, Cal., an Essay on the 
Different Modes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut; 
illustrated with eight cuts made after nature. 

Will be sent with descriptive catalogue to any address 
on tlie receipt of 26 cents in postage etamps. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE AND PRICE 
LIST, illustrated with l!6 cuts, sent free on application. 

FELIX QILLET, 



NEVADA CITY. 



CALIFORNIA. 



ORDERS WILL BE RECEIVED FOR A VERY 
limited number of choice Italian Olive Trees. 
Varieties: 

FaANTOIO, fORREQGIOLO, ) (.„ 
MORINELLO, MORCHIAIO, ) 



CUCCO, ) 
PALAZZUOLO, r 



For Eating. 



These trees are original importations from Italy, all 
thrifty, from five to eight feet in hight. 

Single trees. Five Dollars each. Large orders at re- 
duced price. ALSO young trees (one and two years old) 
propagated from the above. ALSO a few trees of the 
Rubra and Mission varieties. Address 
F. S. GOULD, 

Santa Barbara, California. 



CARL PURDY, 

Collector and Dealer In 

CALIFORNIA NATIVE BULBS. 

Calochortus, Lilies and Brodelaee 
A Specialty. 

Price List on application. UKIAH, OAL. 



For Sale-Peach Pits 

ONE DOLLAR PER SACK, FOR NURSERY PLANT- 
ing. Address OAKDALE CANNERY COMPANY, 
Oakilale, California, Box 210 

F O ft. <S A. Ij 33 : 

100 SACKS FRESH 

Call on or address 

0. J. BERRY, Tulare. Oal. 



250 SACKS PEACH PITS, 

50 SACKS APRICOT PITS. 

Address FANCHBR CRP.BK NURSERY. 
FRESNO, CAL. 



FRUIT TREES^FOR SALE. 

rRAOEDY PRUNES, YE.\.RLINGS; EARLY CRAW- 
„ ''"Ches, ye.rlings; French Prunes, June buds. 

Fifth Street, SACRAMENTO, CAL. 
INGLESIDE NURSERY COMPANY 



OLIVES, VINES, PALMS ROSES. 

Addresa WM. 8IOKERT, 

CANADA NURSERY, 

Redwood City, San Mateo County, CW. 



OUVES. 

400,000 OLIVES, 18 VARIETIES. 

20,000 

Bodded Orange and Lemon Trees. 

FOR SALE BY 

a", jlm. xxo-viT'Xj^iNrx}, 

POMONA NURSERY. 

Pomona, Los Angeles County, Cal. 

Write and get Prices. 



Catalogue of Seeds, 

Containing lOO pages of matters of Interest to the 
Farmer and Gardener, with illustrations and descrip- 
tions of Garden, Field and Flower Seeds. Send for 
Catalogue to 

COLORADO SEED HOUSE, 

BARTELDES & CO., 

1516 to 1522 Wazee St., DENVER, COLO. 
Mention this Pa|>er. 



T. V. MUNSON, 

DENISON, TEXAS. 

Introducer of the Great PARKER EARLE 
.STRAWBERRY, now begins the introduction of a 
few of his thousands of wonderful Grape Hybrids. 
Tbis season he offers four varieties, \iz: 

BRIttlANT, early red; CAMPBELI,, early 
golden; ROMMKL., earlv white (promising for North 
andSouth),and HKRIUANN JARGER, late purple; 
larger cluster and berry than Bcrbemont. suitable for 
south of Cincinnati and St. Louis, all equal to be»t for- 
rign in quality. Descriptive circular and terms on ap- 
plication. 



SANTA ROSA NURSERIES, 

R. W. BBLLi, Proprietor, 

(Successor to L, Burhank). 



Still a Fair Quantity of PRUNES, thoagh 
Selling Fast, 

A Superb Lot of Bartletts and Apples 

(on Whole Roots), 
Cherries, OUvea, Walnuts, Shade Trees, 
Table and Ralaln Grapes, Sec., Bus. 



Arizona Everbearing Stravberry. 

BY PLANTING QUITE A NUMBER OF THE LEAD- 
ing varieties of Strawberry toge'her for Ave years, I 
l)ave produced a variety unlike any of the former. 
I have picksd the fruit daily since April 20th to the 
present time, October 18th, and the vines are still full 
of bloom and berries. Roots are long and stand tbe 
drouth well. The berries are large, line flavor and high 
color, and resemble tlie Jessie in shape somewhat. I am 
prepared to furnish them in small lots at $1.60 per doz., 
postiaid. R. E. FARRINGTON, General Nurseryman, 
Phoenix, Arizona, 



Sl3c aays enrller than 
any varleiT teeted at the 
A^rli'ini'l Ex. Grounds 
ai titueva, N. Y. Color 
K;n*'iilsh while : pulp 
ii inler. swret and de- 
Ili-lotiM. The only i^rape 
iliar ranks llrMlboiIil^ 
i-arlinc^s and rjuolUy. 
>aeli vine sealed wlih 
our re(rl«teied irade- 

mark label. Send for 

( Iri iiiui - lurii.' r tr.formailon. AKeuiK wanted 

Adoiess SIEPHKN IloVT'S SUiNS, New Cauaau, Ct 




TREES! TREES! 

AT 

VENTURA NURSERIES. 

300,000 Soft Shell English Walnuts and White Adriatic 
Figs a specialty. Price on application. 

O. P. COOK. 
Nurseries, four miles east of Ventura. 



20,000 Olive Trees 

MISSION, MANZANILLO, NEVADILLO & PICHOLINE. 
• Write for prices. 

GEO. H. KUNZ. 

Third and R Streets, SACKAMENTa. CAL. 



Established 1853. 



J. p. Sweeney & Co. 



DEALERS IN • 



GARDEN. FARM AND TREE 

ALFALFA AND ALL KINDS OF OTHER 
GRASSES AND CLOVER, 

TOP ONIONS, SEED POTATOES, ETC. 



409-411 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



(Send for Catalogue.) 




iiiK CATALOGUE of 

WTHERJI 



GROWN 
TE.STEU 



SEEDS FOR 1891 

<'niit.iins rivi r <>.'">0 illuslralinns 
III 3 enli.reil i,l:ii,.s. THw <,iil\ 
■ 111.' iiiil.li^lii il ilhisiraiiii- i;v- 

i:iJVTiiiN(s ill si:i:i»s. 

ItULIiSaiiil PLANTn Till !•; 
T<» N.VTI Ki:. I HKi; i.ii 
:i|>|)li<':it!oti. r.ou I'lciiiht 
l:;it<'» til tlit^ M est. 

I Vorthrup, iiruslun iVIiomlwin Co. 

Seed Growers, 



.HI\\F\I'()l,ls 




BCCAUSC TMCV ARC 

THE BEST. 

D. M. Ferry & Go's 
Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced 

SEED ANNUAL] 

, For 1891 will be mailed FREEf 
Ito all applicants, and to last season's J 
\ customers. It is better than ever. " 
Every person usin^ Garden^ 

Floiver or Field Seeds, 
should send for it. Address 
D. M. FERRY & CO. 
DETROIT, MICH, 
i Largest Seedsmen in the world J 



MISSOURI NURSERY CO., Louisiana, Mo. 

8 ale«men w ant ed; Bpecial aids; ma gniticont oat ht freeL 

STARKn«URSERIES,^;::^i^i;SaW 

Founded 1 H3.i, OI(U>!i4t in the West. l.nr«**Mt in the 
World. BI-'ST of everyt hingr. Nearly 6i)0wiIe**mBn sell our 
etock in almnvt every State Jind Ti-nit'irj' ; Vnlumnof annaal 
8aJeHn<»w f xct'f'dstliiit nf any other Nursery. We »eU direct 
throiiRh our own ti:ilesiiicn, without the ni>l ui tree dealers or 
>niddlemen . an d '/-' m Btock, freight and all chii rgea p aid. 

NO TREES 151! 

■■i^^^^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B L.ist bear 

like whole root trees: orliky nluin, prune aun '/)ri. (rf trees 
on M'trim-i. The be~t (iliitj tstiK K icrowii. IdtiliO and other 
NeWiV Olil l''rnil'»(h> ma,i,); '.rn.inien1;(ls. r<K»t jcraftfl— 
ecerythinij. No hir^ei t^tnck in U. li. Nnb'-Hi-r. No cheaper. 



j^y^ ILUUSTRATCD CATALOGUE >vj!. 
"V OK^'-'Tr <=' ^ STOCK X 

/UMMJRFASHO TESTED \ 

e^jipc'^ ftov*w ^rABW 

PlANTsO r m O TOOLS 
BULBS ^[_[_LJ^ "C 

. READ OUR prriRS BCrom BuYINfi 

i W.W.BARNARD &C0.CHICAGOi 

\ 6-a-NCLARKST. / 

T^^NvSuccHSORSTO HII^AM SIBLEV ItCQ.^^^ 



JAPANESE TREE OO. 

(Formerly Japanese Tree Importiog Co.) 

MAKE A SPECIALTY OF THE HAKDY, SEEDLESS 
Oonahiu Orange Trees so hiclily recommended by 
all the leaciine horticultural papers. N. B —Our Man- 
ager, Mr. n. E. Amooro, who has lived 28 years In China 
and Japan, is now traveling there in search of new fruits. 
Address hi r\ at Voitohama, Japan. All kinds of Japanese 
and Donu:!itic Fruit Trees. Order at once for winter and 
spring delivery. 



TRUMBULL & BEEBE'S NURSERIES, 



THE ATIF.NTION OF PLA.N'TEKS IS INVITED TO OUR CCMPLETE STOCK OF 

Almonds, Apples, Apricots, Cherries, Figs, Peaches, Pears, Plums, Prunes, Quinces, 
Chestnuts, Walnuts, Persimmons. Pomegranates, Olives, Oranges. Lemons, 
Limes, in Full Assortment; Berry Bushes and Plants; Ornamental 
Trees and Shrubbery, Roses, in Large Assortment, &c., &c. 

Our stock has been carslully and well grown, WITHOUT lURIGATION, FREE FRO.M INSECTS, and la UNSUR- 
PASSED IN QUALITY. PRICES MODERATE CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. Catalogues on applioktion. 



NURSERY AND SEEDSMEN, 



419 & 421 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Jan. 10, 1891.] 



f ACIFie F^URAb PRESS. 



PACIFIC NURSERY, 

Established 1871, 
OFFERS FOR SALE THIS SEASON 

100.000 OLIVE TREES. 

Mission Olives, two years old, $15 to $18 per 100. 
Nevadillo Blanco Olives, two years, $15 to $18 per 100. 
Lavayino (from Genoa) Olives, two years, $20 per 100. 
Picholine Olives, two years, $6 to $10 per 100, $50 to $30 
per 1000. 

Riparia Grapes, two years, rooted, $16 per 1000. 
Blackberries, Lawson and Kittatlnny, $10 per 1000. 
Guavas, ready to fruit this season, $15 per 100. 
French Prunes, a few thousand on hand. Price on 
application. 

Monterey Cypress, in boxes, transplanted, $12.50 per 
1000. MoLterey Cj press, balled, from $10 to $20 per 100. 

Address F. LUDEMANN, 

Baker 8i Lombard Sts., San Francisco. Cal. 



E. J. BOWEN, 

SEED MERCHANT 



Onion Sets, Grass, Clover, Vegetable, 
and Flower Seeds. 



LARGEST STOCK AND MOST COMPLErE ASSORT- 
MENT. Illustrated descriptive and priced seed cat- 
alogue, the most elaborate and valuable of its kind of 
aoy Pacific Coast publication, mailed free to all appli- 
cants. Address, E. J. BOWEN, 815 and 817 Saneome St., 
San Francisco, or 65 Front St., Portland, Oregon. 



SEEDLESS GRAPE ROOTS. 

These Grapes make the finest seedless raisins known. 
For sale by J. P. ONSTOTT. Yuba Olty, Oal. 



TREES! TREES! 



NUKSEET STOCK 



SEEDS, 

SEEDS, 



PRUNES. PEACHES. APRIOOTS. APPLES, 
ALMONDS. OHERRY. PLUMS, PEARS, 
NECTARINES. ETC. 




ELOWEI^, TI^EE, 
HEIIB, EIEIjID SEE3DS 



BULBS & PLANTS. 



ORANGE AND LEMON 

530 ACRES OP NUESER^ 
GROUNDS. 

CATALOGUE 



IVIOSO? C03Vri»IjETE LIISTE OF 
SEEIDS A1>T3D BXJIjBS OKT THE 
CO-A.ST_ 



1890 
NOW READY. 

S E1>TX3 
E O 

sx33\rx> a?- o x*. o-a.t-a.Xjo GtXJe. \\ \\ it. 

CORRBSPONDBNCB SOLICITED. N\ r V^FfiEL 

All Orders will Receive Prompt Attention. 



SEE OUR STOCK OF TREES, PLANTS, SEEDS, ETC AND GET OUR 
PRICES BEFORE PURCHASING ELSEWHERE. 



SA.TISEA.CTIO]Sr C3-XJ-A.S,A.]SrTEEr) 



W. R. STRONG CO., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 




R0SESPrANTSfe?d1."E^c^ 

Finely drown (Stock. All the Best, Now and Standard Varieties of Koses. 

J. B. Verrone; Mme. Martha du Bourg; Mme. August 
Legros; Mme. Phillip Kuntz; May Rlvers;Oscar II.; 

Mrs. James Wilson, (tlie YeUow Mennet.J 
Wc ofTer club orsranizprs everj-where extra indncemf nts. 
SIO ord3r by express secures 88 worth of Plants Free. 
88 order secures 8<5 worth Frke. Larger orders in proportion, 
20 Roses, fi no variety, all labeled HI 1 18 ('taryBanlhemunis, ail labeled $1 
20 ^xeraniums. " 81 15 C'arnati<»ns. " ^1 

12 Varieties of Begonias. gl I 12 Il.ybrid Roses, " VI 

13 Fancy Roses US, worth i'Z.M, something new. 
Our new illustrated Cataloguecontains much valuable information. "Writ* 
for it and .secure a eheok for the celebrated Rose, MRS. JAMES WILSON, 
to be given Free with first order. Address 

CAUSE & BISSELLhillTco.RICHMOND, ind. 



IPOMEA PANDURATA"^rr 

IV1<MHNFL«>WK1£. (^r.uva trMiu bulb^. Liveaoutall 
wiuttT. liiini-.-is^H in r-i/i' ami I.I iiutv f:njti Tear. Bloom.^ 
mi!l,lan.I .lay; H..ivcts fi ii..li.:s a.:rc.».s ; very fraKrai.l. 
jitl lt KII>lNG-lI001ll>AN8Yi Most beautit'n 
iii.H puimlur (lower. J.arec size, deep red c.»l..r. 
cv .-, idg. J Willi shini.ig cold. Z. IIA AGKAN A 
III. III. ((ioldon Clotlii: A beautiful ehrubhy plai.l 
la II. liish. MaasofbriflU pnl.liT, lt..w.Ta .l.ine to Dirr. 
[WILSON'S SKEW A; I'LANT OATALO<JUIi 

nd LIVF.STOCK ANNUAL FOK 1891. 
11 1 <i pag. s. aoO fine eneravinga, handsome eolorcd 
Iplatts, full of UAefullnformutlon. Un-iucstionably 
Itho most rt'ltabie catalogue imblislied. AU tho above 
Isent by In postage stanipa or money. The 
Imall for iC HEST and CllIK VPESTCOL. 
|LE<;T10N ofltrLICS uikI SI-KKS cvcroffircd. 

Address SAMTJEI. WIl^SON 





JVIECHAKTICSVILLE. PA. 



Red Top. Timothy, Red Clover, Kentucky Blue Grass. 
ALFALFA SEED, Etc. 

W. H. WOOD,;& CO., 117 to 125 J Street, SACRAMENTO. 



ESTABLISHED 1863. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 

AGENT FOR THE CALIFORN IA NURSERY CO. 

Largest Stock ant Most Coiplete Assortment of Frnit, SMde and Oinamtntal Trees on tlie Pacific Coast. 

Apple, Altaonds, Pear, Plum, Prune, Apricot and Cherry. 
Also Fine Stock Olives. Oranges, Il,emong, Nat Trees and Small Fraits; Magnolias, 
Camellias, Palms; Large Stock uf Roses. Clematis, Etc., Etc. 



GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, FLOWER AND TREE SEEDS, TOP ONIONS, Etc., Etc. 

Catalogues Mailed Free. Address 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



MOUNTAIN NURSERY. 

Fine Budded Orange and Lemon Trees. 



First Class, 4J to 6 feet; Second Class, SJ to 4J feet. 



SEEDLING TREES, 

SEED BED ORANGE PLANTS, 

LISBON LEMONS, 



WASHINGTON NAVEI S. 
MEDITERRANEAN SWEETS. 
EUREKA LEMONS, 



AND A FULL LINE OF OTHER NURSERY STOCK FOR SALE. 



FOR PRICES AND TERMS ADDRESS THE PROPRIETOR, 

Or D. L. WILBUR, Riverside. 



TREES, PLANTS AND VINES 

TfoTT tlxo> SveAfiioxriL of X090-9X. 

Having decided to re-establish the GENERAL NURSERY BUSINESS at Oakland, Cal., I have imrchased the 
ENTIRE NURSERY STOCK grown by Mr. James Sbinn at Niles, Cal., embracing a most complete assortment of 
unusually fine stock, grown without irrigation, that I am offering at reasonable prices. 

All the Leading Varieties of APPLE, PEAR, CHERRY, PLUM, PRUNE, APRICOT, 
NECTARINB and ALIMOND. 

Fine Stock of ORANGES, LEMONS, OLIVES, NUT TREES and FIGS. 

The Only Stock of PERSIAN WALNUTS (Kaghazl) on the Pacific Coast. 

300.000 GRAPE VINES (Strong Roots). Small Fruits, Berry Bnshe», Etc., Etc., in 
Large Quantities. 

ORNAMENTAL and SH.4DE TREES, Roses, Standard Roses, Clematis, Trailing Vines, 
Plants, Etc., Etc., in Great Variety. 

Packing Grounds at Niles, Cal., Unsurpassed Facilities for Shipping. Correspcndence solicited. 



Business OflBce, 960 Broadway, 



OAKLAND, CAL. 



COX'S SEED CATALOGUE MAILED EBEE. 

It contains description and price of Grass, Clover and Field SEEDS, Australian 
Tree and Shrub SEEDS, Native Califoniia Tree, Shrub and Flower SEEDS (the 
liiru'cst assortment of Vegetable and Fl.nviT SEE1>S, nilVrcd in the United States), new 
varieties of Forage Plants, Grasses and cl.ivcrs especiallv rcrommended for the Parific 
Coast. Holland, Japan and f'alifornia liullis. Lar-.' Ass. irtiiieiit of Palm SEEDS, 
new and rave i'laiits, new i-'riiit. Ourstoelc of Fruit Tr.-e^ ( ..nsistsof the best varieties 
of I'ruiie, I'luin, Apricot, Apple, Peaeli, Cherry, Ulive, I'ii,' and Nut Trees, Grape Vines 
and small Fruits. Adilress 

THOS. A. COX & CO. 

411, 413 & 415 Sansome St., San Francisco, CaL 




SALZER'S 



SEEDS 



ARE THE BEST 
FOR ALL SOILS 
AND CLIMES. 

Thcv will viold for you. OATS l.TI hu.. WHEAT 40 bu., 
BAliLEY 60 bu., COKN 100 bu. POTATOES 600 bu. per a. 
C^Send 8 cents for sample fann seeds and cataloglie. 
C^Send 6c. for j.kiir. "Acme Radish" and elegant catlj?. 
Our Catalog I li. li... \ . \ cr published in America. 
OnTrial;— 35 |il, I .i.i ( Vepctahle Seeds. post pd.lH. 

1.') pkgs. ] v i l.'vver Seeds, post paid, 50 cents. 
^I.ow Kri'iglit til Piicilie Coast States. 




day Radish 



JOHN A. SALZER, LA CROSSE^ WISCONSIN. 



1891. 



1891. 



Home Orown, Honest, Reliable. 

I offer you my Vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue for 
"gi FKK£. Note the immense variety of seed it con- 
tains, and that all the best novelties are there. Not 
much mere show about it (you don't plant pictures) 
Ibut fine engravings from photographs of scores of the 
"choice vegetables I have introduced. Would it not 
^ be well to get the seed of these from first hands? To be the 
oldest firm in the United States making mail and express 
business a specialty proves reliability. Honest and hon- 
orable dealing is the only foundation this can rest on. My Cata- 
^logue is FREE as usual. A matter on second page of cover will 

interest my customers. J. J. H, GREGORV & SON, Marblehead, Mass. 



VAUGHAN'S 

fSccds ^Plants 

SEEDS tor your Gnrdcr., and how lo plant them. | 
PIjANT.S for your Lawn and Window. I 
Where to get the BEST SEEDS and frcMliones? I 
Where to get the NEW PliANTS and sood uue«7 | 



These qiii'stions must be deci<U'cl. Which of (he ne« 
and la I nous are woi'thy.and which ol'l be old artt bet' 
ter.j oii should know. We priiil aii llhis. i 'iflalrifiuf. 
with I'holo. lOneravingN, Colored i'liitcs, and 
reasouuble d('S(;riptions. As to itscoinplrlcncss, we 
flay Jt (t ils tfie whole «^or.(/l"or the Garden, l^awnund 
Farm. FItKE. IJefore you buy, please write torthis 

book. VAUGHAN'S SEED STORE 
P.O. IJox Stiiic .Street, 

CHICAGO. 

P.S.— We make our Catalouue on the theory th»t 
the public does not want to be humbugged. 



44 



f AciFie i^uraid press. 



[Jam. 10, 1891 



Plows May Come and Plows May Go, But the Oliver Goes on Forever." 



OLIVER 



PLOWS FOR DH3HARD WORK 




NEW ORCHARD GANG! 

THE BONANZA JR. 

THREE AND FOUR GANG, 

THE BONANZA JR. is our new Orchard and Vineyard Gang Plow, and is bound to please in the 
class of work for which it is intended. Its work is perfect and needs only to be seen to satisfy the 
most exacting plowman. 



NO. 8 VINEYARD AND 
ORCHARD PLOW 

Has Adjustable Handles and 
Reversible, Self-Sharpening 
Shares and Slips. 




NO. B VINEYARD AND 
ORCHARD PLOW 

Has Adjustable Handles and 
is Fitted with Chilled or 
Steel Shares as desired. 



OLIVER'S BONANZA GANG. 

THREE OR FOUR GANG, 10-INCH CHILLED OR STEEL BASES. 



THE OLIVER 

Plows are better known, have reached a 
larger sale, have proved more popular and 
given better satisfaction than any other 
plows on the face of the globe. 

We make the Largest and Best Line of 

CHILLED PLOWS, STEEL PLOWS. 

SULKY AND GANG PLOWS. 

Ever Turned Out from Any Factory. 

Before purchasing, call on our nearest Agent and inspect them, or send 

for Catalogue to 

OLIVER CHILLED PLOW WORKS, 

37 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 





XLI.-No 



DEWEY & CO., Publiahers, 
Office, 220 Market St. 



The Health of Our Live-Stock. 

It is announced that the Legislature bow in 
seBsion will make a record for economy and 
that the taxes this year will be ooniiderably re- 
duced. We slnoerely hope so, for the vast ex- 
penditures during the last two years have been 
a grievous burden. There is no good reason 
why the cost of maintaining law and order and 
promoting intelligence in California should be 
so much greater than in other States. There- 
fore we hope the promises and pledges of 
economy made by both political parties will be 
sacredly kept and the desirable results 
realized. 

But in such pruning of public expenditure, 
the legislator's eye should not be closed to act- 
ual needs of the people. One of those to which 
we have alluded each time the Legislature has 
assembled for the last decade or more is the 
provision of State service in the promotion of 
animal health and the stamping out of con- 
tagions diseases. Nearly if not quite every 
State in the Union has a State Veterinarian. 
Here, though our] liv^-stock interests are 
large and growing, we have nothing of 
the kind. Contagious diseases and animal 
parasites proceed with only individual op- 
position and occasion losses which our 
stock-growers should be saved from. Oar 
stockmen have been almost overlooked, 
while other industries have been fostered and 
promoted by State money. They should now 
be provided for and the cost need not be 
large. 

We need a State Veterinarian to determine the 
character of prevalent diseases and with author- 
ity to stamp out contagion, to give information 
on animal sanitation which the public needs, to 
give instruction by lecture and demonstration 
at farmers' meetings and at the University, and 
to meet other pressing public needs. We trust 
that the bill introduced hy Senator DeLong to 
meet these needs will be enacted. 



Orange-Growing. 

It is Citrus Fair week in Central and North- 
ern California, and a superlative effort is being 
made at Marysvllle. Two months hence 
Southern California will have her share of cit- 
rus encouragement from the State Treasury, 
and Los Angeles will be the center of attrac- 
tion. Although there is much sectional feeling 
on this question of citrus-fruit growing for the 
last few years and may be for years to come, 
it is proving an excellent plan to provide for 
these two great winter fairs in the two rival 
regions. Much of the ill-feeling of the last few 
years seems to be disappearing, and much of 
the ignorance Is being displaced with better in- 
formation. The whole question is coming more 



As the orange, king of our winter fruits, is 
now leading in public attention, it is natural 
that our columns should reflect the brilliance 
of the ruling sovereign. Those readers who 





Sir 7 

BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORANGE, 



A NEW ORANGE, THE "JOPPA.' 



and more upon the plane of friendly rivalry 
and generous emulation, and therefore the re- 
sults will be widely beneiicial. Each side will 
be stimulated to do its best, and thus the whole 
will be advanced. 



do not grow oranges will find matters more to 
their liking in later issues of the Rural. 

In this issue we have a very timely illustrated 
article by B. M. Lelong, Secretary of the State 
Board of Horticulture, on the culture of the 




SCENE IN THE PAVILION AT THE STATE CITRUS FAIR, HELD AT OROVILLE, IN JANUARY. 1890.; 



orange. Mr. Lelong grew to manhood among 
the orange groves of Los Angeles county, and 
is practically acquainted with the affairs of 
which he writes. His condensed essay was 
prepared to afford such information as will be 
most likely to be called for, while 
public attention is so strongly drawn 
to the citrus fruits by the fairs at 
Marysville and Los Angeles. 

It will be found to cover all lead- 
ing points of practice, and shonld be 
preserved for reference. The illustra- 
tions are all pertinent to the text. 
The botanical characters of the 
orange, the Joppa, a! new variety to 
which attention was called in last 
week's Rural, the showing of the 
several architectural designs pro- 
duced at the Oroville fair last year 
by typical buildings all composed of 
oranges, the proper planting and 
pruning of the orange tree — all these 
are shown in engravings on the pages 
of this week's Rural and add much 
to the acceptability of Mr. Lelong's 
effort. 

The botanical characters of the 
orange, as shown in the smaller en- 
gravings on this page, will be of gen- 
eral interest. They are as follows : 
A, Compound nnifoliate leaf of the 
orange (Citrus aurantium). 1. Point 
of union, marked by an articulation; 

2. Petiole, winged on either side; 

3. Lamina; 4. Flowering branch; 5 
and 6. The fruit; 7. Flower com- 
plete; 8. Pistil; 9. Transverse sec- 
tion of ovary, which becomes the 
fruit as popularly known. 



46 



f ACIFie f^URAb PRESS. 



[Jav. 17, 1891 



a 



Of^F^ESfONDENCE. 



Oorreapondeote are alouo ret^ponaible for tbelr opinions. 



San Diego Notes. 

Editors Peess: — Among the very many 
pecnliaritieB of San Diego oounty I propose 
mentioning some of the more remarkable. The 
size, when compared with other counties, is 
really wonderfnl, it being ai large as the States 
of Maseachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecti- 
cut combined, having mountains many thoo- 
sands of feet in hight and valleys 300 feet be- 
low the level of the ocean. There are also val- 
leys on the Colorado desert, which, if flooded 
during the winter, are very fertile; but if not, 
gophers will starve there. There are also sev- 
eral rivers between the north boundary of the 
county and the Mexican line, among them the 
San Diego, Sweetwater, Otay and Tia Juana, 
which flow on an average about three months 
during the latter part of winter, when the 
mountain snows melt and mingle with the rains 
which fall on the mesas many miles below. 
For about two-thirds of the year they are en- 
tirely dry; but what seems very singular is, if 
one digs in the river-bed from two to three 
feet, plenty of water is found. Asa general 
thing, cactus, sagebrush and several other vari- 
eties cover the ground until removed by the 
hand of man, but in some places the growth of 
timber is immense, oak and pine being abun- 
dant, and on moist ground willow and cypress; 
but when this ground is once cleared and put 
under cultivation, all kinds of fruit and orna- 
mental trees flourish equal to those on any soil 
under the sun, especially where irrigation is 
nsed in connection with other culture. 

Thunder-storms are almost unknown here, 
for during the three years we have spent here 
there have been only two. It often happens, 
however, that a thunder-storm arises at sea and 
comes toward us, looking very black and forbid- 
ding, but as it approaches San Diego bay it 
gradually dies away and we hear no more of it. 
The tradewinds come on early in the summer 
and commence blowing from the southwest un- 
til about 5 or 6 o'clock, when they die away 
during the night, which is invariably cool, so 
that one ".an sleep comfortably under one or 
two blankets. 

During the winter season we often see the 
mountains 40 to 60 miles east of ns covered 
with snow to a depth of two or three feet, but 
in order to see it we have to look away over 
the valleys and mesas covered with orange and 
lemon groves in full bearing, and it is never 
cold enough near the coast to kill our geranium 
blossoms or callas, and our hillsides and valleys 
are perfectly lovely with a great profusion of 
grasses, wild grain and all shades of flowers. 
IrrleatiOD. 

To any one who pauses to consider, it is mar- 
velous what has been done by irrigation in 
Southern California during the past three years. 
When I came here three years ago last month, 
tliere was no irrigation practiced excepting 
such as was done with the wells and when the 
water was raised by windmills, and consequently 
the process was a very slow one. Many of the 
ranchmen relied more on cultivation than on 
irrigation, and some were so prejudiced against 
the use of water that they really believed many 
orops were injured by its use, and still persist 
in selling their fruit and vegetables for a higher 
price when they are not irrigated. 

When crops are grown on the bottom-land in 
the valley, many of them along the borders of 
the streams on a sandy-loam soil, the roots no 
doubt find their way down to the water, which 
is but a short distance below and ample to sup- 
ply the growing vegetation; hut to one who 
notices the higher mesas and bluffs, which are 
now under cuUivation and producing fine crops 
of fruit and grain by the judicious use of water 
from the reservoirs, it is at once evident what 
is being done by irrigation, 

I find also that those who begin to irrigate 
are sure to enlarge their facilities instead of 
contracting, and this to me is a most convino 
Ing argument in favor of the use of water. The 
constant looking after new sources of supply 
and the expenditure of so many thousands of 
dollars to supply every locality with an 
abundance of water for irrigation purposes, 
shows at a glance the unbounded faith the 
people have in irrigation. So, also, any one 
who looks through the Chamber of Commerce 
from time to time and learns under what 
method the finer specimens of fruit, vegetables 
and grains have been produced, not forgetting 
the flowers, must be ready to exclaim, in the 
language of the mottoes at the celebration of 
the opening of the reservoir of the Sweetwater : 
" Sunshine, air and water, and the greatest of 
these is water .' " 

Three years ago some ranchmen in Otay were 
noted for their fine apples, plums and other 
fruits, but to- day we hear little said about it; 
but one of them was heard to remark at the 
time of the September rain that he thought it 
would be $3000 damage to his vineyard. T. 



article copied in last week's Rural from the 
Examiner concerning the proposed exploration 
of Death valley made it plain. The " faunal 
area/' theory as there set forth is so simple 
and comprehensive that when the surveys and 
maps are completed and distribnted among the 
farmers we may expect to see agriculture re- 
ceive an immediate boost. 

To quote from the Examiner article : " For 
example, snppose it is determined what are 
preciaely the limits occupied by the jackass 
rabbit. When that much is known, it must 
necessarily be true that any plant which thrives 
in one part of that area will do well in any 
other part." 

Let's see: The jackass rabbit oooupies South- 
ern California; the orange thrives in Southern 
California; tbe jickass rabbit also occupies 
North Dakota; ergo, the orange will " do well " 
in North Dakota. There's a syllogism for 
yon. 

If our Department of Agriculture really ex 
pects to benefit: the farmers of the country in 
the manner above intimated, there are other 
jackasses than the rabbits whose " limits " 
should be " defined." S. B, Bau.vall 

Simi, Cal , Dee. 2S. 1890. 

Cal. and the If. 

Editors Press: — The custom has been con 
tinuous and universal in abbreviating the word 
California to use tbe letters Cal, Recently, 
however, some people have added two more 
letters and made the abbreviation Calif, 

The reason given for this clumsy change is 
that the new State of Colorado has used tbe 
letters Col. to shorten its name in writing, and 
that Cal. and Col. are so nearly alike that con 
fusion must result. 

These abbreviations are alike, but neverthc' 
less seem prodnotive of no nnmerons errors in 
the transmission of mail. In ten years I have 
never had a case occur in which these abbre 
viations caused a missent letter or package 
They are certainly not a frequent source of 
error. 

If, however, they are, it Is not for California, 
the older, the larger and tbe more important 
State, with its abbreviation thoroughly estab- 
lished, to make an awkward change and dis- 
agreeable increase of letters in its abbreviation. 
It is Colorado, the new-comer, whose abbre- 
viation was made to resemble ours, that should 
change. 

If and but are delightful words; to plaoe one 
of them, however, on our letters withont the 
other is a divorce not warranted in esthetics. 
It is, perhaps, with this view that our excellent 
reformers propose to put the " if " on all Cali- 
fornia letters, not only as a saving clause on 
things Cilifornian, but also with the idea that 
the " but " will be there when Colorado makes 
fun of us. 

Cal. belongs to us; it is for others to avoid 
infringing on our rights, and not for us to 
make a ridiculous retreat from an impregnable 
position. To set up this new-fangled notion 
makes a confusion in itself. It will never be 
generally accepted. Let us stand bv the old 
familiar Cal, Abbot Kinnjsy 

Santa Monica, Dee. SO, 1890, 



O0C 



OOL. 



Jackass Rabbits and Others. 

Editors Press : — The collection of giant 
Btraddle-buga and other " fanna " is a harmless 
pursuit, as all can see; but why our Depart- 
ment of Agriculture should engage in it and 
what benefit we hayseeds are to derive from it 
would not have been so obvious had not the 



Exterminate the Coyotes. 

Editors Press:— At the last meeting of our 
Wool-Growers' Association it was the general senti- 
ment of all members that the Rural Press should 
he requested to publish the article which I send. 
[See below. Eds. Press.^ 

We are trying to exterminate the coyotes, and we 
want help from other counties. We want other 
counties to follow our example. We have killed 220 
coyotes during the last two years and paid $20 for 
each scalp, but if other counties breed them and 
drive them in here with tbe;r dogs, it will take a 
long time to wipe them out. We want you to pub- 
lish the article in full so that it will reach all the 
wool-growers in the State, and let them know what 
we are doing. — G. W. Scott, Madison, Yolo Co, 

Coyote ScalDS. • 

The Ejparto Independent having been made 
the ofiScial monthpiece of the Wool-Growers' 
Association of Yolo county, we propose to show 
in this article why tbe sheep industry should 
receive more protection from the county in the 
way of bounties for coyote scalps than it has 
yet received; and also why contiguous coun- 
ties should adopt and cheerfully support, for 
the present, at any rate, a similar system. 

Here are 12 reasons for our position: 

1. In Yolo county there are about 60,000 
acres devoted to the businets of sheep-raising, 
mostly abrupt land, which wonid be worthless 
if nsed for other purposes. 

2. This land Is now nsed for the raising of 



has only been asked to expend $105 for ooyote 
scalps. 

6. That the owners of this 60,000 acres do 
not want nor do not put tbe county to any 
expense for bridges or the maintenance of 
roads. 

7. That the owners of these flocks and lands 
are as much entitled to an expenditure of 
the county money as people living along the 
Sacramento river, or any quarter of the 
oounty. 

8 That the killing of these pests is one 
that the whole county (yea, the whole State) is 
interested in, because if they are not ex 
terminated they will kill chickens, hogs, tur 
keys, geese, and become an unbearable nui 
sance. 

9. That the amount now paid by the county 
— $5 — for coyote scalps should be raised to SIO, 
to more quickly exterminate the animals and to 
afford this valuable and tax-paying industry 
ample and just protection. 

10. Tliat the county is fully protected 
against fraud and imposition, because the 
Wool-Growers' Association does not pay any 
bounties for soalps until a member has 
vouched that the animal was killed in Yolo 
county. 

11. That coyotes are a migratory animal, 
and if they are not killed oS constantly they 
will accumulate in the valleys in such numbers, 
when driven from the mountains and the north, 
that this valuable and tax-paying industry 
would soon be ruined and large loss would 
ensue, 

12. In San Bernardino county the people 
are obliged to shut up poultry at night on ac- 
count of the coyotes. The same would be 
true here If they had been permitted to in> 
crease. The 220 coyotes which the associa- 
tion has been the instrument of having 
killed, would, if left unmolested, have grown 
to at least 500. 

For the above reasons we claim the Board of 
Supervisors of this county is fully warranted in 
increasing the bounty. 

The above article was read and incorporated 
in the proceedings of the Wool-Growers' 
Association, and tbe following resolution, 
offered by J. R. Parker, was unanimously 
adopted : 

Reiolved, That the Board of Supervisors be 
petitioned to rtqueit the .Supervisors of Colusa, 
Napa, Lake, Solano, Sacramento and adjacent 
counties to join in with Yolo county and 
o£fer bounties for the extermination of coyotes. 

It ia to be hoped this action will be taken. 



3, The sheep industry is one whioh helps to 
supply food and clothing to the people. 

4, This industry pays a large sum into the 
county treasury yearly, for which little or no 
benefit is received excepting in tbe form of a 
bounty paid for coyote scalps, the bulk of 
whioh expense the Wool-Growers' Association 
of Yolo county now bears, being compelled to 
pay $15 out of $20 to hanteri or trappers for 
coyote soalps. 

5, This industry pays Into the treasury of 
the county a sum of about S5400 or there- 
about, as taxes on the land and flocks occupy- 
ing them, for which the oonnty so far this year 



©HE JSCpIARY. 



Bees and Fruit. 

Editors Press:— A S»n Diego county apiar- 
ist writes me as follows: 

I have read your articles in the Pacific Rural 
Press regularly, and I am always pleased with what 
you have to say. There is one thing that I havo 
wanted to see you or some of our good writers do, 
and that is, write on the subject of law or California 
law in relation to bees or bee-keepers. 

Some of my neighbors have an idea that they can 
make me get up and move my bees any lime they 
see fit until those bees are five miles from any or- 
chard or vineyard. 

Now?, if this is California law, we have not much 
right left us, and I don't feel like g'ving up a good 
business. 

Give us the law in the next issue of the Pacific 
Rural Press, or any law that you know of in rela- 
tion to bees. — L. Y., Elsinore, San Diego Co. 

Friend Y., don't get frightened; there is no 
danger of those neighbors of yonra forcing you 
to move your bees five miles or five inches 
either for that matter, unless you want to. 

Ignorance is generally the cause of tbe whole 
thing, and I strongly suspect that your non- 
agreeing neighbors are not up with the times. 

In Placerville, at one of my apiaries, I was 
threatened with lawsuits on several occasions 
by a conple of persons who knew nothing at all 
of the habits of bees. They stated that the 
bees were eating up all their grapes, and in 
proof of their statement, invited me to come to 
their vineyard. I went. I found thousands of 
yellow-jackets and wasps at work, and also 
quite a number of bees. 

"Now I want to see the bees opening grapes," 
I said. We watched a long time and took 
careful notice of a great many bees, and at 
last they had to admit that they were mis- 
taken in regard to bees opening grapes. It is 
the yellow-jackets and wasps that do the real 
injury. Bees do nothing but inck at the juice 
after the fruit is injured, and unthinking per- 
sons seeing tbem do this, jump to the oonclu- 
sion that the bee is the original trespasser, 

I once asked the most extensive fruit grower 
of Upper Placerville about how much injury 
my bees did his fruit in a season, and he said 
that he thought 50 cents would oover damages 
for the juice they sucked up. His ranch wao 
abont 300 yards from my apiary, and be dried 
quite a number of tons of fruit every season; 
besides, he had quite a vineyard. The only real 
damage I ever knew my bees to do was to suck 
ap the juice of extra ripeBartlett pears which a 
friend was trying to dry. In a case like this, 
I would always pay for the damage done by 
the bees. Bees are a great aid to fruit-grow- 
ers in helping to fertilize the blossoms, and the 
good they do far overbalances the damage ever 
done by them. 

Fruit-growers and bee keepers should be 
friends. When they get involved In a diffi- 
onlty about bees, let each oome half-way and 



talk tbe matter over in all its bearings, and in 
all cases try and arrive at a friendly conclu- 
sion. 

Speaking of bees being trespassers, Mr. 
Thomas G. Newman, editor of the American 
Bee Journal, says: "Instead of bees being 
trespassers while gathering a few drops of honey 
from the flowers, they are positively required 
by tbe plants to fertilize tbem; and all Nature 
invites tbem to come to tbe feast simply to 
carry the pollen masaes from flower to flower, 
and thus, as marriage priests, to cause them to 
beooine prolific and bear fruit in great abun- 
dance. In ignorance of this, many im- 
agine that bees are trespassers and de- 
stroyers of fruit ! Such nonsense vanishes 
before the revelation of scientifio facts." 

"If bees can trespass there is an end to bee- 
keeping," writes a member of the National Bee- 
Keepers' Union in the American Bee Journal; 
" for every beeman will be at the mercy of a 
surly neighbor. Apart from their merits as 
hcney gatherers, bees are of incalculable bene- 
fit to market gardeners, florists, etc., in fer- 
tilizing flowers. If we had beei that ooald 
reach down to the honey cells of red clover, 
they would be of inestimable value to the 
farmer, as red clover depends for fertilization 
on Insects — mostly bumble-bees. We are sat- 
isfied that the reason why the first crop of 
clover has so little seed is because there are 
not enough of the bumble-bees to fertilize it so 
early in the season. We noticed in one mea- 
dow, some heads were full of seeds and others 
apparently equally as ripe without a grain. 
The bumble-bees bad evidently been on the one 
and not on the rest. Some wise men may 
laugh at this, but it hss been carefully demon- 
strated by Darwin years ago, that when the 
bees are excluded the clover seed does not 
form." 

Experiments With Bees and Orapes, 

Prof, N, W. McL»in, of the United States 
Agricultural Station, Aurora, III., made extop- 
Bive experiments to determine whether bees 
could perforate grapes. He placed several colo< 
nies of bees in a house, and endeavored by 
beat and other r< quisitea to bring about all 
the conditions of a drouth. In his report he 
says: "The bees were repeatedly brought to 
the stages of hunger, thirst, and starvation; 
the test continning for 40 days, I obtained 13 
varieties of choice grapes, and every induce- 
ment and opportunity was afforded the bees to 
appease their hunger and thirst by attacking 
the fruit which was placed before them, Mark 
this: Some of the bunches were dipped in 
syrup and hung in hiv«8 between the combs; 
some placed before the hives on plates; and 
grapes were suspended in clusters from tbe 
posts and rafters. The bees lapped and 
sucked all the syrup from the skins, leaving tbe 
berries smooth. 

" They dally visited the grapes in great num- 
bers, and took advantage of every crack in the 
epiiermis or opening at the stem, appropriat- 
ing to their use every drop of juice .therefrom, 
but they made no attempt to grasp the cuticle 
with tbeir mandibles or claws. I removed the 
epidermis carefully from dozens of grapes of 
various kinds, and placed them on plates before 
the hives. The bees lapped up all the juice on 
the outside of the film surrounding tbe seg- 
mei&ts of the grape, leaving this delicate film 
dry and shining, but through and beyond this 
film they were unable to penetrate. 

" I punctured the skins of grapes of all kinds, 
by passing needles of various sizes through the 
grape, and placed these before the bees. The 
needles used were In size from a fine cambric 
needle to a sacking needle. The amount of 
juice appropriated was in proportion to the 
size of the opening in the skins an^ the num- 
ber of segments of the grape broken. The same 
was true in the case of broken grapes burst 
from overripeness. Beeiare not only unable to 
penetrate the epidermia of grapes, but they 
also appear to be unable, even when impelled 
by the direst necessity, to penetrate the film 
surrounding the berry even after the epidermis 
is removed. Grapes so prepared, withont ex- 
ception, lay before the hives until dried up, 

" Daring the last season I made many visits to 
vineyards, and my observation and experience 
with bees in confioement and those having 
free access to vineyards furnish abundant proof 
to convince me that bees do not, and cannot, 
under any circumstances injure sound fruit." 
Law In RcKard toIBee-Culture. 

I do not know of any California law that has 
any special bearing or relation to bees or bee- 
culture. Mr. Gustav Bibm of San Diego coun- 
ty once had oonsiderable trouble with some 
raisin-growers, but if I am correctly informed, 
he won the caee, the raisin-growers admitting 
that they were mistaken. Mr. Buhm was a 
member of the National Bee-Keepers' Union, 
an association whose object is to promote the 
general interests of the pursuit of bee-oultnre 
throughout North America. 

The Union has won all the oases brought 
against its members, and has gained several 
valuable decisions in regard to the rights of 
bee-keepers. The crowning victory won by 
the Bee- Keepers' Union was that of G. A. 
Clark of Arkadelphia, Arkansas. 

The Supreme Court of Arkansas decided that 
the keeping of bees was not a nuisance, and 
Mr. Clark did not have to move his bees, r.s 
some malicious and envious persons tried hard 
to make him do. 

In speaking of the decision of the Supreme 
Court of Arkansas, tbe general manager of the 
" Bee-keepers' Union," Mr. Thomas G. New- 
man, lays : " That decision is our corner- 



V 

Jan. 17, 1891.] 



f AClFie f^URAb PRESS. 



■tone of defense. It calls a halt in all snob 
'careerB of madnees];' and demands jastlcefor the 
300,000 Americans who are now engaged in the 
keepioi; of bees. 

" ' What makes a buniness respected ?' asked 
the president of the Union, and he answers 
his own qaestlon thus : Its asefulnees to 
hnmanity. What makes a noisy, dirty rolling- 
mill respected ? Its usefulness. What makes 
horses and horse-stables respected in large 
cities 7 Their usefulness. Why do we respect 
the constant blowing of steam whistles in large 
cities. Their usefulness. Who is a more use- 
ful member of our great pulsating humanity 
than he who gathers together a wealth that 
would otherwise be lost ? Who accomplishes 
this in its- entirety more than the honey pro- 
ducer ? Why is not our business respected ? 
I think it is because the general public are not 
informed of the fact that honey producing, with 
modern fixtures and methods, is a great busi- 
ness and of value alike to the bee-keeper and 
his country. 

"When the people are aware of the extent of 
the pursuit and its usefulness, they will respect 
it; and, more, when they understand that 
bee-keepers stand by one another, and have a 
union for defense, they will respect it." 

The coming season I hope to take a trip into 
the soutbern counties of this State, and I shall 
visit and interview a great many apiarists and 
frait-growers, and hear the pro and con of the 
fruit and bee question, besides gathering many 
valuable items on bee culture for my new book, 
the " Western Bee World." 

Orizzly Flats. Cat. S. L. Watkins 



X^ORTICULTURE. 



Peach-Growing in Sutter County. 

A " Fruit-Grower" gives the Yuba City Inde- 
pendent the following interesting and suggestive 
article: 

One of the leading industries of Sutter coun- 
ty, a few years hence, will undoubtedly be the 
growing of peaches. It has already been thor- 
oughly demonstrated that our soil and climate 
are remarkably adapted to the culture of this 
fruit. 

To those about to engage in frnit culture, we 
would suggest that peaches should be planted 
more extensively than any other fruit. The 
peach tree needs care and attention. It must 
be carefully pruned, cultivated and sprayed, 
but it will respond with generous returns when 
this care is bestowed upon it. 

In planting a peach orchard, the grower 
should bear in mind the fact that there are 
three avenues of disposal for this fruit. It may 
be either canned, dried or shipped green. It is 
always better to plant an ''all round" peach 
rather than one that is only suited to one mar- 
ket. To illustrate this, we might remark in 
passing that in a locality where canning and 
drying are extensively practiced, it would be 
folly to plant largely of a variety like the Alex- 
ander, that is only suited for shipping. There is 
a long list of peaches that are equally well suited 
to the three modes of marketing, and these are 
the kinds to plant. Then again the best peach 
is not always the peach to plant. The tree 
must be healthy, a vigorous grower, and prolific. 
The White Heath cling is one of the finest 
peaches known, but it is not grown extensively 
now because the tree is subject to mildew and 
curl-leaf and is not profitable. 

Shipping green fruit East is yet a risky busi- 
ness, while canned fruit is necessarily expensive 
and is a luxury. Dried fruit is, however, fast 
becoming a staple article. It is economical and 
healthful, and should be largely used by every 
family in the land, Sutter county enjoys un- 
usual facilities for producing a superior article 
of dried fruit. Our hot days and dry nights 
during the summer allow us to make a superior 
article of dried fruit in the sun, without recourse 
to evaporators. 

Then in planting a peach orchard in Sutter 
oonnty, choose varieties that are capable of be- 
ing marketed in the three ways suggested above, 
but if they are a little better adapted for drying 
than for canning or shipping, so much the 
better. 

A grower cannot go astray by planting any of 
the following varieties in Sutter county, as they 
are all grown at the present time here and are 
known to be proficable. These are all yellow 
free-stones and are named about in the order of 
their ripening: Eirly Crawford, Foster, Sus- 
quehanna, Mair, Wager, Silway and Picquet's 
Late. Of yellow clings there are not a great 
many varieties growing in the county, but these 
are standard: Tuscan, Ranycn's, Orange 
cling, Lemon cling, Edwards cling and Craw- 
ford cling. 

Clings are equally as good dried as freestones, 
and as the number of dried sorts is small, the 
grower should plant for experiment a few each 
of all the new varieties, and we would particu- 
larly recommend the planting of a few Sailers 
cling, Nichols cling, Grover Cleveland, McDev- 
itt's cling and others. 

No one will deny the statement that raw 
products are sold cheap — in fact at a slight ad 
vanoe on the cost of production — while the 
manufactured articles are expensive. The 
farmers of Ihe United S'ates are the poorest 
paid class, while the manufacturers are the 
wealthiest. 

The farmer sells his raw product to the manu- 
facturer, who adds to the ooBt of the material 
the expense of labor put upon the raw product, 
tbeo reoeivet a large benefit from the tariff, and 



adds a large profit when he sells his goods. 
Let the fruit grower emulate the example of 
the manufacturer rather than that of the farm- 
er. Do not sell your frnit green to a shipper 
at a cent and a half a pound or to a canner for 
two cents. You are then selling the raw mate- 
rial; but dry your product and make the profit 
yourself on the manufactured article. 

Dried peaches are quoted in the paper to-day 
at from 8 to 27 cents per pound. The grower 
may say there is no money in dried fruit at 8 
centi. Very true, but there is profit at 27 
cents. Instead of making 8-cent goods, make 
the 27-cent article. The same fruit can often 
be made into the two different grades quoted 
above. The cheaper grade is carelessly picked, 
roughly handled, poorly sulphured and sloven- 
ly cured. Of course it is cheap. It has to com- 
pete with nearly every grower in the country. 

On the other hand, the best quality of dried 
fruit is packed at exactly the right time, care- 
fully graded, well bleached and thoroughly 
cured. After drying it is again graded, cleaned 
of its fuzz, etc., in a revolving wire screen drum, 
steamed or scalded and marketed in small pack- 
ages. 

When dried fruit leaves the orchard, packed 
ready for the consumer, the grower reaps the 
profit; but when the buyer tells you he prefers 
it in sacks, he does so because he wants to 
manipulate it himself, thus securing the en- 
hanced price. There was an old saying in our 
Political Eoonomy text-book: "Change the form 
of your product and double your profit." The 
example given was, "instead of raising grass 
apd selling hay, raise grass and sell beef, thus 
making a profit on the grass and the beef." Ap- 
ply this to peach culture in Sutter county. 
Instead of raising peaches to sell green, dry 
them and make a profit on the green and dried 
fruit. 

Bat, above all, make a good article and make 
an honest article. Guarantee your goods to be 
exactly as represented, and see that they are. 
Let your name on the package be sufficient to 
sell the goods. A profitable business in drying 
first-class may not be built up in a single season, 
but if the fruit Is as represented, buyers will 
soon know your pack and yon will receive a 
price that will justify you for the extra expense 
incurred in making a superior article. 

Caution Against Poor Orange Trees. 

Editors Press : — Are not the present high 
prices of orange trees going to lead to their 
destruction ? I mention this because the pres- 
ent high prices for trees have set in motion all 
sorts of methods to produce them. Men with- 
out experience, and I fear sometimes principle, 
are rushing into the production of seedlings, 
and all sorts of culls, half ripe and immature 
frnit, are gathered up and put into the rot- 
heap for the seed. Surely this must in some 
oases bring a worthless, weakened seedling. 

I have taken coniiderable painn of late to 
notice blocks of these seedlings set in rows for 
budding, some having been set two years, 
where one-third to one-half of them are so weak 
they were scarcely a foot in bight and show 
every appearance of lack of vitality. These 
weaklings are often stimulated by strong fertil- 
izers and then a bud is forced into everything 
that will receive it. Many of these buds, after 
a season's growth, are not more than a couple 
of feet in bight. Now, owing to the present 
high prices, many of these light trees find their 
way into permanent setting (because of their 
being offered cheaper than good treee), where, 
if they live at all, they struggle along for years, 
when the fruit, owing to its inferior quality, 
again goes to the rot heap for seed. 

The health of the peach was very nearly 
ruined all through the peach districts of the 
East by the selection of improper seed — seed 
from trees that had the disease known as 
"yellows" — and all sorts of worked varieties 
that had been bred in and in until their vitality 
had been so nearly exhausted that in many 
cases the seed failed to germinate at all; or if 
it did, and was even budded, the tree often 
died without ever producing fruit, or at most 
yielded premature and worthless fruit. All 
reliable nurserymen now go back to the natural 
seed for stock, and as a natural result the 
health of the peach is becoming very much im- 
proved. 

In my opinion, unless the producers of the 
orange pursue some method by which tbey can 
keep up a healthy seedling and select their 
scions from known healthy trees, the future of 
the orange industry will result in discouraging 
failure. Many of the best experienced growers 
of Florida use only seed from the native wild 
seedling. This is no doabt the proper method, 
and I trust our nurserymen will adopt some 
similar precaution before it is too late. There 
is probably no better seed to be had than the 
" Mission." It is a strong grower and seems 
to have all the requisites of a perfect stock, 
and could our seedlings all come from perfectly 
ripe fruit of that sort, there would be no fear 
for the future of the orange industry here; but 
so long as old seedling orchards are worth from 
$500 to $1500 per acre for the fruit, I fear not 
much of the fruit of this old sort will find its 
way into the seed-bed. I. C, Wood, 

Ontario, Cal. 

Fruit Union Annual Meeting. 

The sixth annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Cilifornia Fruit Uaion for the election of 
a board of nine (9) trustees for the ensuing 
year, and for the transaction of such other bus- 
iness as may oome before the meeting, will be 



held on Wednesday, Jan, 21, 1891, at I p. m., in 
Irving hall, No. 141 Post street, S. P. 

H. A. Fairbank, 
Secretary California Fruit Union, 



Wine Grapes for Napa Valley. 

Prof, Geo, Hnsmann concludes his letters to 
the Napa Register, two of which have already 
appeared in our columns, with the following 
discussion of wine-grape varieties: 

The choice must depend somewhat on the 
nature of the soil of the vineyard. If it is up- 
land, which will produce fine clarets, the best 
red-wine varieties should have the preference, 
perhaps. If rich bottom-land, white varieties 
should predominate, as such soil will not pro- 
duce color and tannin, which is generally 
sought for in red wines. It is the iojudicious 
planting of Zinfandel and other varieties of 
black grapes on soil not at all adapted to them 
whioh has brought our red wines into dis- 
repute, together with injudicious handling by 
the maker. 

But in all cases it should be our aim to pro- 
duce the best quality, together with sufficient 
quantity to be remunerative to the grower. In 
white varieties we have a better choice than in 
red, and I will name a few which are excellent 
bearers and also make the best wines. It ia 
hardly to be expected, however, that they 
should be adapted to all localities. I have 
tried them in Talcoa vineyard and here in 
Chiles valley and found them all I could wish, 
producing heavily every year and making the 
best of wine. 

Sauvignon Verte. — This is in many localities 
also called Colombar, which is, however, a 
misnomer, as Colombar is one of the synonyms 
of Semilllon. The first name is used most 
generally in our valley, though there are 
doubts as to being the correct one. Mr. Crabb 
contends that it is the Pedro Ximenes of the 
Spanish. However this may be, it is one of tbe 
best varieties to produce a fine wine of the 
Sauterne type, and seems especially at home 
here. It is a very strong, long jointed grower 
and must therefore have stakes at least five 
feet long, when 50 pounds to tbe vine are not 
an unusual yield. It is very hardy also, and 
will withstand a moderate frost. Some of my 
vines have green leaves yet, where the Zin- 
fandel were frosted nearly two months ago. 

Semlllion. — This is a beautiful vine in every 
respect, a good bearer, with fine persistent 
foliage, hardy and healthy, and producing a 
wine of tbe finest quality of Siuterne type, 
which is eagerly bought by the dealers at an 
advanced price. It grows more stocky than 
the foregoing, and will withstand heat and 
cold well. 

White Pinot or Chablis. — This is the famous 
White Burgundy of commerce, which is also 
used in the manufacture of champagne; a fine 
vine in every respect, a good grower and bearer 
and makes excellent wine. 

Green Hungarian, or Long Green (Verte 
Longue), — To those who desire a wine of the 
Hook or Rhenish type, this will be tbe grape, 
as its wine resembles good Riesling, and the 
vine is a very heavy bearer even with short or 
stool pruning. With long pruning it will over- 
bear. It comes perhaps nearer than any I 
know of to being a model vine — short jointed, 
stocky growth, heavy foliage, not affected by 
the sun and very hardy. It can be grown on 
short stakes and even with stool pruning after- 
ward, like Zinfandel, 

These four are my choice. I do not like the 
Rieslings on account of their straggling growth 
and as they are also subject to coulure; nor the 
Chasselas because it enckers badly and its wine, 
though fair, does not come up to the high 
standard of quality which I have in view al- 
ways. 

Grapes for Red Wine. 
I do not pretend to be as well posted on 
these, as I think they should be grown only on 
particular soils adapted to them, such as our 
hillsides, with that peculiar red soil which we 
know as the home of the redwood and man- 
zanita. From a general standpoint, the soils of 
this State, as cultivated so far, do not seem so 
well adapted to the production of fine clarets 
as to white wines. The C.bernet Sauvignon, 
so highly lauded and which makes the finest 
type of clarets, is unfortunately a very poor 
bearer and will not pay the grower except at 
fancy prices. The vintner, who sells to the 
wiriR-maker, can better aff)rd toerow Z nfandel 
at $15 per ton than C ibernet at $25 or even $30 
per tun. The same may be said of the Milbec. 
In the best looatione, the Zinfandel, if well 
ripened and carefully handled, makes about as 
fine a wine yet a§ any we have, but it has many 
faults. It is apt to sunecald, ripens unevenly, 
and is on that account difficult to ferment, and 
is a tender vine, subject to frost and black 
knot. It would be bard to find, among the 
many candidates for public favor, one that 
would answer all the requirements of a perfect 
vine. Therefore I prefer white varieties, where 
I think we have obtained perfection. Among 
the most deserving of th" red, 1 will mention 
Petit Syrah, Mindense, Grosee Blaue, Carig- 
nane, Tannat and Bifosoo, or, as It is more gen- 
erally known here, Crabb's B ack Birgundy. 
Some advocate even Mataro and Grenache, 
which in my estimation are only second class. 
A variety which has be'-n much overlooked, 
but which in my opinion will make a very fine 
red wine on good soil, ia the Gamay Teintnrier, 



It is a stocky grower, a good bearer, the juice 
ia very high-colored and makes a wine of that 
beautiful purple color so much admired in 
clarets. So far it has mostly been tested in bot- 
tom soils not calculated to bring out all its best 
qualities and therefore is not as well known. 

In conclusion, let me say that it is of the ut- 
most importance to get the beet of wood for 
grafting, and obtain it true to name. Better pay 
double the price than to have poor scions and 
mixed varieties, and there are but few vine- 
yards in this State where tbey can be had abso- 
lutely unmixed. 



•She JStock 'Y'AflD. 

A Buffalo Ranch in California. 

Monterey county is to be the seat of a new 
California industry, in the shape of a buffalo 
ranch, near the Carmel Mission. There are 
now in the stables at Del Monte three fine 
specimens of the American bison, a bull, a oow 
and a calf, the last a progeny of the former two. 
Last Sunday's Examiner had a two-column 
article illustrated with the portraits of the 
illustrious trio, which, with the exception 
of a domesticated herd in Kansas, a small 
band under Government protection in the 
Yellowstone Park and a few held in captivity on 
a ranch in Colorado, are the last representativea 
of a distinctive and mighty American race, that 
can be saved from extinction now only by do- 
mestication, 

A seven-mile drive took the writer from Del 
Monte to Pebble Beach, where the buffilo ranch 
is to be located, where Winston, the owner, was 
found busily at work arranging for their recep- 
tion. 

The ranch, which comprises about 100 acres, 
is located in the lee of Cypress point, overlooks 
Carmel Bay, and slopes easily down to Pebble 
Beach. Water is l)rought from the Carmel 
river reservoir, and cypress and pine trees af- 
ford ample shelter. 

" I bought the cow of Redbreast, one of Sit- 
ting Bull's warriors, about three years ago," 
explained Winston, " She was captured duri n 
the last buffalo hunt of the Sioux, in the fall of 
1882, on the headwaters of the Big Cheyenne, 
not far from Fort Pierre, on the Big bend of 
the Missouri, in South Dakota. I am the first 
white man who ever owned her. She is now in 
perfect form. You know a buffilo doesn't 
mature until eight years of age, and Janie is 
just past eight. 

"The bull I captured myself on the 16th of 
June, 1886, 65 miles southwest of Jamestown, 
N, D. He is the last buffalo ever captured 
alive in the Dakotas. I killed his mother and 
the calf was then so small that he didn't try 
to get away, but lay hidden in the long grass. 
I picked him up and carried him away. 

"The calf was born in Portland, Or., Oct. 1, 
1889, and is named the Duke of Portlapd, He 
was the first buffalo born west of the Rocky 
mountains, 

" These are the only buffalo on the coast and 
I am assured by Gen. Miles, Gen, P. E. Conner 
and other military men that they are the finest 
they have seen in captivity. 

" Oh yes," he continued, "they stand captiv- 
ity all right, and the climate agrees with them 
admirably. They eat anything that cattle will, 
and I am sure will thrive here, 

"They know me, and I can do almost any- 
thing with them; but they will not make up 
with a stranger. The ball knows that I am not 
afraid of him, and submits to my will, but 
he can tell in an instant that a stranger 
views him with distrust, and when you 
glance at a tree or a convenient fence in case he 
should get loose, be knows just as well as any 
one that you are afraid of him, and immediately 
lowers his head and charges, 

"I am going to stop here on the ranch and 
attend to the animals, which we shall have out 
here in about six weeks, I shall have an in- 
closure up there where you see the line of 
poets, under the pines, of about eight acres 
within the large field. The fence will be five 
boards high, and I think buffalo-tight. In 
order to make certain, however, 1 shall put 
rings on the bull's horns, and a triangle chain 
from the ring in his nose to tbe rings on his 
horns, which will keep him from breaking it 
down. I shall seed the inclosure to alfalfa 
and go about raising buffalo just as I would 
cattle. 

"It will be a strange fact that here within 
sound of the bells of Mount Carmel, and just 
where old Father Junipero Sjrra located the 
pescadero, the buff<klo should be saved from 
becoming extinct by domestication. 

" In addition to rearing the pure bnffilo I 
shall cross them with a herd of Galloways, 
and also with the native cattle. The oross is 
a successful oie and has been carried down to 
the sixteenth generation. Tbe Gilloways are 
peculiarly adapted to this purpose; their coat 
is jat black and long, and in appearance they 
res mble tbe baffalo more than any other breed 
of cattle, except that they are bornlesx. 

" The hair of tbe Galloways is extremely 
fine and tbe oross produces a superior buffalo 
robe, equaHo sealskin. Some that have b<>pn 
obtained in Kansas have sold ai high as $280 
each. 

" We shall kill the progeny for their bides, 
and the beef will also prove valuable, Bjffilo 
beef is tbe best in the world. Of course when 
the animal runs wild it is strong and sinewy, 
but when brought up in captivity and stall 
fed it has no equal," — Salinas Index, 



48 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



(Jan. 17, 1891 



jpATROJ^S Of ^USBAJ^DF<.Y. 

In our Rural Press Official Grange Edition, Issued 
every week, will be found additional matter from 
this and other jurisdictions, ol interest and import- 
ance to Fa'.rous. Any subscriber who wishes can 
change free to that edition. 

"And Still It Moves." 

IByMuKTiMKH WuirKiiEAD, National Lectuier. | 

Id one of our leading agricultaral papers a 
few days since appeared an editorial criticism 
upon a letter from a farmer in the State of 
Michigan, in which he advocated as one meacs 
of relief for the depnsaed conditions under 
which farmers everywhere are suSdring, that 
Government should issue its money direct to 
the people, with farms as security, the same 
general idea that has within a short time been 
introduced and ably supported in the United 
States S nate by Ssnator Laland Stanford, of 
Oklifornia. This agricultural editor says: "It 
would be unfortunate under our political system 
if the Givernment should go into the business 
of loaning money to the people." 

On behalf of thousands of other farmers who 
think as does that farmer in Allchigan, I would 
like to auk that editor if the Government is 
not now, and has not been for years, loaning 
money to one clasg of its people, and at a 
charge of ouly one per cent for its use at that '■! 
( with bills now bffore Cjngress to loan it to 
them absolutely /rer). 

Take two men at the close of the war. One 
buys a farm for SIO 000 ; the other buys Gov- 
ernment bond? for $10 000. Bath are iLvest- 
ments ; the farm aud the bond. B >tb repre- 
sent value, and have a buying and selling price. 
The money in the bonds, without any labor of 
the holder, has paid a much larger interest, it 
is true, than has the money in the average 
farm, with all the hard work of the farmer and 
his family. Those favored few, the special 
class "of the people" who own the bonds, can 
take them to Washington, deposit them in the 
Treasury (say §100,000 ) They are safer there 
than at home. Those who bought them still 
own them. The interest on them never stops 
— it is regularly and promptly paid ; and, on 
those bonds as security, Uncle Sam — the Gov- 
ernment — loins this special class "of the peo- 
ple" S90,000 in money, which they take home 
and, as middlemen, loan this Government 
miney to the farmers and others "of the peo- 
ple" at 6 8, 10, 12 or more per cent interest. 

Now, why not let the farmer have the same 
chance with A/s property ? 

If the bank loans the money obtained, 
printed, made and furnished by the Govern- 
ment, to a farmer on his note, and he fails to 
pay it, don't they tike his farm, if necessary ? 

In my State — New Jersey — (or many years 
past, the State has loaned its school money to 
farmers, with their farms as security, and with 
entire success and satisfaction. 

In Kogland, a number of years ago, the Gov- 
ernment loaned large sums of money on long 
time, and at very low rates of interest, to farm- 
ers for the purpose of tile draining their lands. 

How many hundreds of millions of dollars 
has our Government loaned to another class " of 
the people " to help them bnild railroads that 
are now too often used to oppress the farmer? 

It simply makes a dlif ^rence who is doing it. 

Senator Stanford's step was in the right direc- 
tion. 

The world moves, and the farmers are awaken- 
ing and commencing to move with it. New 
ideas are coming to the front. 

"All citizans shall be equal before the law," 
says our National Constitution, and that means 
finance laws, tariff laws, and aU laws. Let us 
think on these things. 

The National Grange at its annual session in 
November 18S9, in Sacramento, Cal., by a vote 
of more than three to one adopted the follow- 
ing : 

Resolved, That we * * * also favor the 
maintenance in circulation of the paper money 
of the United States, independent of the Na- 
tional Binks, in sufficient volume to prevent 
any future contraction, and consequent embar- 
rassment to our prosperity. 

The National Grange has always declared it- 
self fairly on the side of the great mass of our 
people on these important questions. This the 
farmers are coming to understand more and 
more with each passing year ; and so this great 
National organization of farmers, now nearly 
twenty-four years old, grows and prospers at 
this time better than ever before in its history. 
Farmers, unite with the nearest Grange, or get 
one In yonr neighborhood as soon as possible. 
Take the wife, and boys acd girls above 14 
years of age, with you, and let us all work to- 
gether on these matters that will relieve us of 
the unfair burdens we are now bearing. The 
Grange offers to help you. We must unite or 
go under. 

Joint Installation. 

A, T, Dewey, Sec'y Slat^ Orange — Deab Sir 
AND Bro.: Albambra, Walnut Creek and 
Valley Granges will have j >int installation Jan. 
24th, at Valley Grange hall. Fraternally 
yours, Gko. P. Lodcks, 

Master Valley Grange. 

Pachieo, Cal., Jan. 7, 1891. 

Worthy Master Divis will be praient, — Eds. 



OwiKa to our electric motor getting out of 
order, our last Grange edition was delayed one 
mail. 



The Master's Desk. 

B. W. DAVIS, W. U. 8. O. OP CAblFOKNIA. 

" The art of Agriculture is the parent of all 
arts." Don't yon think you can afford to join 
the organization that has done much to instruct 
and assist the farmers in the pursuit of this 
Parent of Arts ? No Order has done more to 
advance the calling of the farmer than the 
Grand Old Grange. The Patrons of Husbandry 
is so well balanced that It is now considered 
the conservative power of the nation. No 
class of our citizens is more steady, temperate 
and reliable than the farmer. In times of 
sorest distress the farmer is relied on as the 
safe man. Therefore we want to have the 
agricnltnrist well educated, well organized and 
fnlly prepared for all positions. This work the 
Grange has done, is doing and will continue to 
do. The farmer who wants to keep abreast of 
the times will join some agricultural organ- 
ization and there is none better than the 
Grange. 



The Grange is not partisan, yet the princi- 
ples we teach underlie all politics, — Declara- 
tion of Purpoies. 



In our noble Order there in no communism, no 
agrarianism, no nihilism. We are opposed to 
snob spirit and management of any corporation 
as tends to oppress the people or rob them of 
their just profits. — Declaration of Purposes. 

It is a safe thing, with the new year, to be- 
gin to look out for bogus lawyers, doctors, 
book-agents, patent agents, fraternal society 
agents, lying circnlari, mendicants and 
politicians. Keep an eye open for persons and 
promises that are intended to deceive. 

Don't criticise too severely, for if yon do 
some one may criticise you ! 

P ant a rose cutting about now. The spring- 
time will soon be here, and what more welcome 
visitor than the queenly rosebud ? 

Watch the person who has no good word for 
any of the neighbors ! Something wrong some- 
where. 



How much money ought the present Legis- 
lature to appropriate for the exhibit at the 
World's Fair? Local Granges ought to post 
the R':presentatives. This is a live question; 
one of much importance to the taxpayers. 
Speak out by resolution in your Grange and 
send a oopy under seal to yonr representa- 
tives at Sacramento. 



The Grange is a peacemaker. The Grange 
believes in arbitration. We think better re- 
sults can be obtained, with less annoyance and 
at v(ry much less expense, by referring the 
disputed question to arbitration than by re- 
ferring it to a court. So the Grange would ad- 
just National difficulties, when they arise. The 
Behring sea difficulties are a case in point. 
While no person wants to see America insulted, 
wronged or betrayed, yet in this particular 
case, America can well afford to investigate 
and fairly and honorably arbitrate. Let the 
Grange use its influence to prevent a war or a 
shadow of war. L'^t the Grange practice what 
it preaches — " in all things charity." 

Which day of the month is " Recrniting 
Diy " in your Grange ? An army cannot be 
kep^ in order and in fighting trim without re- 
cruits. Appoint your Committee on Recruits 
right away. Let's have a "General Muster" 
all along the Hue of the Grange this spring and 
summer. 



Some of the fraternal organizitions have em- 
ployed women on the organizing force. Where 
is the sister who will organize a Grange ? We 
had hoped (or a charter li<>t from a sister be- 
fore this date. There Is abundant opportunity 
for " Woman's Work," in oigan'zing and reviv- 
ing Granges. 

Have you the new annual word ? If not, it 
is not the fault of the offijers of the State 
Grange, The word has bsen duly sent. 
Get it. 



There are 115 farmers and only 3 lawyers in 
the Kansas Legislature. Now let us see what 
the soil-tillers can do. This Is their opportun- 
ity. Give the farmers a obanoe, and wait a 
time in patience. 



HoQ. Chauncey M. Dapew says " that 50 men 
in the United States have it within their power 
to get together and in 24 hours stop every 
wheel of commerce and of business." There 
is something wrong when sacb a condition ex- 
ists. Fifty millionaires ought not to have 
more power than 63.000,000 people. There 
is a wrong, and the Grange wants to correct it. 



See that yonr Representative votes on the 
Appropriation bill, to keep the State tax levy 
at or below 50 cents on the hundred dollars. 



Have yon thought of doing away with a lot 
of the commissions ? Ask yonr Senator to 
assist by proposing an amendment to the Con- 
stitution. We don't need so many commis- 
sions. They are expensive luxuries. 



Bro. Wm. Johnston, Worthy Past Master of 
the State Grange, and Sister Johnston, have 



just returned from a trip to Pennsylvania. 
Bro. Johnston installs the cfficers of Plaoer- 
ville Grange on the 17th inst, A good time is 
assured all who attend. 

Let's have a Road law so drawn that road 
tax will go to the improvement of roads and 
not to the pocket of " some fellow." 



Bro. W. W. Greer, Worthy Steward of the 
State Grange, has gone to Southern California 
in the interests of the Native Sons. He has 
promised to keep an eye open in the interests 
of the Grange. 

Work of the National Grange Legis- 
lative Committee. 

Office of the Leijislative Committee, ) 
Washincto.v. D C, Deo. 22, 1890. / 

To the Senators and Repretentatives in the 
Congrets of the United Stale$ of America— 
Gentlemen: In the briefest manner possible 
in order to do justice to the important subjects 
before us, we herewith present a statement of 
measures of vital interest to the farmers, and, 
as in duty bound, call your attention to the 
fact that the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry has been, and is, very emphatic 
in its indorsement of the subject-matter of this 
communication. Whether you approve or dis- 
approve, individually, of the proposed meas- 
ures, we ask, and we think we have a right to 
ask, that you place them before our highest 
Legislature for consideration. If you will 
do this, we will confidently leave the out- 
come with the American people, millions of 
whom in their organized capacity as farmers 
are earnestly and anxiously awaiting legislation 
that will relieve them from the depressing con- 
ditions that surround them. The National 
Grange, in all the 24 years of its existence, has 
ever been conservative, yet progressive, in its 
demands for legislation. The farmers of the 
country who hold allegiance to this National 
organization have not asked and do not ask 
special or class legislation for themselves alone, 
but, as in the measures herein advocated, they 
claim that the interests of agriculture are the 
interests of all other honest industries, for up 
on a prosperous and successful agriculture de- 
pend the prosperity and progress of our whole 
ooantry. 

Patkons of Husbandry, National Grange, 1 
Office of Lecturek, S 
Washington, D. C, Dec. 20, 1890. ) 

John Trimble. Member of Legislative Committee 
of the .Xational (irurige, I', of //.—Dear Mk: 
Complying with the request of your commiltt-e, I 
submit herewith a brief report of the action of the 
National Grange for several years past, relating to 
finance, as found recorded in the proceedings of its 
annual meetings. 

The NAlional Grange is on record through all the 
years of its history in favor of a plentiful supply of 
money for the use of all the people of our country, 
and against the control of money by a few special 
classes who have it in their power to depress the 
price of land and all its products, and the products 
of other labor as well. 

However much farmers, in their several organiza- 
tions, and laboring men in theirs, may diflTcr upon 
other matters, it is a good sign that, without e.\cep- 
tion, all the farmers, laborers and workingmen s 
societies in the United States have placed the de- 
mand for the free coinage of silver in their national 
platforms, and have recorded themselves squarely 
on the side of more money and no middlemen to 
control its supply. All agree that at least $50 per 
capita should be the limit, and that the supply of 
currency should increase in proportion to the in- 
crease in population. 

The plan of the Government issuing money at a 
low rate of interest upon landed security direct to 
the people, the same as it is now loaned to the Na- 
tional banks with their bonds for security, has rap- 
idly grown in favor, and has l>een approved by the 
National Grange after full, fair and free discussion. 
Respectfully, Mortimer Whitehead, 

Lecturer, National Grange, I', of H. 

Proceedings, Twentv-first Spstion, Lansing, 
Mich., November, 1887, page 148: 

That as the constantly increasing surplus in the 
National Treasury not only contracts the currency 
and increases the value of money, but decreases the 
value of land and labor, and is calculated to engen- 
der corrupt legislation, it should be used as rapidly 
as possible to retire the National debt at par, and 
be so dispensed as to increase the circulating 
medium and stimulate a healthy state of trade 
throughout the whole country.— Adopted. 

Pfoceo'^ing'-, Twenty third Session, Sacra- 
mento, C»l., November, 1889: 

Whereas, Contraction of the circulating 
medium of the United Slates has depressed the 
pricf s of farm products to the great injury of the 
agricultural classes; therefore 

Resolved. That we favor the free coinage of silver, 
and also favor the maintenance in circulation of the 
paper money ol the United States, independent of 
the National banks, in sufficient volume to prevent 
any future contraction, and consequent embarrass- 
ment to our prosperity.— Adopted. 

Pfoonedings, Twenty-fourth Session, At- 
Unta, Gjorgia, November, 1890. 

One of the recommendations of the Execu- 
tive Committee was as followt: 

The financial policy of a government has also 
very much to do in influencing the prices of agri- 
cultural products, from the fact that when money is 
plenty it stimulates business by increasing the abil- 
ity to consume, as there is scarcely a family that 
would not consume more by living better if they 
had the money to expend for the necessary com- 
forts of life. , ^ ^ . 

The best times the farmers ever had, and when 
they made the most money, was when we had a 
currency of $56 per capita, and we are sure other in- 
dustries were more prosperous. In 1865 we had 



$56 per capita, in 1889 we had only $17, Perhaps 
$56 per capita was more than the best interest of the 
country required, but $17 per capita, which is 
worse, is as much too low. Let Congress fix the 
volume of currency at not less than $40 to $50 per 
capita; the farmers will take the money and pay 
their mortgages by the increased prices they would 
realize for their products, and keep the mills at 
work by buying better farm implements, cotton, 
woolen and silk fabrics; make the coinage of silver 
free, requiring the people who get it coined to take 
it the same as gold. This woald advance silver to 
a parity with gold in the markets of the world, and 
place our export agricultural products on an equal- 
ity with those of other countries. As it is now, gold 
Ijeing the standard of value, making exchanges 
with foreign countries, compels the sale of our prod- 
ucts in competition with the silver standard nations 
of the world, thus placing Russian and Indian 
wheat into European markets lower than we can — 
lingland making over 33 cents per bushel in mak- 
ing her exchanges, as the difference between gold 
and silver. Before silver was demonetized, from 
1792 to 1873, the values were almost uniformly 
alike. 

Should there not be enough gold and silver to 
raise the volume of currency to $40 or $50 per cap- 
ita, refund interest-bearing bonds by non-interest- 
bearing demand notes. 

To get the money into circulation, the Govern- 
ment can loan it upon good real estate at, say two 
per cent per annum, under proper restrictions, lim. 
iting the amount to be loaned; also the amount of 
each loan. The interest would become a source of 
revenue to the Government, and be the means of 
reducing taxation, and thus relieve those who can- 
not, under present conditions, save enough of the 
small earnings of a lifetime to secure a home that 
they can justly call their own. 

This, or some plan similar to that which is now in 
vogue for furnishing currency to National banks, or 
on any sound financial policy that could be devised 
by Congress to furnish money to the people at a low 
rale of interest, to relieve the depressed condition of 
agriculture, would be inestimabie in its benefits to 
those who toil. 

Karmers would be glad to take the money at two 
per cent, which would save them four per cent from 
present rates of interest, which saving, in 25 years, 
would pay their entire mortgaged indebtedness with- 
out paying a dollar more per annum than they are 
now paying. 

Whioh was adopted by the National Grange. 
All of which is respeotfnlly submitted. 

.1. H Bkkiiiam, 
Lkonaru Rhone, 
John Tkimiilk, 
Legislative Committee. 



North Butte Grange Installat on. 

Kditoks Pre.s.s: — Saturday, Jan. 10th, by 
invitation, I installed the officers of North 
Butte Grange. Wife and I left home 
while the frost was on the ground, for a 
ride of 12 miles to Live Oak. The thermom- 
eter stood It 27 degrees. We found a goodly 
nnmber of Patrons assembled. Grange waa 
called to order and the regular order of boai- 
ness was gone through with. It was reported 
by the Steward that four sisters and one brother 
were in waiting for the third and fourth de- 
grees, when Grange closed in the fonrth degree 
and opened in the third, when I was called to 
the chair to confer the degrees, which I did 
(with satisfaction to myself). After the degree 
work was over, we sat down to the Harvest 
Feast. After ample justice had been done to 
the good things on the tables, where full 50 
good Patrons had assembled for the occasion, 
we returned to the hall for installation. After 
Grange was called to order, the Secretary 
called the names of the newly elected ofiBcers. 
They were all found to be present except the 
Gate-Keeper. They proceeded to elect that 
cffiser, after whioh the Worthy Master intro- 
duced me as the installing officer, the dntiea of 
which I proceeded to perform to the best of 
my ability. As each officer was installed, all 
pledged themsrlves to do all in their power for 
the good of the Order and for the good of North 
Butte Grange. After the installation was over, 
some short speeches were made by the mem- 
bers of the Grange. Sister Davy read an essay 
entitled " The Grange." I made a short speech, 
giving them good advioe and encouraging the 
newly made cfficers. At 4 o'clock the Grange 
closed in dae form. All went home thinking 
that it had been a very profitable day to them. 

North Butte Grange Is going ahead in the 
good work; it has taken in new members to 
the number of 25 or 90 in the last six months. 
Fraternally yonrp, B. F. Frisbik, 

Yuba City Jan 11, 1S91. Siale D^pnty. 



Letter Notes. 

Commendible WorklDg. 

PETALrMA, Jan. 5, 1891. 
Editors Pkes.s : * * * Vou can hardly 
charge Two Rock Granee with not furnishing 
its iota to the Pres.<;. For its I'ze, it is indeed 
an active Grange. It is increasing its member- 
ship continually; our meetings are always in- 
teresting and special meetings are held fre- 
quently. We work beautifully together; no 
wrangling or quarreling is ever beard. We nn> 
derstand the principle and purpose of our Or- 
der and work accordingly. It is indeed a 
pleasure to belong to such a Grange, and no 
wonder it is prospering. Fraternally yours, 

C. Nl.SSON. 

Stockton Grange. — Saturday evening, Past 
Master T. £ Ketcham, assisted by Mrs. Mary 
F. Merrill, installed the officers of Stockton 
Grange, No. 70, Patrons of Hasbandry. — 
Stockton Independent, Jan. Cth. 



Jan. 17, 1891.] 



f ACIFie F^URAb PRESS. 



49 




Farmers' Alliance. 



Subscribers wisbiag fuller information of the Alli- 
ance can have their names changed to the Grange Kdi- 
tion of the Rural Prbss free, much to their advantage, 
this department being continued in the same. 

Judge Blackwood on the Farmers' 
Alliance. 

Following is an able address by Wm. 0. 
Blackwood, P, M. of Eden Grange, Hay wards, 
on the Farmeia' Alliance and Patrons of In- 
dustry, their aims and purposes, as developed 
by the resolutions adopted at their recent Na- 
tional Convention at Ocala, Fla. It was in- 
tended to be read at the joint installation 
meeting of Eden and Temesoal Granges at 
Oakland, Jan. 3, 1891, and would have been 
delivered bat for the want of time previous to 
the necessarily early hour of return of Eden 
Grange. 

Worthy Master and Patrons: — There has 
sprung into prominence a new organization, a 
new social and perhaps a new political organi- 
zation in the United States, made up in the 
main of the agricultural classes, but containing 
quite a sprinkling of the other industrial call- 
ings which would seem to be allowable under 
their name, "Patrons of Industry," being 
much more comprehensive than " Patrons of 
Husbandry." 

' It is but little more than a year since this 
organization assumed prominence in the body 
politic. The first and preliminary convention 
of the Farmers' Alliance was held in October, a 
year since, in St. Louis. At that convention 
the general agricultural depression, as well as of 
other and dependent industries, was strongly 
set forth, and in a series of resolutions the 
causes of such depression were pointed out and 
remedial legislation demanded, and all labor 
organizEitions were invited to join the Alliance 
in the demand for such legislation. 

The organization would seem to have bad a 
phenomenal growth, now having, it is said, 
more than 5,000,000 members. This to my 
mind is conclusive evidence of the general de- 
pression of the agricultural industries in the 
United States, for intelligent people, such as 
compose the masses of the agricultural popula- 
tion of our country, do not organize in mass 
except to 

Effect Some Great and Oommon Purpose, 
Common to the minds of all. This organization 
has been eETected, then, to remove a general 
grievance affecting the mass of industrial inter- 
ests, and to be accomplished only by the Gen- 
eral Government ceasing to enact laws favoring 
oertain industries at the expense and to the 
damage of other industries. 

Well, linoe the organization of the Order in 
October a year since, and the declaration of its 
purposes, the Congress of the United States 
convened and proceeded to enact more offensive 
class legislation, bearing, in the belief of the 
Order, more heavily than ever on the general 
interests of the country and favoring, at the 
general expense, the great manufacturing cor- 
porations. 

Well, what happened ? A general election 
for Congressmen came off, and the dominant 
party controlling governmental affairs was, so 
to speak, swept out of existence. The cause 
of this Waterloo defeat is traceable to the 
Farmers' Alliance. 

Explicit Declaration of Purposes. 

At their general National Convention recent- 
ly held at Ocala, Florida, among their declared 
purposes, they announced that " Believing in 
the doctrine of equal rights to all, and special 
privileges to none, we demand that our national 
legislation be so framed in the future w not to 
build up one industry at the expense of an- 
other. We further demand the removal of the 
existing heavy tariff from the necessaries of 
life that the poor of our land must have. We 
further demand a just and equitable system of 
graduating tax on incomes. We believe the 
money of the country should be kept as much 
as possible among the people, and we demand 
that all National and State revenues be limited 
to the necessary expenses of Government, eco- 
nomically and honestly administered," 

The principles avowed in the above declara- 
tion, if adopted as a rule of governmental action, 
will do away with most of the evils of misgov- 
ernment. 

No Discrimination, 

When one man forcibly thrusts his hands in- 
to the pockets of another and takes therefrom 
purse, we declare it robbery. Now what 
is wrong individually cannot be made right 
ooUeotively. No legisfative body can have 
any moral right to enaot laws whereby one 
class in the commonwealth may grow rich at 
the expense of other classes. Such laws, in 
their very nature, are despotic and oppressive. 

The great Webster, in opposing in Congress 
the high protective tariff of 1824, said: "That 
with him it was a fundamental axiom that the 
great interests of the country were united and 
inseparable; that agriculture, commerce and 
manufactures must flourish together or languish 
together; and that all legislation is dangerous 
which proposed to benefit one of them without 
looking to the consequences that might fall up- 
on the others," 

The effect upon the general prosperity of the 
country, ainoe the turmoil of war has ceased in 



the land, occasioned by adhering to high tariff, 
has been such as to paralyze agriculture and 
commerce, proving the truth of Webster's 
fundamental axiom, and that the only way out 
of national embarrassment is, cease to adhere 
to the policy of class legisHtion, 

Income Tax. 
The Order demands a graduated income tax. 
By that, I suppose, incomes exceeding a cer- 
tain amount are to be taxed a certain percent- 
age; and when the income reaches a certain in- 
creased amount, it shall be subject to a certain 
increased percentage, and eo upward^the great- 
er the income the greater the percentage. In 
this manner the necessity of levying heavy 
duties on importations of foreign goods for rev- 
enue purposes would not arise, and the taxes 
on the consumption of the country would be 
proportionately lessened. An income tax levied 
for support of Government would measurably 
lessen the amount of taxes otherwise required 
to defray governmental expenditure, and the 
wealthy would be required to contribute more 
than they now do, and I think justly too, to 
maintain government. By the adoption of a 
justly graduated income tax, the small prop- 
erty-holder would be relieved from much bur- 
densome taxation. The burden of taxation 
would then fall upon those most able to bear 
it, and that is where I think it should fall. 

Limitation of Government Expenditures. 

That governmental taxation should be limited 
to necessary governmental expenditures, is a 
principle which ought to meet the approval of 
every right-thinking mind. Has the Legisla- 
ture in making State appropriations always 
kept this principle in mind ? The answer to 
this query must be, it has not. 

There ia a widely prevailing idea that the 
Legislature of this State has power to make 
appropriations for any purpose it may deem 
proper. This is not true, "The general ap- 
propriation bill shall contain no item or items 
of appropriation other than such as are required 
to pay the salaries of the State officers, the ex- 
penses of the Government and of the institu- 
tions under the exclusive management and con- 
trol of the State." (Constitution, Art. IV, 
Sec. 29.) Here we have declared what may be 
included in the general appropriation bill, ex- 
cluding therefrom all special appropriations 
for particular purposes other than as above 
specified. "Nor shall the Legislature have 
power to make any gift or authorize the mak- 
ing of any gift of any public money or thing of 
value to any individual, municipal or other 
corporation whatever," (Constitution, Art, 
IV. Sec, 31.) 

Thus we see the Constitution has clearly 
limited the power of the Legislature in the 
matter of appropriating the public moneys. 

With such constitutional limits to the power 
to appropriate moneys, I fail to see how the 
Legislature can vote an appropriation of money 
to aid California to make a display of her prod- 
ucts at the approaching World's Fair in 
Chicago. I fail to see how the Legislature can 
pension off superannuated school-teachers — a 
thing which, I understand, is contemplated In 
some quarters. Such a pension would be a 
grant of money to individu/tls, and is within 
the inhibited provision of the Constitution, 
The World's Fair holds its charter from the 
United States — a corporation over which the 



S''ate of California has no control whatever. 
Being such, it also comes within the constitu- 
tional inhibition. 

Strictly construed, the Constitution inhibits 
the Legislature from granting appropriations 
to assist in maintaining county fairs, for they 
are organized by associations of individuals for 
their own personal benefit or amusement. From 
such exhibitions the mass of the taxpayers in 
the State 

Derive No Beneflc Whatever. 

It is unjust, therefore, to tax the community 
for their support. Besides, such laws are 
special in their character. Some industrial 
organizations in the State support themselves 
without State aid. There is no general law on 
the subject. The Constitution expressly pro- 
hibits tne passage of special laws when general 
laws may be enacted. Oar Legislatures have 
In the past acted as though they have unlimited 
power to levy taxes for any conceivable pur- 
pose, treating constitutional inhibition as hav- 
ing no signification or meaning whatever. 

How important, then, is the declaration of 
the Farmers' Alliance that the governmental 
expenditures, both State and National, shall be 
prudent and economical in order that taxes 
shall be kept down to the lowest point con- 
sistent with the public safety and welfare. To 
this end, among others, the Farmers' Alliance 
is directed, 

God Speed It In Its Good Work. 
I see no reason why the Grangers and every 
honest man should not join in the proposed re- 
forms, or at least most of these proposed re- 
forme. 

The organizition of the Farmers' Alliance 
now numbers millions, although, like 
Jonah's gourd, they seemingly have 
sprung up in a night. They have already 
proved themselves such a power in the land 
that old party veterans stand aghast as they 
contemplate the exemplification already made 
by this now powerful organization, and in fear 
and trepidation they cry out. 

What Next? 
Another great blessing is likely to grow out 
of this National Farmers' Alliance — the meet- 
iog of the people North and South in one 
homogeneous whole. Political animosities and 
sectional strife will cease. There will be a 
union of hearts and a union of hands. North 
and South, East and West, will exist only as 
geographical divisions, but all inhabited by one 
united and happy people, with none to molest 
them or make them afraid. 



Colusa County Alliance. — At the quarter- 
ly meeting of this Alliance, at Arbuokle on 
Jan. 6:h, Sec'y Poundstone resigned that office 
and T. J. Sbellhammer was elected to fill the 
vacancy. The Williams Farmer offered two 
columns' spaoe, weekly, for the publication of 
Alliance matters. The offer was accepted and 
the Farmer made the ofEcial organ. It was 
voted that the next quarterly meeting be held 
at Williams on Monday, April 6th, at 1 P. M, 

Resionation Not Accepted.— At the last 
meeting of Lang Bsach (Los Angeles Co.) Alli- 
ance, President H. C, Dillon tendered his resig- 
nation, but the members, by a unanimous vote, 
declined to accnpt the same, and await the de- 
I cision of the N-itional Alliance on the subject. 



State Farmers' Alliance Executive 
Committee Meeting. 

This body held its first quarterly session at 
the rooms of the State Board of Horticulture, 
220 Sutter street, during Monday, Tuesday and 
Wednesday of this week, meeting three times a 
day and giving close attention to business. 

There were present members of the Execu- 
tive Committee: 

Jno. S. Dore (Pres.), Fresno; E. M. Wardall, 
Monrovia, Los Angeles Co. (V. Pres.); Jepse 
Poundstone, Grimes, Colusa Co. (Sec'y Ex. 
Com.); Jas, Morgan, Santa Barbara; David 
Reed, Monterey; also, among Alliance visitors, 
at different times during session, D, C. Vestal 
(Dalegate to the National Alliance), J. M. 
Moore (State Agent), J. L. Gilbert (State 
Lecturer), C. W, Pedlar (Sec'y State Alli- 
ance), J, W, Hines (General Organizer), S, P. 
Sanders, Frank Dunn and J. C. Drew. 

The following condensed items furnish an 
inkling of the transactions up to the time of 
our first forms going to press, on Wednesday: 

A paper on ramies was read by Professor 
Shinn of the State University. Specimens of 
the live plant, together with some of the fab- 
rics manufactured from its fibers, were exhib- 
ited. 

A motion was adopted permitting the sub- 
Alliances to purchase their supplies direct from 
the State Business Agent, where such a course 
would accrue to their advantage. 

A resolution was unanimously passed, pro- 
viding that each sub Alliance throughout the 
State shall be allowed to purchase articles re- 
quired through the State Business Agent direct 
instead of through county agents appointed by 
the Alliance, Connected with each County 
Alliance is an agent who, through the State 
Agent, secures for members any implement or 
other article required in farm use at reasonable 
rates. By dealing direct with the State Agent 
much time is saved, especially in a large county 
where a sub-Alliance ia situated at some dis- 
tance from the main body. 

J. M. Moore, the State Agent located in this 
city, gave a satisfactory report in regard to the 
amount of work done by him of this character. 

Daring the present session of the committee, 
which it is expected will last two or three days 
longer, the Legislature now in session will 
doubtless be called upon to indorse certain 
measures advocated, notably the Australian 
Ballot system, having ta^ea collected twice a 
year, and also a question in connection with 
Nicaragua canal. Other subjects of interest to 
and for the benefit of the farmer will be called 
to the attention of the Legislature. 

The meeting listened to addresses made by 
I. D. Neilson and Alexander Sutlran, a com- 
mittee from the Boot and Shoe Makers' White 
Labor League, explanatory of the grade of 
goods in which the league deals, showing the 
difference in the white labor work of this State, 
the Chinese and the class of gooda known 
as the Eistern. In response to the appeal of 
the committee that the Alliance should take 
some action in the matter, a resolution was 
passed, recommending an early conference with 
the State business manager with a view of set- 
tling the preliminary steps necessary to be tak- 
en, and that under his direction the Alliance 
will use all possible means to aid in extending 
the work of the league. 

The committee also resolved that it shonld 
incorporate in order to secure for Itaelf a legal 
status for the making of contracts and the 
transaction of such general business as may be 
deemed necessary for its well-being. 

Resolutions were adopted urging the Legis- 
lature to pass an Enabling Act for Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Companies. 

Hon. Thos. McConnell (of the Executive 
Committee of the State Grange, P. of H.) 
briefly exchanged views with the Committee on 
Important Objects of both associations in a fra- 
ternal manner. 

Resolutions were passed making the Pacific 
Rural Prisss the official organ of the State Al- 
liance, commending the Pacific Union and 
Monache Tidings and Farm View for faithful 
eervicee. 

Further proceedings will appear in our 
Grange edition. 



Col. J. S, Barbee, 

We publish this week an engraving of Col, J, 
S. Birboe, the State Organizer of the Farmers' 
Alliance and Industrial Union. Col. Birbee is 
a resident of Santa Barbara county, having ar- 
rived in this State in 1872. He was born in 
1833, in Virginia, where he remained until his 
removal to this State. The colonel acquired 
his title while wearing the " gray " in the 
great rebellion, and like others who laid down 
their arms at the close of that conflict, did so 
with the firm resolution to accept the Union as 
it was and to strive to make it a anion in deed 
as well as in name. 

Col, Birbee u a man of very pleasing ap- 
pearance, genial, warm-hearted, frank, and a 
close friend of the toiling masses. Prior to the 
establishment of the State Alliance, Col. Bar- 
bee bore almost the entire work of organizing 
the different Alliances throughout the State. 

Col. Birbpe served on important committees 
at the late National Alliance sefsion at Ocala, 
Florida, and since his return to Santa Barbara, 
is again heard from in the work of the Alli- 
ance. He seems greatly endeared to its mem- 
bers throughout this and other Statea, where 
he haa been the leading and pioneer organizer. 



60 



f ACIFie R,URAIf> PRESS, 



[Jan. 17, 1891 




Threnody. 



Watching here alone by the fire whereat last year 
Sat with me the friend that a week since yet was 
near, 

That a week has borne so far and hid so deep. 
Woe ara I that I may not weep, 
May not yearn to behold him here. 

Shame were mine, and little the love I bore him 
were, 

Now to mourn lhat better he fares than love may 
fare. 

Which desires and would not have indeed its will, 
Would not love him so worse than ill. 
Would not clothe him again with care. 

Yet can love not choose but remember, hearts but 
ache. 

Eyes but darken, only for one vain thought's poor 
sake, 

Kor the thought that by this hearth's now lonely 
side 

Two fast friends, on the day he died. 
Looked once more for his hand to take. 

Let thy soul forgive ihem, and pardon heal the sin, 
Though their hearts be heavy to think what then had 
been. 

The delight that never while they live may be — 
Love's communion of speech with thee. 
Soul and speech with the soul therein. 

my friend ! O brother ! a glory veiled and marred ! 
Never love made moan for a life more evil-starred. 

Was it envy, chance or chance-compelling fate. 
Whence thy spirit was bruised so late. 
Bowed so heavily, bound so hard ? 

Now released, it may be — if only love might 
know — 

Filled and fired with sight, it beholds us blind and 
low, 

With a pity keener yet, if that may be. 

Even than ever was this that we 

Felt, when love of thee wrought us woe. 

None may tell the depths and the hights of life and 
death. 

What we may we give thee: a word that sorrow 
saith, 

And that none will heed save sorrow; scarce a 
song. 

All we may, who have loved thee long, 
Take: the best we can give is breath. 

— Algernon Cliarli^! Sjvinburnr. 

A Town Day and a Farm Day. 

My Letter to Emily Ransoms and her 
Beply. 

[Contributed to the Rdral Prrss by L. H. S.] 
FOURTH PAPER. 

San Francisco, September, ISSl. 
My dear Kmily: — I've been snoh a lonfj time 
answering your last letter; but yon can't ex- 
pect anything else, for I hardly have ^ime to 
take up my pen from one week's end to another. 

1 have sole charge of the honse now, and it is 
an experience for me that teaches me the valae 
of time I never have — time for reading, Bible 
study, and good solid talks with good solid 
friends, 

Grandmamma in Los Angeles with Uncle 
James has been very poorly, and mamma has 
been down now for six weeks. 

Such a time as I have had running this house, 
for it all has to be done just so, yon know, to 
suit father and fastidious brother Albert. 
Nora is a faithful servant and we keep her on 
that account, but she cannot do much out of 
the kitchen, and there are many things she can- 
not do in it. 

Now to-day is a fair sample of how the time 
gets away with me. As soon as I opened my 
eyes I thought of the fish papa had brought 
home the evening before, and I had forgotten 
to tell Nora what to serve with it. She has no 
French sense of what things go together, and I 
have to watch her constantly. So I drew on 
an old wrapper and hurried down, Nora had 
a headache and was as cross as oonld be, so to 
avoid trouble I made the toast and set the 
table. I conld as well have done it all, but 
you have to keep a servant in town for looks' 
sake, even if she is not mnch help. 

The dining table was covered with books and 
papers from the evening before, and by the 
time I had placed the room In order the muffins 
and croquettes and things were ready, and I 
had to rush upstairs to fix my hair and change 
my wrapper for breakfast, I have an elegant 
tea-gown to wear to breakfast, but it is so long 
behind and so tight in the waist and so loose 
in the sleeves that I can't wear it in the kitchen 
at all. I always have to dress twice mornings. 
Albert was at my door with two buttons off 
his buBiness ooat, and I oame very near being 
too late to serve the coSee; but I sailed in just 
as papa laid down his paper, and the toast 
was elegant and everything was all right. 

After breakfast I had a long discussion with 
Nora about the rice for lunch. I know that 
rice oin be cooked delightfully with raisins in 
it, but Nora always objects. 

After I had carried my point, I removed my 
tek-gowD, cleaned the silver and dusted and 



rearranged the sideboard ; then came the 
grocer, the ioe-man, the butcher, the baker and 
she vegetable Chinaman. They came about five 
minutes apart and I had to go to the back door 
to see each one. 

Notwithstanding we have " no peddlers" on 
our front steps, half a dozen nondescript fellows 
called, and, as I have to tend the door fore- 
noons to save Nora, it was Innch-time before 
my morning duties were all over. 

Papa and Albert came home to lunch, so I 
had to dress again. Lunch was lovely, thanks 
to my watching of Nora, and I ran upstairs 
after lunoh, hoping to have two honrs to my- 
self before it was time to go to the W. F. M. 
S. It was a vain hope, for between one and 
three o'clock there were four callers of the ac- 
cidental order, it not being my regular day at 
home. 

Uld Mrs. Stone was to anxious about grand- 
mamma that she staid nearly an hour. The mis- 
sionary meeting dragged out its slow length 
till five o'clock, and I reached home just in 
time to see that our dinner-table was in order 
before papa came in. 

We sat at table till nearly seven, then Char- 
ley Jones happened in with bis violin. I knew 
what he wanted. I was doomed to play ac- 
companiments for an hoar or sc. Albert has 
no patience with my musical friends, so he slid 
off up-stairs. Charley had the goodness to go 
at eight, and papa seemed so lonely I sat down 
to comfort him awhile. In a few minutes the 
bell rang, and there were the Wilson girls, 
who never have any beaux, and have to do 
something to amnee themselves, and they ran 
in unceremoniously to chat and chat and chat 
about nothing in particular. They managed to 
drag themselves away at ten, and I oarae up to 
my room tired all over, but I was determined 
to write you this note, dear Emily, as I had 
promised, for I know you mast be lonely so far 
out of the world; and it must be stupid to 
board with a woman who does her own work. 
But that is all you can expect in the country. 
Keep np your oonrage and write often. Your 
loving Rose. 



LoNK Trke Di.sTKUyr, |^ 
Fresno Co., September, 1881. ) 

Dear Little Rose: — I am truly sorry for you. 
Your history of a day makes me like the conn- 
try better and better, I told Mrs. Granger of 
my agreement with yoa, and she was willing 
that I shoald follow her about one Saturday to 
see how she managed her work and spent her 
day, provided that I should not converse with 
her in the kitchen so as to interrupt her meth- 
ods of work. There is usually not much work 
on the farm at this time of year, but Mr. 
Granger, always fore- handed, has one man 
hauling wood from the bills and one hauling 
straw, he himself helping with the straw, so 
that Mrs. Granger has five adults to cook for 
besides Johnnie, nine years old. 

I was awakened at six Saturday by the sound 
of the coffee-mill, and I hurried down to begin 
the day with my hostess. I found her in her 
room neatly dressed in washable goods. 

" While the stove is heating np," she said, 
"I brush out our bedroom, put the bedclothes 
to air in the window and place the room in or- 
der. It takes but a moment, and it is so sweet 
and fresh to come into after awhile." 

We passed out into the kitchen. I noticed 
in the dining-room that the table had been set 
overnight for breakfast and was covered over 
with a drapery of good cheesecloth bound with 
red. 

The stove was hot, Mr. Granger having put 
the coffee to simmer on the back of the stove, 
and the potatoes were already in the oven, 
having been put there the night before. 

I cannot tell you how swiftly and skillfully 
she prepared the breakfast. When she went 
for the mush-kettle, she brought all the cook- 
ing pans she needed. When the water was 
heating, she brought the milk and cream. She 
seemed to be all hands and not a stroke was 
lost. In twenty minutes breakfast was ready, 
and we sat down, hired men and all. This 
might horrify you, Rose, but it does not me. 
The hired men were perfect strangers to Mr. 
Granger, but they seemed to appreciate re- 
spectable privileges. They ate properly and 
said nothing, and we went on with onr light 
table-talk unannoyed. It is the simplest way 
of obviating a difficulty. Some of the hired 
men here are gentlemen and it pays to treat 
them all as gentlemen. 

After breakfast, Mrs. Granger piled up the 
dishes and covered them. She put her pantry 
in order, skimmed the milk and set Johnnie to 
churning. I noticed that there was something 
simmering on the stove," Tonse up the fire," she 
said. Then in a moment she was off with the 
broom and duster. I found that it was her 
custom to do all her sweeping and dusting 
necessary before finishing the kitchen work. 
She said : "I like to feel that everything is 
neat and in order before I put my hands in the 
dishwater or the flour. It gives me a clear 
head for the after work. It gives me a sense 
of ease and pleasure even when the work is 
hard, and then when the noon meal is over the 
work is done," 

This morning the work was all over at nine 
o'clock. 

" Now I am going on the warpath— setting 
hens 1 Won't you come ?" 

I followed her all through the sheds and the 
great barn full of fragrant hay. We found the 
lazy old hens sitting on fresh eggs, who suffered 
us to carry them away as prisoners; but two 
young Spanish hens flew all over that barn 
with the most hostile demonstrations. She 



oalmly destroyed the neats, and after a tour 
around the great fresh straw-stacks in search of 
fugitive nests, we came back to the house re- 
freshed by onr business outing. 

After this, Mrs. Granger retired to her room 
with a book. 

" Be my work ever so hard, it pays me," she 
■aid, " to rest an hour or so with a book each 
day. It is an economy of time and strength, 
beoause I am twice as active and skillful after 
my rest." 

At eleven o'clock a fire was built and dinner 
was served at 12:15 promptly. I noticed by 
watching that Mrs. Granger had a method of 
order and execution peculiarly her own, and 
that it was something I could not learn, nor 
could she impart it to me. Her best secret was 
that she gave her entire attention to her work, 
and by concentrating herself moved out of it 
the more rapidly. Although ease and dexterity 
in housework is an original talent, yet I think 
it might be brought out and taught as a science 
by itself. It certainly is the key to a great 
deal of happiness. 

Saturday afternoon on this farm might be 
lonesome for you — not an interruption within 
or without. Mrs. Granger sewed or rested and 
I read aloud from the magazines and papers. At 
five o'clock we tied on our bonnets and took 
another walk after eggs. We had a light sup- 
per, and afterward we all eat out on the porch 
to enjoy the cool dusk and the dawning nioou' 
light. 

I arose, intending to withdraw and leave the 
family alone together, Mr. Granger called me 
back. 

" We would like to have you remain and 
meet some of our friends — just the minister and 
a few neighbors; stay and see what manner of 
men we are anyway." 

Just a quiet, informal gathering — several 
farmers and their wives. There was no at- 
tempt at entertainment, no recitations, no solos, 
no essays. Their interests were common and 
there was plenty to talk about — a little politics, 
a little temperance, a dash of gossip, a season- 
ing of religion; they talked about raisins and 
prunes, and olives and the markets of the East, 
and the great open questions of the day, till I 
felt more humble than ever with only my nar- 
row and technical work in the schoolroom. 
These people are unassuming in their deport- 
ment, but they are grand in their ideas, 

I think Mrs. Granger lives better than you, 
dear friend, though she in " far out of the 
world " and does her own work. 

When your mother comes home, you must 
come down here and enjoy a season of rest and 
profit. Yoars faithfully, Emily R.\nsome. 

Our Chosen Representative at Flora's 
Court. 

The Golden Poppy of Oalifornla. 

(Written tor the Ulral Pkkss by Isabkl D.MiLIxu(LifA).J 
There was questioning and oonsnltation and 
inspection of dainty treasures, to decide what 
one of California's blooming beauties should be 
adopted in the form as it had already been in 
spirit — one peculiar to and characteristic of 
locality and inhabitants. But how needless 
was the delay and doubt, when the favored 
could be no other than the California Poppy — 
the flower which, here and nowhere else, riots 
in the moistened soil of the river bank, sits 
complacently on the drier hillside and contends 
with the growing wheat for the possession of 
the field ! 

It has been called frail. It is not frailty bat 
the lavishnees of generosity, the indifference to 
cost and sublime faith in the fntare so essen- 
tially Californian, and in such striking contrast 
to the season-long clinging to one fading blos- 
som of other plants and other men. 

Earth smiles with a bint of hidden gold 
through its mounds of fernlike leaves with 
their marvelous length of oatline showing, in 
their tracery and infilling, heedlessness as to 
necessities, to material, or to the flight of hours 
in this land where Time himself almost forgets 
the hurrying seasons measured out to other 
climes, and the beauties of the unseen land 
grow more real as the glow of summer sun- 
shine nestles in these spreading bowls. 

Rob the plant at nightfall of its golden 
beauty, then sleep the sleep of triumph; but 
again, when the sunbeams dance about Its head, 
it will fling to the winds its sheltering caps and 
you will almost listen for its glad huzza for 
freedom. 

Ten to one, it is said, as compared with East- 
ern cities, does "Our Own " toss to the world 
its daily printed pages; so might we fancy 
these open, generous petals to be tablets full 
of messages from the flowers' Wonderland, 
messaces which we are yet too blind to see, too 
dull to comprehend, records of that blossomy 
life which is the spirit of the mineral, the cap- 
tured Boal of this Land of Gold, 



"Ark you — ?" said the customer, hesitat- 
ingly, to the haughty yoang woman at the glove 
counter, who kept her eyes fixed on a spot 
three feet above hie head. 

"Well?" inquired the haughty young 
woman, 

" Are yoa the proprietor of this store?" asked 
the customer. 

" No, I'm not," replied the haughty young 
woman. 

"Ah," continued the customer, "I thought 
as much. TThe proprietor would likely try to 
sell me a pair of gloves, perhaps." — Chicago 
Timet. 



What the Chimney Sang. 

Over the chimney the night-wind sang 

And chanted a melody no one knew; 
And the Woman stopped, as her babe she tossed. 
And thought of the one she had long since lost. 
And said, as her teardrops back she forced, 

" I hate the wind in the chimney." 

Over the chimney the night-wind sang 

And chanted a melody no one knew; 
And the Children said, as they closer drew, 
" ' Tis some witch that is cleaving the black night 

through — 
'Tis a fairy trumpet that just then blew. 

And we fear the wind in the chimney." 

Over the chimney the night-wind sang 

And chanted a melody no one knew; 
.^nd the Man, as he sat on his hearth below. 
Said to himself, " It will surely snow. 
And fuel is dear and wages low. 

And I'll stop the leak in the chimney." 

Over the chimney the night-wind sang 
And chanted a melody no one knew; 

But the Poet listened and smiled, for he 

Was Man, and Woman, and Child, all three. 

And said, " It is God's own harmony. 
This wind we hear in the chimney." 

—Bret Harte. 

Cookery Continued. 

[Written for the Ki ral PRKS^! by Mrs. FLORKiics 0. 
Emerson. J 

Editors Pke.ss:— I have read with interest 
the discussion in your oolnmns upon cook- 
ery. This is a very important subject — one 
that has a diversity of opinion. Some ladies 
take great pride in the art, while others claim 
they dislike it exceedingly. They think it de- 
grading, together with other kinds of domestio 
labor. They truly need our sympathy for 
their lack of good sense. Do these ladies ever 
think who has been their cook for years but a 
kind, tender and loving mother How impor- 
tant that they should be taught all the branches 
of domestic labor and learn to be useful, prac- 
tical, self-reliant and independent ! Young 
ladies, think of this all-important subject. 
Be kind and helpful to your parents and guard- 
ians, who have done much for you. Be inde- 
pendent and help yourselves. Cooking in my 
opinion is the best and most useful accomplish- 
ment that a woman can possess. Who could 
live without cooks? We are as dependent 
upon them for onr existence as we are for the 
air we breathe. We shoald think it ao honor 
to be a first-class cook and take just pride in it. 

I fully believe in a thorough knowledge of 
anatomy, physiology and hygiene, also many 
other of the sciences that are brought into 
practical use. Music, too, is almost Indis- 
pensable in the home. It is elevating, purify- 
ing and charming to our natures. Painting, 
embroidery and various kinds of fancy-worli 
are very pleasant to engage in, but should not 
occupy our time until the more useful branches 
of labor are learned. All kinds of useful labor 
are honorable, and so regarded by every intelli- 
gent mind. 

Learn to be a true helpmate, a kind and lov- 
ing companion for some good and noble young 
man. There are many young men at the pres- 
ent day who are meditating upon the subject 
of matrimony. They do not seem to be as en- 
thusiastic upon the subject as our fathers and 
grandfathers were fifty and seventy-five years 
ago. What is the reason ? I think I can tell 
you. It is beoaase there are so few young 
ladies who are prepared to be a real helpmate 
to a young man. Ladies, look back 50 years 
and see how your grandmothers commenced 
life. I know of many who were educated in 
all the household duties that are required to 
make a wife a good helpmate as wel) as a true 
and loving companion. This is the kind of a 
wife that most young men need and want at 
the present day, for but few have ample means 
to support themselves and families withoat 
labor. What intelligent lady is there who 
would have her husband toil daily, from early 
morn to set of sun, to support her in Idleness ? 
There should be none. Idleness is a disgrace. 
Industry is honorable and gives na health, 
wealth and happiness, the blessings we most 
deaire. 

Young ladies, practice domestic duties; en- 
courage young men to abandon saloons and 
cigars, and you will do a worthy and noble 
work. 



A LADY of rank consulted Abernethy, in 
great distress, about her daughter, and the doc- 
tor began the investigation of the case by 
asking : 

"Why, what ails her?" 

" Alas 1 doctor," replied the mother, " I can- 
not tell; but she has lost her spirits, her beauty 
and her appetite, and seems to be wasting ayray 
every day, and we are fearing that she cannot 
live." 

" Why do yon not get her married?" said 
Abernethy. 

" Alas 1 that we would fain do, and have 
offered her as good a match as ever she could 
expect." 

"Is there no other that you think she would 
be content to marry ?" 

" Yes, doctor, that is what troubles ns, 
for there is a yonng gentleman we doabt she 
loves that her father and I can never con- 
sent to." 

" Why, look you, madam," replied Aber- 
nethy, gravely, "then your case is this: 
Your daughter would marry one man, and yon 
would have her marry another. In all my 
books I find no remedy for such a disease aa 
this !" 



Jan. 17, 1891.] 



PACIFie f^URAb f RESa 



51 



Pretty Women. 

The woman who ia pretty is far too liable to 
think that that is enough; ahe will conquer her 
kingdom by means of it; and when the day of 
reckoning, the day of fading cornea, the king- 
dom will be already hers by right of possea- 
sion. Indeed, she does not consider the day of 
fading; it is something aa difficult for her to 
realize as death itself is to the young; it Is far 
o£F, vague, all but impossible; how is ahe ever 
going to look other than she does now and atill 
be herself ? And at any rate, there are always 
the means to make the repairs of beauty, and 
sufficient unto the day ia the evil thereof. And 
so, in an average of more than half the in- 
stances, ahe goea dancing off about her pleasure 
like a fly in the sun, as full of the present, aa 
careless of the future. She makea no prepara- 
tion for the impending fate which ia aure to 
come to her if ahe live long enough; she relies 
on her fair face, her blushes, her dimples, her 
radiance, her smiles, her glances, her sweet- 
ness. To pleaae, to attract, to marry, to marry 
well, Is the mark ahe has aet before her; and it 
doea not need cultivation of the sterner virtues 
for that; the sterner virtues are not greatly 
called into account in this quest, have little 
opportunity of asserting themselves, or even of 
being missed. 

Nor is great intellectual cultivation in the 
scheme of our pretty woman's life; according 
to her plan of action it ia entirely unnecessary. 
Who cares forayllogisma, lectures, instructions ? 
ahe unconsciously argues from rosy lipa. Who 
will stop to ask if the bright eyea have dulled 
themselves over dry pagea of acholaatic lore ? 
Let who will be learned, it is enough for her to 
be gay and happy. 

What, then, has our pretty creature left for 
the dim passages of middle age, when beauty 
has fallen away, but there ia atill left the de- 
sire to hold captive what once beauty gained ? 
The time is coming when there will be deep 
creacenta around the mouth whose lovely 
curves have been dragged down by flaccid mus- 
cles, when there will be fine, spider-web lines 
about the eyes, when there will be hollows in 
the cheeks, when the red and white of the skin 
will have become blurred and mottled, or over- 
laid with yellow sallownese, when perhaps 
there will be present in the vacuous face only 

that divine smile which has lost the two front 
teeth 1" 

Let the pretty girl remember that in the 
darkness of that middle passage the beauty that 
she had before she entered it will not signify; 
all faces are in the dark together then, the girl 
that was plain with the girl that was beauti- 
ful. The wreck of beauty signifies then no 
more than the wreck of what never was beauty. 
It is the sweet voice, the kindly manner, the 
burden of what is said, the tender-heartedness 
of what ia done, that tells with any effect then. 
It will not be long before she arrives at this 
time, which, in comparison to the blaze of 
youth, neighbors close on the dark; and she 
will need then all with which she can have 
filled her intellect and fed her soul, ail that 
wit and virtue and breeding can have given 
her, in order to retain anything of that king- 
dom to which in the early days she felt herself 
born by right divine. — Harper's Bazar. 



Chaff. 

The following written definition of the word 
bachelor was handed in by a fifth-grade boy : 
" A bachelor is a man who has no wife nor 
wants no wife nor can't get no wife. " — Luling 
Signal, 

"Lor", chill what you chewln' dat flonr- 
bir'l top fur ? " "Be still, honey. L)e Jerns'- 
lem band has dere annual fair nex' week an' 
given a "prize fur de be»' pie-eater, I'm a prac- 
tifin' fur dat 'casion." 

Art Note — Do you want your wife's portrait 
in oil ? 

Grocer — Yes, I think that would be the beat, 
particnlarly if you get the oil at my store. I 
keep none but the best. — Sif tings. 

Jagway — I don't see how a man can get along 
on only two suits a year, 

Travers — Easy enough. For instance, I be- 
gin with my winter suit on the 1st of January, 
and wear it until the middle of March; then I 
put on my spring suit, and wear it antil the Isc 
of Jane. 

Jagway — Then what do you do ? 

Travers — I keep right on wearing it, — Har- 
per's Bazar. 

"Was your hnaband inaured ?" 

"Yes, $5000 in a mutual aaaeasment com-, 
pany." 

"Did you get the money ?" 

" I understand that I did. John was the 
only member in good atanding at the time of 
hia death, and the assessment fell on me. But 
I've got the money." — Harper's Bazar. 

" That young Mies Newdle, to whom you 
were paying so much attention last evening, 
Leon," said his mother, "talks very un- 
gramatically." " TLunder I" exclaimed the 
young man. " She doesn't need to know any- 
thing about grammar, mother. She owns a gas 
well." — Chicago Tribune. 

Artist (showing sketches) — Oh, that sketch 
is mere nothing; I did it ten years ago. I often 
laugh when I come across the things I did ten 
years ago. 

She — And perhaps you'll laugh ten years 
henoe over the thinga you do now. It's won- 
derful what a difference time makea, ian't it ! 



^^OUJ^G^EfoLKS' QobUJVIN, 
A Three-Legged Engine. 

It was long after aupper-time, I am aure of 
this, because Hannah had cleared off the 
table and gone into the kitchen to write a 
letter home, to Sweden; and there was no one 
in the dining-room excepting a mouse that was 
lazily picking up crumbs the baby had drop- 
ped. Besides all this, I know in another way, 
too; for the baby was fast asleep in his bed up- 
stairs. 

It is perfectly ridiculous for me to call him 
the baby, because he was really a big boy half- 
past five years old; but everybody called him 
that, so I must, I suppose. 

Mamma came into the hall; and what do 
you suppose she saw there the very tirat thing? 
It was nothing more nor leaa than a big Iron 
engine, with a red smokestack and only three 
wheels. It must have had four wheels one of 
those days, but now it just got along the best 
way it could on three. Now, that engine did 
not belong to the baby at all; and mamma 
guessed just right when she suspected her 
boy had taken it that very afternoon when be 
was over playing with Jim Boggs. I tell you 
what, mamma did not like that at all; so she 
started upstairs with all her might. 

"Baby !" 

But nothing stirred under the bedclothes. 
"Ba-by 1" 
" Ump !" 

"Are you awake?" 

" Perhaps so: to-morrow." 

" No, now." 

By this time he was aitting up in bed, try- 
ing to rub his eyes open with his eight fingers 
and two thumbs. 

Mamma was standing there with the candle, 
and looking just as savage as that particular 
mamma could possibly look. 

"Baby, whose engine ia that downstairs?" 

" Yoc mean, mamma, the one with the red 
smokestack and only three legs?" 
lg" Yes," said mamma, " that's the very one." 

" Well, then," replied the baby, as he settled 
down into bed again, " that b'longa to Jim." 

" Did he say you could have it ?" 

The baby thought for quite a long time, and 
then said: "Seems to me he didn't. 1 expect 
I just took it." 

" Come," said mamma, putting down the 
>candle, "you must get right up and take it 
back." 

"Bat I haven't got any clothes on," said 
the baby. 

"No difference," aaid mamma, "You can 
drees, and I'll stay hereto button your ahoes." 
" Oh dear 1" 

But he had to do it, I can tell you; and 
when he came downstairs, there was the 
engine quite ready to be taken home. 

" Have I got to go all alone ?" And the little 
boy opened the front door and looked out. 
The lighta were burning in the atreet^; but, 
phew I waan't it dark between them ? 

" I tell yon what," said mamma, as her cold, 
stony heart softened a little at last; " I'll stay 
here by the window, and perhaps yon can see 
me all the way over," Well, and so — oh, 
yes, then the baby clattered down the front 
stepe; and after running straight into the big 
lilac bush at the corner of the house, and 
almost going head first over the big stone in 
the driveway, he looked around, and there was 
mamma, sure enough, atanding and waving 
good-by. 

" Pretty tough !" aaid the baby to himself; 
but he tramped on over the hill and down to 
the fence that ran across Jim's back yard. He 
crawled through and went on tiptoe up the 
steps to the door. 

" Guess I'll just leave it and run home 
said the little boy to himself; but he looked 
across, and there was mamma still standing in 
the window. " No, guess I won't," he said; 
and so he rang the bell. The minute the girl 
opened the door, he heard Jim crying almost 
like mad, way upstairs. " Here's Jim's engine, 
and I stole it; and I guess he's crying for that, 
and I'm sorry, and I'm going home — " 

And the next thing they saw was a little 
boy scurryiog across the back yard, through 
the fence and over the hill. And I tell you 
another thing, too, that little chap did not 
stop till he was safe in his mamma's arms again. 
"This makes two times that I'm gone to bed in 
only one night," said the baby. "And, 
mamma, I'm sorry 'bout that engine." 

" That's all right now, my little man, and 
I don't believe all this will happen again." 
" Well, I rather 'apect not." 
So mamma leaned over and kissed him 
softly, for she saw hia eyes were almost abut 
np tight. 

" Had only three legs, anyway," aaid the 
baby, aa he tucked the clotbea close up under 
hia chin and «o fell asleep, — New York Tribune 



and dismay filled his little soul. How could 
he endure to meet all those ladies ? 

" Come and have your face washed, and your 
hair combed, and a clean collar on," said his 
mother, after dinner. 

Willy submitted, but as soon aa his toilet waa 
made, he aaked: 

" Mayn't I go out into the wooda where 
Peter is chopping ? " 
" Why, yes; yon may, if you won't get hurt." 
" Oh, Peter'll take care of me," aaid Willy, 
and he slipped gleefully out at the back door, 
uat as an aimy of ladies with scissors and 
thimbles came in at the front. When Willy 
reached the wooda Peter was not there, but his 
ax waa sticking in the log, so Willy felt sure he 
would soon come. He played around awhile, 
then thought he would try chopping. Climbing 
on the log, he managed to pull out the ax, 
swung it as high as he could, and brought it 
down on to his foot, cutting through shoe and 
stocking, and splitting hia big toe well open. 

The blood ran. Willy was scared, " I 
guess I had better go home," he said to him- 
self. But it seemed an awful long way, and 
he waa so tired he thought he could never take 
another step long before he got there. His toe 
hurt so, and he wanted hia mother to do It up, 
but all those ladiea were there, ao he went 
softly in at the back door and up the back 
stairs to his mother's room, crawled into her 
bed, and weak and faint with loss of blood, went 
to sleep in a few minutes. 

It was a warm afternoon and the quilters 
were thirsty. " I'll get you all some fresh water 
from the pump," aaid Patty Cram, and she 
started out. What were all those little bloody 
tracks on the doorstep? 

Patty came back and told Mra. Wisp. The 
whole company came out in excitement, fol- 
lowed the tracks np-stairs and until they found 
Willy, fast asleep, with his face almost as 
white as the pillow he lay on. 

" Re's dead ! " exclaimed Aunt Polly, 
No, he isn't," said Susan Hobbs, putting 
her hand on his heart. 

Patty Cram ran for the doctor, Mrs. Flint 
ran into the study for Mr. Wisp, somebody 
else ran for cold water, Mrs. Blossom fanned 
him with her elegant feather fan, while Mra. 
Van Cott held her hartshorn bottle to his nose, 
and his mother rubbed him with camphor. 
The bashful little boy would have felt terribly 
if he bad known how many ladies were at work 
over him. 

He waa soon better, and came out all right 
after awhile, but he will always carry a scar on 
hia toe, to remind him of that day's chopping. 

Portland Transcript. 



back to our first propoaition — cover your head 
when you are out of doors after dark, no mat- 
ter how mild the air seems. Young girls who 
at summer resorts rush from a hot ballroom to 
open verandas, take tb'eir lives in their hands. 
Most of them are so wildly reckless that it ia a 
wonder they live through one aeason." 



Oar Sickness and Eye Strain.— Consider- 
able has been said of late in regard to "car 
sickness." A medical practitioner recently 
wrote in this connection as follows: I should 
like to call attention to car sickness in connec- 
tion with eye strain. I have had eight or nine 
cases of this kind, all of which were relieved 
by glaaaea. One case was that of a gentleman 
who every journey had car siokneas. While he 
had the mydriatic in his eyea he went to Waah- 
Ington and suffered no inconvenience whatever. 
Subsequently, after he had glasses, he made a 
trip to St. Paul without any of the former 
trouble. Recently I have had two cases — one 
that of a girl who could not ride a short dia 
tance in the street cars without vomiting, 1 
found a decided degree of hyperopic astigma- 
tism. With the mydriatic in her eyes, she rode 
home without her usual trouble. A strange 
thing with reference to eye strain is that it 
often exists to an exceptional degree without 
showing any symptoms in the eye. The patient 
will often aay that the eyea are perfectly good 
and have never caused any irritation. The 
reflexes Eeem to have settled in some other 
place. Thia is an interesting pathological and 
physiological queation. 



No Pdtrefaction in Deep-Sea Water. — 
Dr. Bsgnard has raised the question in one of 
the medical journals aa to whether a corpse 
which sinks to a very great depth is preserved 
indefinitely or otherwise from putrefaction. 
According to his researches, which have been 
published at some length in the archivea of the 
Biological Society of Paria, putrefaction ia not 
found to take place in decomposable substances 
submitted to a pressure of 900 to 700 atmos- 
pheres; th^ee figures corresponding to a depth 
of 9000 or 7000 meters at sea. From these ex- 
periments it must be concluded, according to 
Dr. Regnard, that there is a total absence of 
putrefaction in the greater depths of the sea. 



X)0MESTI© QcOJJOMY 



The Little Chopper. 

" He's the bashfulleat little fellow I ever see ! 
And a minister's boy, too; seems as if he'd 
get used to folks; but he don't," 

That was what old Aunt Polly said about 
Willy Wisp; and everybody else said so, too. 

There was to be a quilting at the parsonage 
one afternoon. The ladies! sewing circle had 
pieced a red and white sunflower qnilt for Mrs. 
Wisp, and were coming to quilt it, Willy 
heard hia mother apeak of it in the morning, 



Washing Out the Stomach. 

During the paat year, says the Scientific 
American, several physicians in New York 
have tried, with gratifying success, a novel 
treatment for dyspepsia and cancer of the stom- 
ach by washing out that organ. The process 
ia very simple and not dangerous. A long, 
flexible pipe is passed down the throat until 
one end is in the stomach. The upper end has 
funnel attached, into which hot water is 
poured until the stomach is filled. The weight 
of the water in the pipe and funnel gives a hy- 
draulic pressure sufficient to distend the stom- 
ach, The pipe has an aperture big enough to 
bold a lead-pencil. After the stomach has 
been filled, the funnel end of the pipe ia turned 
down until it is lower than the bottom of the 
stomach, and the stomach is emptied as a bar- 
rel of any fluid is emptied through a siphon. 
The process may be repeated several times. 
The result is that the undigested food and mu- 
cus are washed out, and the hot water closes 
the blood-Teasels and reduces inflammation. 
The relief is immediate. The dyspeptic may 
have his stomach washed out before a meal, so 
that he can take a fresh start. After the lapse 
of sufficient time for ordinary digestion, the 
stomach may be washed out again. This proc- 
ess has been in nse at the New York Hospital, 
we are informed, for some time. 

A phyaioian of this city has been trying this 
waahing-out proceas for cancer in the etomach, 
but without any success whatever, A cruel 
and useless blistering process was also em- 
ployed. Between the two, the patient is well- 
nigh " used up;" but she will get relief from 
unnecessary torment, if not from the cancer 
itself, by the mild treatment she is now receiv- 
ing from our San Francisco cancer apecialiat. 

How TO Escape Malaria. — "You people 
who aie afraid ol malaria — and it ia a good 
complaint to be afraid of — have aome strange 
ideas about the disease," said a physician. 
" You think that if you climb a mountain and 
build there, or that if you live on the slope of 
a hill where the drainage ia perfect, you are 
aafe. Then counting on this, you sit around in 
the evening air with no covering on your head, 
or you sleep with a window so near the head 
of your bed that a current of damp air blows 
over you all night. Finest way in the world to 
oatch malaria. Personally, I believe that if I 
had only two ohancea — one living in the center 
of a salt marsh and the other of living one mile 
from the edge of the marah on aloping ground — 
I ahould take the marah avery time. I admit, 
nowever, that there are very many people who 
do not agree with this opinion. Bat to oome 



Ribbon Cake. — One half cup of butter, one 
cup of milk or water, two of sugar, three of 
flour, three egga, one teaspoonful cream tartar, 
one-half of soda; beat well. Take one-third of 
the mixture and one half cup of flour, one egga 
one large spoon of butter. Beat well, then add 
one cup raisins, stoned and chopped; one oup 
currants, one-half nutmeg, one teaspoonful cin- 
namon, one-half teaspoonful mace, and spice to 
taate. Put the dark in the middle; bake in 
jelly-cake tins. If desired, soft frosting may 
be used between layers; or jelly, just as yon 
prefer. This is not an expensive cake, and 
will be found very good, 

Apple Pie — Line a deep plate with plain 
pastry. Pare acid apples, greenings are beat, 
and cut in thin slices. Allow one cupful of 
sugar and quarter of a grated nutmeg mixed 
with it; fill the pie-plate heaping full of the 
apple, sprinkling the sugar between the layers; 
it will require no leas than six good-sized apples. 
Wet the edges of the pie with cold water, lay 
on the cover and preea down securely, so that 
no juice may escape. Bike three-quarters of 
an hour or a little lefs, if the apples are very 
tender. No pie in which the apples are stewed 
beforehand can compare with this in flavor. 

Rhode Island Johnny Cake, — Put one pint 
of white table meal into a bowl and add gradu- 
ally one pint boiling water. The meal must be 
moist, without being wet. While the meal ia 
warm, add two ounces butter, one tablespoonful 
sugar, one teaspoonful of salt. Now add one 
pint of cold milk, the yolks of three eggs, well 
beaten. Stir in one half pint flour, and then 
the well beaten whites, with one heaping tea- 
spoonful of baking powder. When thoroughly 
mixed, bake at once on hot griddle. 

Jelly Trifle. — Cut np into inch cube, 
enough sponge cake to make two layers on the 
bottom of a shallow dish. Soak one-half pack- 
age gelatine one-half hour in one-half pint of 
cold water, then add one-half pint of boiling 
water and stir until dissolved. Add one-half 
pint sherry or other good wine, sweeten to 
taste and flavor to suit. When it begins to 
thicken, pour it over the cake and set in re- 
frigerator to harden. Ssrve with nutmeg and 
with cream sauce. 

Cream Cake, — One cup of sugar, one-half 
oup of butter, three-fourths cup of milk, two 
eggs, beaten separately, cups of flour, 1$ 
teaspoonfah of baking powder. Bike in three 
layers. Cream for filling: One half pint of 
milk, one teaspoonful of cornstarch, one egg, 
one teaspoonful of vanilla, sweeten to taate. 
lleat milk to scalding, in which cook the corn- 
starch stirred smooth in a little cold milk, add 
the eggs last, flavor and spread when cold. 

Chicken Croquettes. — Mince chicken as 
fine as possibl--, asason with aalt and pepper; 
add a cup of the liquor it was boiled in, three 
well-boaten egge, large tablespoon butter or 
cream. Stir together and take a tablespoonful 
or more of the mixture and form into any 
shape; dip in yolk of egg and then in cracker 
crumbs, roll lightly in your handa and fry in 
boiling lard. 



52 



fACIFie I^URAId f>RES8, 



[Jan. 17, 1891 



Containing Over 12 Reading Pages, 




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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 17, 1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS The Health of Our Live-Stocli; Or- 
ange Growing, 45. The Week; The Wet and Dry 
Seasons of California; Bogus Fertilizers; The Universi- 
ty and Farmers' Institutes, 52. 

ILLOSTRATIONS.— Scene at the Oroville Citrus 
Fair of 1S90; Botanical Characteristics of the Grange; 
A New Orange, the " Joppa," 45. Col. J. S. Barbee. 
State Organizer Farmers' Alliance, 49. Pruning the 
Orange, 53. , , , 

CORRESPONDENCE. — San Diego Notes: Jack- 
ass Rabbits and Others; Cal. and the If, 46. The Or- 
ange—" From Seed to Grove," 53. 

SHhiBP AND WOOL.— F.xterminate the Coyotes, 
46. 

THh! apiary.— Bees and Fruit, 46. 
HORTICULTURE. — Peach-Growing in Sutter 
County; Caution Against Poor Orange Trees; Fruit 
• Union Annual Meeting, 47. 

THE VINEYARD.— Wine Grapes for Napa Valley, 
47. 

THE STOCK YARD. — A Buffalo Ranch in Cal- 
ifornia, 47. _ 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY. - The Master's 
Desk; " And Still It Moves;" Work of the N. G. Legis- 
lature; A Stirring Appeal From NationalJMaster Brig- 
ham, 48. 

FARMERS' ALLIANCE — Judge Blackwood on 
the Farmers' Alliance; Col. J. S. Barbee; State Farm- 
ers' Alliance Executive Committee Meeting, 49. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. — Threnody; A Town Day 
and a Farm Day; Our Chosen Representative at Flora's 
Court; What the Chimney Sang; Cookery Continued, 
50 Prettv Women; Chaff, 51. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN — A Tliree-Legged 
Engine; The Little Cliopper, 51. 

GOOD HEALTH. -Washing Out the Stomach, 51. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Various Recipes, 51. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES — From the Various 
Counties of California, 54. 



Business Announcements. 



•KBW this IggDB.] 

Cultivators and Trucks— San Jose Agricultural Works. 

Olive Trees— L. A. Mitchell, Oakland. 

Pianos— Matthias Gray Co. 

Trees, Etc. -California Nursery Co., Niles. 

Fig Trees, Etc.— M. Denicke, Freslio. 

Poultry— S. W. Palin. Gait. 

Apiarian Siipplies—Mrs. J. D. Enas, Napa. 

Spray Pump— Wm. Stahl, Quincy, 111. 

Louden Machinery Co., Fairfield, la. 

Pacific Roll Paper Co. 

tsrSee Advertising Columns. 



The Week. 

Light rains, southerly winds, and the prom- 
ise of a storm are the chief enooaraging fea- 
tures in air and sky as we go to press on Wed- 
nesday evening. The rule of north winds and 
frosts has continued long enough. Very short 
and weakly growth has been the result both in 
grain-field and pasture, thongh in the interior 
vegetation is said to be more forward than in 
the coast hills and valleys. It has been a good 
winter for field work, and a great deal of sow- 
ing and planting has been done. Now it would 
be fun to sit under cover and see things grow. 

The citrus fair in progress at Marysville ex- 
ceeds all anticipations in extent and exoellenoe. 
Our special reporter will be heard from next 
week. The Legislature is struggling with a 
greater mass of bills than ever introduced so 
early in the session before. Senator Stanford 
has been elected to succeed himself as U. S. 
Senator. The reports from the scene of the In- 
dian trouble in Dakota promise peace. 



The Wet and Dry Seasons of Cali- 
fornia. 

For half of the year or more, the people of 
California are apt to pay little attention to the 
subject of meteorology. They meet and salute 
each other without making, as at other times, 
any allusion to the condition or prospects of 
the weather. The period during which the 
weather causes such little concernment covers 
what is here known as the dry season of the 
year, extending usually from about the middle 
of April to the middle of November, during 
which the rainfall hardly ever exceeds an inch 
or two, it sometimes amounting to less than a 
•ingle inch. 

But if, during these seven months, we ao dis- 
miss this weather topic wholly from oar thoughts, 
it does none the lees occupy them largely for the 
other five months of the year, which we desig- 
nate the wet season. Any rain falling here be- 
tween the end of May and the middle of Octo- 
ber is generally deprecated, as causing more 
harm than good. On the other hand, any 
great delay in the commencement of the 
wet season, or the occurrence of a pro- 
tracted drought after its advent, is here 
equally to be dreaded, because of its injurious 
effects on most of our leading industries. Such 
condition hurts alike the business of mining 
and of farming, owing to the water supply be- 
ing insufficient for their successful prosecution. 

But while so much mischief inevitably comes 
of a winter drought, any great superabundance 
of rain works at this season equal harm, the 
flooded rivers sweeping away the miner's mills, 
dams, ditches and other plant, and so saturat- 
ing the ground with moistnre that plowing and 
seeding are delayed and the growing crops 
more or less damaged, they being sometimes 
wholly drowned out. 

And thus the winter or wet term becomes in 
California a season of constant anxiety and con- 
jecture, every class thinking and talking about 
it, because all are interested in the way It 
shapes. About mid-autumn it is the wont of 
the weather-wise among us to begin speculat- 
ing as to the probable character of the coming 
winter, these speculations being based on a va- 
riety of facts or supposed facta, such as the 
movements of the wild fowl and other migra- 
tory birds, the habit of the woodpecker and 
the ground bog, the flow of the springs, eto. 

Strangely enough, these weather prophets 
never agree in their conclusions. Professing to 
be guided by the same signs, they either see 
these differently or put upon them a different 
construction, about one-half of them every year 
prognosticating a wet and the other half a dry 
season. Going back only a few weeks, we find 
these people thus divided in opinion, one set fore- 
telling a wet and the other a dry winter, 
neither of which predictions has thus far come 
to pass, the weather having been marked by 
neither extreme. Up till this time the winter 
has in fact been an exceptionally favorable one. 
We have everywhere had enough rain and no- 
where too much. The meteorological condi- 
tions could hardly have suited ui better bad 
they been prepared to order. Though a little 
tardy, the rains, since they commenced, have 
been well timed and adequate, the grass and 
early-planted grain, thongh retarded by frosts, 
have started into life, while plowing followed 
by sowing has everywhere been made pos- 
sible. The flow of the rivers has been so in- 
creased as to improve navigation and afford 
the miners an abundant supply of water, the 
rise in the mountain streams having at the 
same time been so slight as to greatly prolong 
the working season of the river-bed miners. 

But while the present has so far been a model 
winter, being as yet not half over, there re- 
mains, of course, a chance that a damaging 
drouth or a damaging flood may occur before it 
is ended. As far as it has gone, it tends to dis- 
credit the vaticinations of these weather or- 
acles and to such extent impair confidence In 
their ability to divine the future conditions and 
movements of the meteorological elements. 
There seems. In truth, to be no Infallible or even 
tolerably safe rnle whereby these things can be 
foretold. 

As regards our summers, it is otherwise. It 
takes not much of a prophet to foresee what 
will be the general character of one of these. 
The wet season over, we have for the next six 
months little need for the signal servioe or that 
part of the almanac that speaks of meteorolog- 
ical obangea, The rubber coat and the gam 



boot are now relegated to the lumber-room. 
The umbrella, the possession of which could be- 
fore be maintained only by' the greatest vigi- 
lance, may now be safely left In any exposed 
place, no other article being so little coveted 
because no other is so little needed. The street- 
sprinkler must now work without intermission; 
not here, as in most other ooantries, may he re- 
main half the time idle. We dry our green 
fmits largely in the sun and make salt in the 
open air, and not, as elsewhere, in vats protect- 
ed by sliding roofs that may easily be run over 
them when the rain comes on. The farmer 
stacks his sacked grain In the field and there 
leaves it till he cares to haul it away or the 
near approach of the rainy season makes this 
necessary. 

The foregoing, while they include some of 
the more notable, comprise but a small part of 
the benefits incident to the calm, rainless sum- 
mers of California; nor are our mild and open 
winters without their advantages; outdoor work 
daring this season goes on with little inter 
ruptlon. Planting, plowing and seeding are 
everywhere snccesefnlly prosecuted, mining and 
lumbering, except in the higher mountains, re 
ceive no check, this being, in fact, with most 
of our leading industries the most busy season 
of the year. 

Bogus Fertilizers. 

Interest and investment in fertilizers for 
horticultural uses are just beginning in Calif or 
uia, and it is exceedingly important that they 
should start aright. Already certain things 
have transpired which indicate that the use and 
trade in fertilizers are not opening in this way 
There has been complaint from many who have 
purchased small lots for trial that no satisfac 
tory results have been realized. They have 
not been able to see that the money they ex 
pended in this direction did them any good 
Others who have made similar purchases have 
noticed notable improvement in their trees and' 
fruit and have purchased more and more freely 
Of coarse this difference in experience may be 
due to several different conditions and may not 
necessarily indicate that the material applied 
was worthless, but in some oases this is no 
doubt the true explanation of the disappoint 
ment. 

Fertilizers which are really worthless may 
sometimes be sold through ignorance, not alone 
of the purchaser but of the seller. We grant 
this does not often occur, and in most cases 
worthless stuff is sold with the full knowledge 
of the manafactnrer that he is not giving value 
for the money he receives. There was an en- 
terprise begun in this State some years ago 
which ingenuously proposed to sell farmers 
ground limestone at so much a ton, and a pam- 
phlet was prepared setting forth the many 
value! of lime in the production of crops. This 
was so simple a delusion that we attributed it 
to the Ignorance of the projector of the enter' 
prise, rather than his intention to perpetrate a 
swindle. The whole matter was dropped when 
some one secured a statement from Prof. Hil- 
gard that ground limestone was of no appre- 
ciable value as a fertilizer. 

Another case has more recently come to 
light. Some farmer in Southern California 
sent to the University a sample of a carload of 
bone fertilizer which had been sent him from 
some 'dealer in San Francisco. The stuff was 
simply disintegrated shells taken probably 
from some Island deposit. This was apparent 
to the eye, for the shipper had taken no pains 
to disguise its character. An analysis showed 
that it was almost totally deficient in available 
fertilizing matters and that its actual worth 
was considerably less than the cost of freight- 
ing it, not to speak of the dealer's charge for 
it. It has been known for years that material 
sold as bonemeal and bone fertilizer by some 
parties In this city has been largely adulterated 
with such shell material and thus debased, but 
this is a case in which the adulteration was sold 
pure, BO to speak. No doubt Prof. Hilgard'a 
reply to the party who sent him the sample 
will prevent the sale of more of that stuff as a 
bone manure. 

The fact of the matter is, that in fertilizers 
as in many other things the time has come 
when we mast learn wisdom from the older 
States. These States have laws governing the 
sale of fertilizers. They provide that any 
farmer may take a sample of what is sold him 
and send it for analysis to the Experiment Sta- 



tlon or other recognized authority and secure 
a statement of Its value. They also provide 
that dealers in fertilizers must furnish analyses 
of the material they offer and provide penalties 
for selling material not up to these analyses. 
There are also other provisions which comprise 
what is known in all the older States as " fer- 
tilizer control." This is what we must arrive 
at in this State, and the first step is the enact- 
ment of a fertilizer law and provision for its 
execution. When this is done we shall hear 
less of sach outrageous things as are now com- 
ing to light in the fertilizer business in this 
State. 

The University and Farmers' Insti- 
tutes. 

At the regular meeting of the Regents of the 
University held on Tuesday, Jan. 13th, the 
following communication from the Executive 
Committee of the State Grange of California 
was resd: 

Whereas, The Congress of the United States 
recently passed a. law providing for additional 
funds for the support and maintenance of Agri- 
cultural Colleges, to the extent of fifteen thou- 
sand dollars ($15,000) per annum, with $1000 
increase each year for ten years to each Agri- 
cultural College in the United States, organized 
and maintained as provided by Act of Con- 
gress under date of July 2, 1862; and 

Whereas, The interest of agriculture in this 
State demands that a thoroughly competent ad- 
viser and Lecturer be provided for such service; 
therefore be it hereby 

Resolved, By the Executive Committee of 
California State Grange, that the Regents of the 
University of California be and they are hereby 
petitioned and urged to appoint such adviser 
and Lecturer for said service, who shall devote 
his whole time in the field, to the end that the 
farmers of the State may be educated up to the 
highest efBcienoy in their calling. 

E. W. Davi.s, Chairman, 
J. V. Webster, 
Geo. p. Loccks, 
Thos, McConnell. 

A. T. Dewey, Secretary. 

The communication was referred to a special 
joint committee composed of the chairmen of 
the standing committees on Agricultural Ex- 
periment Stations, on Lands, and on Internal 
Administration. These chairmen are Regents 
Houghton, Rodgers and Marye, and from their 
reputations as men of action and business, we 
expect that they will prepare their recommend- 
ations as rapidly as practicable. 



Feuit in ALA.SKA, — It is reported In the 
city that a company of local capitalists is about 
to try the experiment of fruit-growing in 
Alaska. It is claimed that the Territory can 
be made a competitor of Oregon and Washing- 
ton in the raising of the more hardy fruits, 
such as apples and cherries. The next steamer 
sailing for Sitka will carry in her cargo a large 
consignment of young apple trees. It is said 
that people in the States do not realize the agri- 
cultural and horticultural possibilities of the 
Territory. Kodiak island, for Instance, is 
larger than some of the New England States, 
with a climate similar to that of Maryland, 
and is capable of supporting a large agrionl- 
tural population. 



The Sodthern Citrus Fair. — Arrange- 
ments are progressing for the Southern 
California Citrus Fair, which will be held 
in Los Angeles in March, At a recent meeting 
held In that city the following representatives 
were present, representing the various counties: 
N. W. Blanchard, Ventura; Mr. Weiner, Fresno; 
Frank Miller, Riverside; J. G, North, Red- 
lands; Supervisor Cook, Glendora; N. C. Car- 
ter, Sierra Madre; and H. K, Snow, Tnstln. 
A premium list was adopted and committees 
appointed to secure guarantee subscriptions to 
the amount of $2500, and to secure a pavilion 
for holding the fair. We shall ,have more 
about this matter in later issues. 



The Ikrioation Convention. — The Con- 
vention of Irrigators was held in Sacramento 
according to announcement published in the 
Rural Press. Names were decided upon for 
commendation as members of the Senate and 
Assembly Committees on Irrigation. Much 
discussion was held npon amendments to the 
Wright law, which the Legislature was to be 
asked to enact. There was also arrangement 
made to propose the law for a State organiza- 
tion in the Irrigation interest. These matters 
are too long for treatment in this issue of the 
Rural, and must be postponed for another 
week. 



Jan. 17, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAId j> ress, 



5 



The Orange— "From Seed to Grove," 

[By B. M. Lelono, Secretary State Board of Horticulture, 
ex-officio Horticultural Officer.] 

Whence came this delectable fruit, fit for the 
gods? What was its original history? Was 
it stolen by some mythological hero from Elysi- 
um, like the fire by Prometheus? 

The orange (Citrus aurantium) belongs to the 
natural order Aurantiaeece, and the origin of 
the different members of this family is extreme- 
ly doubtful, having been cultivated from a re- 
mote period of antiquity, but belongs originally 
to China and India, 

The flowers of the sweet orange are white, 
the leaves lanceolate or oblong. The petiole is 
not so marked or winged as in the bitter and sour 
oranges, but is always present to a greater or 
less degree. The fruit is generally an oblate 
sphere, of a golden yellow color; when ripe it is 
full of delicate pulp and sweet, refreshing 
juice. 

The sour orange (Citrus bigaradia) does not 
grow quite so high as the sweet orange; has a 
larger leaf, with a highly winged petiole. The 
flower is larger and more highly perfumed; the 
fruit is of a red orange color; 
the skin ragged and porous; pulp, 
yellow; juioe, extremely bitter. 

The bitter orange (Citrus her- 
gamid) is of a dwarf habit; the 
flowers are small, white, and high- 
ly scented; leaves, elongated, 
acute — the under aide quite pale; 
the petiole is more or less winged; 
fruit, pale yellow, pulp, bitter. 

There are many varieties of sour 
and of bitter oranges — some bear- 
ing large fruit, the majority of 
which are worthless, and some 
■ bearing small fruit, which is valu- 
able for the manufacture of es- 
sence of orange and essential oils. 
The peel of the bitter orange is 
used in medicine as an aromatic 
tonic, and the fruit is also used 
in making marmalade and pre- 
serve!. Many of these are grown 
in Europe for the essential oil 
they contain, from which is made 
a substance known as bergamot 
camphor. 

Propaeatlon. 

The Seed. — The seed of the 
orange has seldom been known to 
produce fruit equal to that of the 
parent tree. However, it comes 
truer to seed than most fruits. 

Collecting the Seed, — The 
fruit is piled into heaps or put 
into barrels to rot. When it has 
decayed so that it will break into 
many pieces when handled, it Is 
oruihed in a tub or barrel and 
the ^eed is washed out, A coarse 
sieve is used; the soft substance 
of the fruit will pass through the 
wires, leaving the seed in the 
sieve. This operation is carried 
on in a place where water can 
be used freely, as considerable is 
required to do the work oroperly. 

Keeping the Seed. — To insure 
best results, the seed of the 
orange should not be allowed to 
dry after being taken from the 
fruit. If not ready to plant them, 
they should be placed in moist 
sand. In this way they can be 
kept until everything is prepared. 

How to Put the Seed in 
Sand. — Take a shallow box, say 
five inches deep and not more 
than thirty inches 8qua.re; fill it 
half full of moist sand, then put 
the seed on top, about two inches 
deep, and throw on the top of 
the seed considerable sand and 
mix it together with the hands. 
This is done so that the sand will 
stick to the seeds and prevent r 
them adhering to each other. 
Then fill up the box with sand 
and let them remain until they 
are to be planted. The boxes can be stacked 
one upon the other. 

Taking the Seed out of the Sand. — The 
seed-bed having been prepared, have a coarse 
sieve stud take the top box and dump its con- 
tents into the sieve. This must be done with 
care, so as not to bruise the seed. Then shake 
the sieve, the sand will pass through, leaving 
the seed in the sieve. 

The Seed bed — The seed-bed should be In- 
closed with boards eighteen or twenty inches 
wide, set on edge, about four or six feet apart. 
The bottom should be floored, so as to prevent 
gophers and ground moles from entering the 
seed-bed. Laths are nailed on top leaving a 
.space of one-half Inch between them, to protect 
the seed from being scratched up by the birds. 
A covering of thin muslin is put on top of the 
laths to protect the young plants from being 
scorched by the sun. If the weather be cloudy, 
it is well that the covering be removed to allow 
the bed to get warm. It is better to plant the 
seed thickly and broadoast;is all plants are to be 
removed, it does not matter how thick they 
oome up. The seeds should be covered with 
fine, rich soil, from one to two inches. 

Time of Planting the Seed. — Planting the 
seed very early, as in January and February, 
does not give good results, because it is entirely 
too early; the seed generally decays, as the 
time for it to germinate is not till spring. 
March, April, and even May, are the best 



months to plant the seed, as the ground is then 
warm and all danger of frost is over. The seed- 
bed should be kept moist but not too wet. 

Transplanting. — In one year the plants will 
be large enough to be transplanted in nursery 
form. The plants should be sorted; the very 
small and delicate ones should be planted in 
shallow boxes by themselves, and kept another 

Fia. 1. 




SPREADING BOOTS AT PLANTING. 



year. If the plants are trimmed when too 
young, they will make slender and feeble stock, 
In the following spring, as early as possible, 
say in February, the plants are trimmed, leav- 
ing a clear stock. All outs should be made 
close, so that they may soon heal over. The 
brush is than gathered and burned. As the 
ground becomes packed by the trimmers, it 
should be loosened by running a cultivator be- 
tween the rows. 

Budding. 

Spring Budding. — Generally, in the months 
of March %nd April, as soon as the trees begin 
to put forth and the sap flows freely, it is then 
the time to bud citrus trees. Everything should 
be prepared, no time should be lost, as the buds 
first inserted will sometimes start in less than 
three weeks with vigor, and by summer will 
have a large and thrifty top. The buds should 
be looked over at least ten days after they are 
inserted, and all those that show signs of dying 
should be rebudded, in order to give them an 
early start, and that they may grow more even 
with those first budded. 

Summer Budding. — Summer budding is gen- 
erally done in June and July. It is not oonsid- 



Fia. 4. 




FBUNINQ THE ORANGE TREE ILLUSTRATED. 




A LOW-TRAINED TREE- 
No Props Required. 



year; being so small and delicate, they are gen- 
erally scorched by the sun when planted in 
the open ground, and remain small in the nur- 
sery. 

Distance of Ndrsery Rows.— The rows 
should be far enough apart to admit a cultivator 
between them. Grave mistakes are often made 
in setting them less than four feet apart, as 
after being budded many buds are knocked off 
in cultivating by the horse or the traces rub- 
bing against them. Preference is given to rows 
when set five or six feet apart. This will give 
ample room for cultivation; and also, when in 
■digging up trees, a small, narrow sled can be 
run in to haul them to the head of the rows 
without rubbing against the nursery stock. 

Distance in Nursery Rows. — Planting close 
together in the rows will tend to make feeble and 
slender trees. I( it is not intended to sack the 
trees when they are to be transplanted, then 
the plants can be set from eight to twelve inches 
apart, and they will make strong and thrifty 
stocks; but if it is intended to sack them this is 
too close. They should be at least eighteen 
Inches apart; this will give the digger enough 
space to take up trees between others. It 
also has the advantage that the roots are not 
cut too short, which is apt to ba the case when 
they are planted close together. 

Trimming the Stock.— The plants should 
be trimmed until at least one year; after plant- 
ing they should be left to grow at will the first 



HIGH-TRAINED TBEB- 
Propped. 



ered as good as early spring budding, because 
the buds do not start even; and as the greater 
portion of them start late, their growth is so 
tender by the time winter sets in that, if they 
pass through it, they become prematurely hard- 
ened by the cold weather, which sometimes 
causes the tree to become stunted. 

Fall Budding. — Fall budding is generally 
performed during the months of September, 
October, and sometimes as late as November. 
After the strings have been removed they are 
left to pass the winter in dormant bud, to be 
started in the spring. 

Startlnat and Training the Buds. 
Cutting off the Tops.— In the spring, as 
the nursery trees swell very fast, three weeks 
is long enough for the strings to remain on them; 
but the tops should not be cut cff then, The 
strings should be removed, the nursery irrigat- 
ed and cultivated. This will force new growth, 
and the tops should then be cut back from four 
to eight inches above the bud. After the bad 
has grown about six inches or more it is tied to 
the stock. When the bud has become stocky 
and able to support itself, what remains of the 
top is then out away. The out should be made 
smooth and painted with robber paint. This 
helps the wound in healing over, and protects 
the stock from the action of the atmosphere. 
Those that have been left to lie dormant 
through the winter bhonld be cut back in the 



spring to allow the buds to start, just as soon 
as the trees begin to show signs of growth. 
Great care should be used in the cutting of the 
tops, that it be done at the proper time, and that 
they be not cut so near the bud as to endanger 
it, A little brush should be allowed to remain 
to protect the stock, which is removed after the 
buds have started. 

Starting the Bud.— When the stocks put 
forth in the spring the buds generally start also, 
and the suckers being very tender, are removed 
by hand (thumb pruning), breaking at the 
touch. Cutting them with a sharp knife has 
the advantage that no others will grow where 
so cut, and the cut being made clean will give 
the tree a smooth body, and as the tree grows 
very little suckering will be required. When 
the suckers become strong and are removed by 
rubbing with the hand, the trunks generally 
become rough and the suckering much greater. 

Planting, 

When to Plant. — Citrus trees are trans- 
planted at various seasons, preference being 
given to one of its dormant periods occurring 
during the year. 

Trees transplanted in the winter, when the 
ground is cold, will remain until spring without 
growing; therefore it is better not to transplant 
citrus trees until the ground begins to get 
warm. The nearer an orange tree is to starting 
new growth, the greater its strength and root 
power, and this is the best time for transplant- 
ing; also after they have made their first growth 
and before starting the second time in spring. 

Balling System. — A narrow trench is made 
along the row and within six inches of the tree, 
the tap-root is cut about eighteen inches or so 
deep; then with a spade a round, oblong ball is 
cut, leaving in it the tree. The spade should 
be very sharp, or in cutting the roots the jar 
will break the ball. Pruning shears are used 
in cutting large roots. When trees are taken 
up with a sound ball of earth the leaves will 
hardly wilt. 

Puddling System. — Puddling is practiced 
where the soil is so loose that sacking is render- 
ed Impossible. Many prefer this system to any 
other, as It gives the trees larger and more roots; 
and where all due precautions are taken, pud- 
dling is the best system, and considerable ex- 
pense is saved. 

The Puddle. — A hole is made in the ground 
and filled half full of water, then soil is thrown 
into it and worked with a hoe, which forms the 
puddle. The puddle should be thin enough, so 
that when the roots of trees are put into it, it 
will stick to them, at the same time wetting 
every part thoroughly. The trees are carefully 
taken up; the soil is shaken from the roots and 
they are immediately dipped into the mud, or 
puddle. They are then placed on wet straw in 
a wagon, A large canvas, or covering, is placed 
over the wagon to prevent the sun from drying 
the roots, as the roots should not be exposed to 
the sun, even if only for a few minutes. The 
wagon is then driven to the field where the 
holes were dug. -The driver hands the trees, 
one at a time, and the planter holds the trees 
in position while his men fill it up with dirt, 
first throwing in the moistest; the planter press- 
es the soil very lightly and goes to the next 
one. The tree having been set, a basin is made 
around it, and a couple of buckets of water 
poured into the basin; this will settle the soil 
and keep the tree fresh until water can be run 
down the rows in farrows. 

Extending the Roots, — It is a common 
practice among growers to place the tree in the 
hole, fill it up with soil, and then tramp it. 
As the roots are covered with thick mud they 
will stick together, and if the tree grows it will 
not do as well as when the roott are extended 
with care. This is very simple. The hole is 
half filled with earth so as to form a mound; 
the shovel handle is driven down in the center, 
and on being withdrawn a deep hole is left, 
sufficiently large and deep to admit the tap-root 
of the tree; then the lateral roots are spread 
over the mound, as shown in the illustration 
(Fig. 1), and the soil is lightly pressed. Heavy 
tramping is not necessary, as the water settles 
the dirt and keeps the roots in place. As soon 
as the water in the basin has disappeared, the 
basin is covered with loose soil; this will pre- 
vent evaporation, and also the tree from leaning 
over. Trees planted with these precautions 
make the best growth and become the most 
thrifty. 

Topping the Trees. — When the tree is 
taken from the nursery the tops should be out 
back; the branches should be so out that in 
starting they will form a fine-shaped head. 
This is done because evaporation from the 
leaves is rapid, and in many cases where the 
tops are left on, causes the olrculation of the 
trees to dry, and also the bark will shrivel be- 
fore the roots have assumed their natural 
functions. 

Planting Systems and Soil. 

The planting systems most common in use 
are the square, triangular, and quincunx. The 
square system is most generally adopted, being 
the most simple. In this the orchard is laid off 
in lines crossing each other at right angles, 
with equal intervals of space, and a tree plant- 
ed at each orossing of the lines. 

Soil for Orange Trees. — An orange tree 
should never be planted on heavy, low ground, 
or on low, damp ground where water oan be 
reached withio a few feet of the surface, and 
never on black, adobe soil; they will always be 
troubled with gum disease, and will also be 
nipped by frosts every year, A rich, deep, 
porous soil is absolutely necessary to give the 
trees a vigorous growth. Trees on heavy 



54 



f ACIFie F^URAId f RE83. 



[Jan. 17, 1891 



adobe or poor soil become stunted and will not 
produoe fine fruit, and never become profitable 
bearers. , 
Preparation ok the Soil.— The land should 
be thoroughly worked through the winter and 
prepared to be planted in the spring, when it 
becomes warm; also, all weeds and stubble 
plowed under will be decomposed and serve as 
a fertilizer to the orchard. The thorough 
working of the soil liberates crude gases and 
changes the nutritive principles to a form more 
readily assimilated by the tree. 

Varieties. 

The most profitable varieties grown in this 
State are the following, and their prominence 
is about in the order named: 

Washington Navel.— Fruit large, solid and 
heavy skin smooth and of a very fine texture; very 
juicy, highly flavored, with melting pulp; seedless 
tree a good and prolific bearer, medium thorny, £ 
rapid grower, although it does not attain a very 
large size; commences to bear as early as one year 
old from the bud; ripens early. Imported from Ba- 
hia, Brazil. , . • 

Valencia Late.— This orange has proved itself 
one of the most profitable to grow. It ripens in 
May and June, when other varieties are out of the 
market. Fruit large, thin skin, pale yellow, firm, 
oblong, and heavy, very few seeds. An excellent 
shipper; tree large and prolific bearer. Imported 
from England. 

joppA.— This is a remarkable orange, as it can be 
marketed early and yet able to remain on the trees 
till July, without deterioration in quality, and for 
this reason is suitable for all sections. Fruit large 
(see illustration), firm, nearly seedless, thin rind 
pulp very fine, sweet and juicy and of very deep red 
color; tree thornless, upright and vigorous grower, 
suitable for standard purposes. Imported from Pal- 
estine. 

Mediterranean Sweet. — Fruit medium to 
large, pulp and skin of very fine texture, very solid 
and few seeds; olor deep orange; ripens late; tree 
thornless, of a dwarf habit, inclined to overbear. Im 
ported from the Mediterranean. 

Maltese Blood.— Fruit medium, oval, texture 
and flavor very fine, pulp marked vinous red, very 
few seeds; fruit shows red color on surface, tree 
dwarf, thornless. Imported from Mediterranean 

Paper Rind St. Michael.— Fruit small, round 
very firm and juicy; pale thin skin; grows very uni 
form, ripens late, and keeps well on the tree; does 
not drop when mature; tree dwarf, medium, thorny, 
a good and prolific bearer. Imported from the 
Azorps. 

AzoREAN St. Michael.— Fruit medium to large 
and solid; pulp fine and melting; medium thin rind 
flattened, lew seeds; ripens early, and keeps well on 
the tree; a rapid grower and a prolific bearer; is a 
large tree and is recommended for standard pur 
poses. Imported from the Azores. 

WoLF-SKiLL's Best. — Fruit of excellent quality, 
somewhat flattened, color deep orange red, fin 
grain and pulp; ripens early. This orange is of 
home origin. The advantage it has over foreign va 
rieties is that the tree is very hardy, and can be 



planted in localities where the temperature gets so 
low as to prevent them from thriving; it will also 
make a larger tree. 

KoNAH. — A California seedling raised from seed 
grown on Konah island; fruit large; rough and 
thick skin; tree very thorny; ripens early. 

Rio. — Fruit and tree resemble the Mediterranean 
sweet, but the fruit is much larger, has a thicker 
skin; ripens late; very seldom can the entire crop be 
picked from the tree, as it does not ripen even, green 
oranges are found on the trees throughout the sum- 
mer; tree thornless, of a dwarf habit. Imported 
from the Mediterranean. 

Tamgkrine or Kid Glove. — Fruit deep red 
small, very sweet, and aromatic; when ribe the rin 
is very easily detached; tree dwarf; very uniform i 
shape, of a weeping habit. 

King. — A late orange ripening in May and June 
averages below medium in size; very rough rind 
segments cleave when fully ripe; very highly fla 
vored. Imported from China. 

Satsoma. — Fruit small, flattened; rind very easily 
detached; of exceedingly fine texture, sweet 
seedless; tree dwarf and very hardy. Best suited for 
gardens. 

KUMQUAT.— Fruit is edible whole (rind and all) 
very small, oblong or olive shaped; rind thick, yel 
low, smooth, sweet-scented; very Uttle pulp, and 
contains many seeds; tree a bush and very prolifii 
Best suited (or gardens or home plots. 

Ornamental, 

Mandarin. — Tree very ornamental; fruit very 
red, flattened at the poles, having an outgrowth at 
the blossom end. 

Pomelo (syn. grape fruit). — A variety of shad 
dock; Iruit very large, from two to five pounds each 
pale yellow, resembling the citron; skin smooth 
pulp sub-acid. 

Shaddock. — Tree inclined to be dwarf; fruit very 
large, with smooth skin, pale yellow and very glossy 
the rind is very thick and spongy, and very bitter 
ornamental only. 

Bouquet. — Fruit very bitter. The flowers have 
a commercial value, as they are very large and fra 
grant. 

Bergamot.— Ornamental only; fruit large and 
very rough, flattened. Is grown for the bloom. 

Myrtle Leaf. — Ornamental only; tree very 
dwarf; foliage densely packed together; small leaf 
the shape of the myrtle; fruit bright red and very 
bitter. 

Variegated Orange. — Ornamental only; tree 
dwarf; leaf variegated, with white margin and green 
center; very glossy; stem white and green; fruit 
striped with white and very bitter. 

In pruning a tree, especially when allowed 
grow for several years without it, considerable 
work and ekill is required. The hot sun should 
not be allowed to enter and scorch the bark 
which would also cause the fine brush to 
and a diseased tree is sure to be the result. Th 
advice so often given, "that the tree be opened 
80 as to allow plenty of air and san heat 
enter," does not hold good with the orange 
Fig. 2 shows bow a tree is left after the brush 
that protects the trunk and branches is 
moved. The trunk and inside growth is left 
exposed to the sun. 



I have often seen trees with one side of the 
trunk scorched and the bark dead after the 
brush that protected it from the sun had been 

moved. 

Fig. 3 illustrates a high-trained tree of the 
same age. 

In this the lower limbs have been removed, 
leaving a clean stock, so as to allow the horse 
in cultivating to pass nnder its branches and 
the cultivator to work the ground close to the 
trunk. 

Fig. 4 illustrates a low-trained tree of the 
same age as Figs. 2 and .S. In this the lower 
limbs have been allowed to remain to protect 
its trunk and inner growth. 

The inside of the tree is kept clear of all dead 
wood, and the growth on the outside is allowed 
to become uniform. The lower foliage supports 
that above it, and so supports its fruit without 
the aid of props. 

When trees are trained low the shade of the 
ranches keeps the ground moist, and in caee 
of excessive heat, or scarcity of water, will not 
r; whereas the heat causes the leaves of 
high-trained trees to curl, and if not watered at 
the proper time the growth of the fruit becomes 
checked. Low-trained trees become better 
balanced, vigorous, healthy and more prodact- 
ive than when trained high, and the fruit Is 
much more easily and cheaply gathered. 
The Orange Crop, Gathering, Etc. 
Picking. — The tree should never be pioked 
clean; only the ripe fruit should first be picked, 
thus* lightening up the trees. The clean, 
bright colored, smooth, fine skin, firm oranges 
will always command the best prices. Fruit 
should be handled with care. It is better to 
(clip) stem cat than to pull the orange, as in 
pulling there is danger of tearing the skin. The 
fruit should not be packed fresh from the tree, 
as when packed it will heat and sweat in the 
boxes at an ordinary temperature, and, as the 
entire contents in the box become damp, there 
is great danger from rot and decay. The frnit 
should be picked in boxes and left in the pack- 
ing-'bouse three or four days to allow the rind 
of the fruit to shrink and to lose the snrplus 
moisture in the rind. Unless the weather is 
very cool they go through a natural sweat, in 
which the surplus moisture escapes and the rind 
becomes tough and pliable; many unseen im- 
perfections, such as slight bruises, etc., will de- 
velop into spots, necessitating a more careful 
selection of the perfect fruit for market. 

The standard size of an orange-box is 12 
inches by 12 by 26^, outside measurement, 
with a partition in the middle. 

Fertilizers. 
Barnyard and sheep manure are the fertiliz- 
ers mostly employed in the orange orchards in 
California. They have, to a certain extent, all 
the essential elements for plant food, but lack- 
ing in proportions according to conditions. In 
fertilizers bulk is not what is necessary, but 
instead, the proper elements as fertilizers In a 
concentrated form. Fertilizers in some form 
can be made to last, like barnyard and sheep 
manure, and feed several successive crops with 
a single application. For Instance, in ashes 
and bone we have all the elements for a com 
plete fertilizer, when all that is required is to 
apply an extra quantity of ashes and a portion 
of the bone in a coarse state. Ashes are always 
enduring in their efi'ect, and the ocarse bone 
will be several years in decaying and setting 
free nitrogen and phosphoric aoid. One of the 
three elements, nitrogen, potash, or phosphoric 
acid, of which the soil has the least, will al 
ways be the measure of the crop. A hundred 
ponnds of potash applied would not give a 
larger yield than five pounds (and so of the 
other two elements) if there is not a propor- 
tionate increase of the other elements. The 
right way is to make the most and best manure 
that is practicable upon the orchard, and piece 
out with such commercial fertilizers as experi- 
ments and experience prove profitable. Arti- 
ficial fertilizers are, of ooarse, much more 
cheaply transported, and, unlike barnyard or 
sheep manure, do not carry with them seeds of 
weeds into ttie soil, and as they contain the 
fertilizing elements in so condensed a form, 
the whole handling of them becomes mucb 
cheaper. 

Artificial fertilizers should be applied a little 
at a time and often. Nitrogen tends to pro 
mote leaf growth, and If the bone in the soil does 
not all decompose in the first year, the nitro 
gen contained in it goes over with it and Is not 
lost. If but one of the elements be used, it 
should by all means be bone, and the finer 
the bone and the finer and drier the fertil- 
izer, the more valuable it is. When the 
animal matter in bone decays, the phosphoric 
acid in the bone is In a reversed condition. 



jg!.GRICULTURAL J^OTES. 



OALiIFORNIA. 



Diseases. 

GcM Disease ("Mal de Goma "). — This dis- 
ease is first detected on the trunk close to the 
ground, and is a yellow, gnm-Iike substance 
which forms on the outside of the bark. It is 
an exudation of the sap of the tree, which 
breaks through the bark and forms a gum. 
The disease Is under the bark and also pene- 
trates into the inner bark and into the wood. 

Remedy. — There is but oneefifectnal remedy, 
»'. «., cutting away the bark from where the 
gum oozes, and the infected parts gouged ont. 
If, on the following day, the gum is still run- 
ning, more of the wood must be gouged out 
until every particle of the disease is removed. 
Then the wound is covered with rubber paint, 
or grafting wax, to prevent the action of the 
atmosphere from cracking the wood left ex- 
I posed. 



Butte. 

Exchanging Views — Oroville Regktfr, Jan. 
5: The fruit growers at Palermo are forging 
ahead in a manner that is greatly to their 
credit. They have established a frnit-growers' 
association and will have monthly meetings. 
At these meetings samples of fruit will be 
shown and essays read, bearing upon the pro- 
duction of various fruits. Discussions will fol- 
low and each member will give his experience, 
thus helping all who are present. 

Almond Culture. — Mlddletown Independ- 
ent, Jan. 10: We are informed that J. W. 
Kverington intends to plant quite a number of 
almond trees on his place in the near future. 
We believe there is much of our hill land that 
would grow almonds to perfection. Mr. Kiep 
has planted almonds on his place north of 
Guenoo, and they are doing finely. Our opin- 
ion is, that nuts and fruits of almost any kind 
can be raised In this vicinity with profit, and 
that the planting of nut and fruit trees will 
hasten the building of the much-desired and 
long-wished-for railroad. 

Mendocino. 
Hop Contracts.— Cor. Ukiah Dispatch and 
Democrat, Jan. 9: I beg to admonish the hop 
growers of our county and State that there are 
speculators abroad in the land trying to make 
contracts for the growers to sell them their 
crops for a term of years at very low prices. 
The speonlatori are canning — they do not ask 
to engage the entire crop. Their object is to 
engage enough to carry the business through 
the first half-year after picking, knowing that 
if they can engage a suiGcient quantity of hops 
at low prices to run the breweries half the year, 
the producers will not hold the remaining hops 
until the first purchase is exhausted. It must 
be apparent to any man that the low prices at 
which speculators are trying to engage hops 
(and with some sncoess) fix the price of hops 
not so engaged. It will be observed they hard 
ly ever try to engage an entire crop, knowing 
that those engaged fix the price for the rest 

San Benito. 
Another Irrigation Company.— Hollister 
Advance, Jan. 9: The Panoche Grande is the 
name of another irrigation company formed in 
this conntv. The leading spirits therein are 
Messrs. Webb and Collins, extensive land- 
holders iu the Panoche valley. They propose 
to utilize the waters of Panoche creek and 
render the whole of the northern half of the 
valley fruitful and productive. Surveys are 
now being made to this end. Two companies 
are operating In Panoche valley. 

San Bernardino. 
San Bernardino County's Products for 
1890. — The Courier gives an estimate " made 
by men in a position to know," as follows : 

Oranges, boxes 415 303 

lemons and limes, boxe? 6.3 ">o 

Raisins, boxes 450,001 

Dried erapes, tons 190 

Dried fruit (deciduous), pounds i,8oo 000 

Canned fruit, cases 30,000 

Wine, gallons 300.000 

Brandy, gallons 150,000 

lixlracted honey, pounds 350 000 

Walnuts and almonds, pound' !■ 0,000 

Oranges, acres 138 222 

Lemons, acres 5.333 

Banning pat up S5,005 sacks of barley; 
Yucaipe, 45,000 sacks; all other sections abont 
10,000 sacks. The wheat crop for 1S90 is as 
follows : Banning, 12,500 sacks; Yucaipe, 6750; 
all other sections, 1000. This is a large in- 
crease over the preceding year. Nothing is 
said of corn, and it is certain that at least 400 
tons were grown on the Chino Ranoh this 
year. 

Santa Barbara. 
Growing Intere.st in Fruit. — Santa Maria 
Times, Jan. 10: J. F. Goodwin, who Is well 
posted as to the acreage of fruit trees in the 
valley, says, that to take Mr. Miller's orchard 
as a basis on which to figure, in three years' 
time there will be over 3000 acres of fruit trees 
that will come into l>earing, and that it will re- 
quire mnch outside help to take oare of the 
fruit. As fruit-tree planting has just merely 
begun in this section, the amount of fruit we 
will have to handle each additional year after 
the coming three will simply be enormous. 
Canneries, then, will become a necessity, and 
fruit-growers will not hesitate to take stock in 
anything that will work up the fruit in a hurry 
in order to keep it from spoiling, 
Santa Cruz. 
Beet Contracts. — Watsonville Rustler, Jan. 
9: The Western Beet Sugar Company this 
year has prepared a contract agreeing to pay a 
fixed price of $5 per ton for beets, with the 
proviso that said beets must not weigh over 
four pounds each. Those who prefer the old 
system of polarization can sign contracts fixing 
the minimum price for beets at §4 per ton, with 
an additional 50 cents per ton for each per cent 
of saccharine matter aljove 14 per cent. 

Sugar-Beet Seed Received.— Watsonville 
Pajaronian, Jan. 9: Three carloads of beet 
seed were received at the sugar factory last 
Saturday, and will be distributed to beet 
growers for the coming season. The seed was 
imported from Germany, 

Shasta. 

Favorable Crop Weather.— Anderson En- 
terprise, Jan. 8: The rains last week have 



been of lasting benefit to the farmer. Suffi- 
cient water has now fallen to make plowing 
easy in the toughest soils, and the rain has 
come at such intervals and in snch qaantities 
as to make the outlook for crops of all descrip- 
tions the most favorable. The precipitation to 
date has been in the neighborhcod of four 
inches, which, from the manner in which it has 
appeared, we consider of far greater benefit 
than five times as much given to ns in flood 
lots. Should we be favored with such weather 
during the season, we may reasonably expect 
the best crops in '91 that have been harvested 
for years. 

Solano. 

Solano Crop Outlook.— Vallejo Chronicle, 
Jan. 8: The farmers Intend planting many 
acres of almond and pear trees this season. 
The outlook for the apricot crop is bad, as most 
of the buds have been blighted in many locali- 
lies. Agents are already offering as high as 3^ 
cents for the plum crop and not a bud on the 
trees. 

Sonoma. 

Ramie Planting, -- Sanoma Inlex-Times, 
Jan. 10: The attention of Oapt. H. Boyes 
of Agua Kica farm, having been called to ramie, 
he has decided 10 introduce its cultivation in 
Sonoma valley this season. He has already 
prepared 10 acres of land, and will commence 
planting as soon as the ramie roots are received. 

Sutter. 

Mammoth Turnips. — Yuba City Inde- 
pendent, Jan. 9: On Monday of this week, J. 
B. Pool of this county brought to this office two 
sample turnips which for siza and perfection 
of form surpass anything we have yet seen in 
that line. They are of the German Red-top 
variety. One of them measures 24^ Inches in 
circumference and 11) inches in perpendicular 
length; its weight is pounds. The other - 
specimen is 25 inches in circumference, but not 
quite so long. The seed from which these tar- 
nips grew was planted Sept. 1, 1S90 — three 
months ago. One acre was planted and the 
yield will be between 30 and 40 tons. Mr. 
Pool's farm, upon which these turnips grew, 
lies along the Sacramento river, below Knights 
Landing, in Sutter county. We know from 
personal observation that no richer land lies 
under the sun. 

Almonds and Grapes. — Yuba City, Jan. 9 : 
Henry Everett and son will soon begin setting 
out a ten-acre orchard of almonds and grapes 
near the Buttes. The trees will be planted 24 
feet apart, and between the rows the vines will 
be planted. The grapes are of the Tokay va- 
riety and will undoubtedly do well in that 
locality, as fruit and grapes generally mature 
several weeks earlier near the hills than in 
other localities in the county. 

Pecan Nuts. — Marysville Appeal, Jan. 9 : C. 
N. Tharsing brought ns a quantity of pecan 
nuts from the grounds of the Sutter County 
Orchard Co. They are of fine quality. ^ Mr. 
Tharsing says he has six trees. They are 
large, resembling oaks, and are from 40 to 50 
feet high. They stood for five months in water 
six feet deep, and were not affected in the 
least. This shows their adaptability for low 
lands. The trees are from 15 to 20 years old, 
and have borne heavily as far back as Mr. 
Tharsing knows. They are of rapid growth 
and are trne bearers. The yield from these 
trees is one grain-sack of shelled nuts to the 
tree, and they are worth about 15 cents a 
pound. An acre will accommodate some 40 
trees. \' ery little labor is required in picking 
the crop. 

Raising Buckwheat. — Yuba City, Jan. 9: 
The acreage planted to buckwheat in Sutter 
county, although small, adds much to the 
wealth of the connty. Where tbe soil is rich 
and moist, this grain makes a very profitable 
yield. The farmers of Sonthwest Sutter have 
found thie to be true and are now raising it ex- 
tensively. The cost of seeding, harvesting, 
etc., is no more than that of wheat, while the 
selling price la from 75 cents to $1 per cental 
more, the price at present being $1.90 per 
cental. District No. 70 contains several thou- 
sand acres well adapted to the oaltivation of 
buckwheat, and more of It should be planted. 

Increased Acreage Seeded to Wheat — 
Yuba City Farmer, Jan, 9: The long fall and 
open winter have given our farmers every op- 
portunity to prepare and sow their lands, and 
although the acreage now sown is large, still 
many thousands of acres will be yet "put in 
during the present month and in February. It 
is a noticeable fact that on summer-fallowed 
land, grain has not made the growth as is ger^- 
erally the case at this season of the year, owing 
to the coldness of the ground for the past two 
months. This, however, is by no means detri- 
mental to its proper maturing, but, on the con- 
trary, a favorable indication of a larger yield, 
as the grain, in its spring development, will not 
grow so heavily to straw, but bear larger and 
better filled heads and prevent all chance of 
lodging. . The cold weather coming on as a 
large portion of the grain sown was coming up, 
the rapid growth was checked and the process 
of stooling aided, thus increasing the prospect- 
ive yield to a large extent. The early>sown 
grain is of a good color and stands thick on the 
ground. Winter-sown land is also In good con- 
dition and bids fair to make a heavy yield. 

Tulare. 

Fruit Notes. — VIsalla Delta, Jan. 8: I. H. 
Thomas of this city thinks there will be from 
5000 to 6000 acres of land in Tulare county 
planted In fruit this season. Charles Spier, 
the well-known nurserymin, goes Mr. Thomas 
4000 acres better and says that the acreage will 



Jan. 17, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



be nearly 10,000. B. M. Baird, who lives near 
Cottonwood, will plant 80 acres to vines. Ed- 
ward Sadler and William Brown have leased 80 
acres of the T. B. Wheaton ranch, near town, 
for five years, and they will plant it to fruit. 
Artbnr Crowley owns a mountain ranch and 
he will plant 20 acres of it to apples this win- 
ter. Edwin Van Valer will plant ten acres to 
paars on his ranch this winter. One hundred 
and forty acres of the Flynn tract were sold to 
a local syndicate at $100 per acre. The syndi- 
cate has organized the Land & Baisin Company 
of Visalia, divided into 280 shares of the par 
value of S200 per share, making the capital 
stock $56,000. The land cost $14,000. The 
land is well adapted for raisin cnltore, and 
about 45 acres of grapes and five acres of 
prnnea will be planted this winter. 

Dairy Intekest. — Hanford Sentinel, Jan. 1: 
Two years ago a cheese factory was built and 
equipped at Hanford. The business of making 
cheese from the milk of cows pastured on alfal- 
fa was an experiment, as was also the curing 
of cheese during our hottest months. The fac- 
tory was built and the business opened by a 
stock company with J. G. Cohoe, an old New 
York cheese-maker, as manager of the business. 
A short trial demonstrated that alfalfa milk 
was excellent for cheese-making, and Hanford 
cheese from the first became popular through- 
out the State wherever it became known. Mr. 
Coboe, who understands the business, was him- 
self surprised at the splendid results of the ex 
periment. The factory has been in successful 
operation since it was started, and finds a ready 
sale for its products at good figures, and milkjs 
now being contracted for at the factory at 
per 100 pounds. The manufacture of cheese 
here has improved the quality of butter in the 
market, for many poor butter-makers are sell 
ing their milk, and those who are capable of 
making a good article find a better market for 
their butter, and consequently are able to de 
vote more attention to the business. The 
Lakeside district, south of Hanford, is now 
taking the lead in the patronage of our cheese 
factory. In the Excelsior district, north of 
Hanford, what is known as the Excelsior Fac- 
tory, managed by E. F. Hanert, has been in 
operation over two years, and although not so 
extensive in its business, has met with good 
success. Another factory began operations at 
Visalia last summer — a stock concern, superin 
tended by Mr. Cohoe of Hanford. It is also a 
success. 

Profit in Alkali Land. — Sentinel, Jan. 1 
There is a large amount of alkali land in Tu 
lare county, and Samuel Page has one of these 
alkali ranches three miles northeast of Hanford 
He is a careful farmer and keeps account of 
everything. The ranch contains 140 acres and 
abounds In alkali and salt grass. Here are his 
figures for 1890, to which be will make affidavit 
if necessary: 

Spring wool sold $ 37> f"o 

First lot of lambs 147 75 

Second lot sheep and lambs 200 00 

Third lot sheep and lambs 

Two bucks 

Two tons of hay 

October lambs for Christmas 

Pasturing sold 

Growth of three colts 

Sucking colls 

9 biles of wool, 2715 lbs, ® ii'A cents. 

Total $1,963 75 



45' 0° 
8 00 
8 00 
20 00 

36 75 
60 00 
60 00 
3t2 25 



EXPENSES. 



Shearing, dipping and sacks $120 00 

Haying help 50 00 

Breeding two mares 2j 00 — 190 co 



Profit balance $'.773 75 

Mr. Page settled here in 1882. After closing 
the year's business with the above result, be 
had left on hand as a principal or capital stock 
for the next year's production, 600 sheep, two 
brood mares, two work horses, and hay enough 
to winter the same. He had the orcp of six 
acres of orchard and a one acre vineyard, the 
production of which was not taken into ac- 
coant. 

Ventura. 



Labge Shipment of Lima Beans — Los An- 
geles Herald, Jan. 10: A notable shipment of 
California produce passed through this city 
from Ventura en route to Columbus, Ohio, It 
was a solid train of 11 cars, containing 4800 
sacks of straight Lima beans. The consign- 
ment goes forward over the Sunset route, as a 
special, running regular Sunset special time, 
which will bring it to Columbus in ten days. 
This is the largest single purchase of Lima 
beans ever made in the State, and one of the 
largest of any sort of California produce on 
record. 

Yolo. 

Wool Growers' Association — Esparto, Jan. 
4 : The Yolo Co. Wool-Growers' Association met 
yesterday. A bounty on seven coyote scalps 
was ordered paid. It was decided at the meet- 
ing to ask Colnsa, Napa, Solano, Lake and Sac- 
ramento counties to join the association. The 
Board of Supervisors will be petitioned to raise 
the bounty from $5 to $10 on each scalp. 

Raisin Pack. — Woodland, Jan, 8 : The sea 
son has been remarkably good for the growth 
of the raisin grape, and fully 300,000 boxes of 
raisins, in addition to a large amount of dried 
grapes, have been and are about to be mar 
keted. The wine product is less on account of 
the low price of wines and the increased price 
of dried wine grapes. 

Fruit Industry. — Woodland Mail, Jan. 8: 
Several enterprises have been inaugurated dur- 
ing the last deoade, but the most notable has 



been the cutting up of large ranches into small 
fruit farms. Thousands of acres have been 
planted to the vine and various kinds of fruits, 
and the profits have been so large on raisins, 
prunes, apricots, figs and olives that a large 
number of persons are contemplating the cult- 
ure of these valuable productions. It is es- 
timated by fruitmen that there will be planted 
in this county during the next season from 3000 
to 4000 acres in vines and fruit, and the most 
of this is small holdings of from 10 to 20 acres 
each. A syndicate consisting of D. M. Burns, 
E, J. Depue, C. H. Waterho'ise, Sam Jones, 
A. T. Hatch, Frank McMullen and C. S. Giv- 
en! has purchased 400 acres of the richest and 
best land in the county, near Woodland, for 
$125 per acre, for the express purpose of plant- 
ing the entire tract to fruit-bearing trees and 
the raisin grape. They style themselves the 
Yolo Orchard Company, and will commence 
work immediately. Some of the townspeople 
and county officers have purchased small par- 
cels on the installment plan for the same pur' 
pose. In Capay valley, great preparations are 
being made for tree-planting, and an area of 
1000 acres will be planted in the valley this 
season. This certainly speaks well for the 
county, and those who will break away from 
the old rut of grain-growing will not regret 
their action in a few years, when these or- 
chards and vineyards come into full bearing. 
The apricot has been largely cultivated and 
mostly dried and shipped at prices far above 
that of last year. From $300 to $350 per acre 
has been realized this year on that industry. 
But the most valuable crop from the expe- 
rience of the few engaged in the business has 
proved to be the prune. The French prune 
grafted on the Myrobolan stock has netted as 
high in some instances as $500 and $600 per 
acre, and a ten-acre prune orchard, when in full 
bearing, would make a good living for an in- 
dustrious man. 

Yuba. 

Crop Prospect. — Marysville Appeal, Jan. 9: 
At no time in the history of Yuba and Sutter 
counties has the prospect for an abundant wheat 
yield been better than for this summer. The 
acreage is unusually large. Farmers have had 
ample time to properly seed their land, and 
there has been just enough rain to cause the 
ground to work to perfection. Many who 
usually summer-fallow their land have this 
year winter-sown, as the short crop last year 
exhausted the ground but very little, and there 
was no necessity for letting it lie idle this year 
Much of the wheat is already up and shows a 
fine stand. Late rains are what bring out the 
grain, and with an ordinary spring the yield 
will be enormous. 

ARIZONA. 

Cattle Industry, — Phoenix Republican, Jan 
8: A stockman who was in Pfaoeaix a few days 
ago made an obssrvation upon the state of the 
cattle market that is a digest of the situation 
He said: " Good cattle are in good demand at 
good prices; poor cattle are in poor demand at 
poor prices." He continued: " The day of the 
Texas and Mexican steer has long since passed 
in Arizona, and indeed anywhere else in the 
Union. It will not pay to ship even fat Texas 
cattle to the markets, for when brought into 
comparison with the graded Hereford! and 
Durhams that are now so freely ofi'ered, the 
native stock outs but a sorry appearance, and 
is the last to be purchased. About as strong 
an argument as I know for the breeding of 
only good stock came in this morning's Repub 
lican. It was that portion of the Chicago live 
stock market showing prime steers to be worth 
$5,35 a hundred, while Texans were selling at 
only $1.15. Now, of course the latter price 
will hardly pay back the shipping and stock 
yard charges, though the first-named price is 
as royal a figure as a cattleman could yearn 
for." The fact of the matter is, the oattie 
business of Arizona is vastly changed from what 
it once was. But a small percentage of the 
Territory's beef product is' now consumed at 
home, the greater portions being shipped di 
rect to the great cities. One-half of th 
Arizona beeves are of more than a medium 
grade, and the remainder are small "rough and 
common." The sires on many ranges are, fo 
sake of economy, selected entirely from range 
calves, and the result Is, the succeeding 
generations are far from satisfactory. Nearly 
all the ranges of Maricopa, Yavapai and Gil 
counties have now large numbers of good 
grade bulls of the Durham, Hereford 
Murphy stock, and the eteer crop each year 
is improving in quality. It costs no more to 
raise a good, large steer than it does a scrub 
and the weather of Arizona is not of sufficient 
severity to constitute the basis of an argument 
for the growing of the tougher breeds of 
native cattle. 



The great popularity of Ayet'a Pills as a cathartic 
due no less to their promptnesB and ertioacy than to the 
coating of sugar and freedom from any injurious effects. 
Children take them readily. See Ayet's Almanac for 
this year, just out. 

$500,000 

To LOAN IN ANY amount AT THE VERY LOWEST 

market rate of interest on approved security in Farm 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 430 Cali 
fomla St.. San FranHsoo. 



$3,250,000 

To LOAN ON MORTGAGE ON RANCHES AND CITY 

real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM 
BALL, S08 California St., S. F. 



A Great Event 

In one's life is the discovery of a remedy for 
some loug-standiiig malady. The poison of 
Scrofula is in your blood. You inlierited it 
from youi- ancestors. Will you transmit it 
to your offspriui;? In the great majority 
of cases, both Consiuiiption and Catarrh orig- 
inate in Scrofula. It is supposed to be tlie 
primary source of many other derangements 
of tlie body. Begin at once to cleanse your 
blood with the standard alterative, 

Ayer's 
Sarsaparilla 

" For several months I was troubled with 
scrofulous eruptions over the whole I)ody. 
My appetite was bad, and my system so 
prostrated that I was unable to work. After 
trying several remedies in vain, I resolved 
to talte Ayer's Sarsaparilla, and did so with 
such good effect that less than one bottle 

Restored IVIy Health 

and strength. The raiiidity of the cure as- 
tonished me, as I expected the process to be 
long and tedious." — Frederico Mariz Fer- 
nandes, Villa Nova de Gaya, Portugal. 

"For many yi-ars I was a sufferer from 
scrofula, until about three years ago, when I 
began the use of Ayer's Sarsaparilla, since 
which the disease lias entirely disappeared. 
A little child of mine, who was troubled with 
the same comjilaiut, has also been cured by 
this medicine."— II. Brandt, Avoca, Nebr. 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 

TKEPARED BT ' 

DR. J. C. AYEK & CO., Lowell, Mass. 
Bold by Druggists. $l,six$5. Worth $5 a bottle. 




THE GREATEST DISCOVERY OF THE 
MINETEENTH CENTURY. 



Silver Medal Awarded by the State Fair ol 1890. 



This preparation Is a Sure Destroyer of the SCALE, 
WOOLY APHIS and INSKCT PESTS of any and all 
desciiptions. It may be as Jieely used in the cooBerva- 
tory, garden or gieenhonse as in the orchard or vine- 
yard. It is non-poisonoua and harmleRS to vegetation 
when diluted and u^ed ac-ording to directiOLS. It mixes 
instantly with cold water in any proportions. It is 
SAFE, SURE and CHEAP. No Fruit grower or Florist 
should be without it. Send for Circulars and Price List. 

CATTON, BELL & CO., 

406 CALIFORNIA ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 

Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



HORSE OWNERS I 

TRY GOMBAULT'S 

CAUSTIC BALSAM. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure 
forCurb. Splint, Sweeny, Capped 
Huck, Strained Tendons, Foun- 
der, Wind PulTs, all Skin Diseases 
orParasltes.Thrush, Diphtheria, 
Pinkeye, alt Lameness fruni 
Spavin, Ringbone or other Bony 
Tumors. Kcmoves all Bunches 
s,** or Blemishes from Horses and 
Cattle. 

Supersedes all Cautery or Firing. 

Impossible to Prodnceany 
Scar or Blemish. 
Every bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction. 
Price SI. 50 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sc-ni by 
express, charges piild, with full directions for Its Uf^. 
Bend fi>r descriptive circulars. Address 
LAWltENCK, WILLIAMS & CO., Cleveland. O. 





Ecoisrojs^Y 



Housekeepers! 

PEERLESS 



STEAM COOKER 



Superior to All Others. 

GEO. W. SHREVE, 

5ZS Kearny St., 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL, 




PIANOS. 

DNEQUAL.ED IN 

Tone, Tonch, Workmanship and Dnrability. 

Baltimore, 22 and 24 East Baltimore Street, 
New York, 148 Fifth Ave. Washington, 817 Market Space. 

PEOPLES HOME SAVINGS BANK, 

805 Market Street, in Flood Building. 
DIVIDEND NOTICE. 



FOR THE HALF-YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 
1890, a dividend has been declared at the rate of five 
and flfty-two one-hundredtha (5.52) per cent per annum 
on term deposit' and tour and sixty one-hundredths 
(4 60) per cent per annum on ordinary deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after FRIDAY, January 2, 1891. 

B. 0. CARR, Secretary. 



IT STANDS AT THE HEAD I 




DO NOT FAIL to SEE THE " DOMESTIC 

Before Buylag a Sewing Machine. 
It la the lead In prkotlcal progress. Send for prlee Hat 
W. BVAVS. 39 Post St., 8. F 




BROWNE'S 

Patent 

Squirrel 
Exterminator. 



This is an apparatus for urnlng 
straw and sulphur and also forces 
the fumes down their holes which 
never fails to kill. I will give $100 
in case the exterminator does not 
kill (if properly applied ) every 
ground squirrel that its deathly 
fumes comes in contact with. 
Thousands are in use. Price $3.00. 
Send for circulars to 

F. E. BROWNE, 

SO S. Matn St., Los Angeles, Gal. 




PROTECT YOUR TREES 

FROM SUNBURN, BORERS, 
RABBITS, ETC., 



By Using the 



Pacific Tree Protector. 



Waterproof, Adjustable & Convenient. 

Saves Time, Trouble & Expense. 
No. 1 Tarred Felt, Vermin and Water- 
proof, good for 3 yrs, 7x16, $2 %t 100. 
No. 2 Patent Insect- proof, Heavy, 
7x16, $1.60 per 100. 
No, 3 Patent Insect-proof, Light, 7x16. $1 per 100. 
Special Sizes made to order. Orders promptly filled by 

THE PACIFIC ROLL PAPER CO., 

30 and 32 First Street, San Francleco, 
Also headquarters for Fay's Patent Manillo Leather 

Roofing and Building Papers; Cheapest and Best in the 

Market. Send for Samples. 



D 



EWBY « OO.. PATENT AGENTS, 220 
Market St., Ban Franolsca Blevator, 13 Front St 



MATTHIAS GRAY CO., 

206 POST STREET, SAN FBANCISOO 




Importer of American and Foreign 

Band Inatrumenta, Accordions, Violins, 
Guitars, Sheet Music, Books, Etc. 



FREE! 

Catalogue of Seeds, 

Containing 100 pages of matters of Interest to the 
Farmer and Gardener, with illustrations and deecrip- 
tions of Garden, Field and Flower Seeds. Send for 
Catalogue to 

COLORADO SEED HOUSE. 

BARTBLDES & CO., 

1516 to 1522 Waz e St., DENVBE, OOLO. 
Mention this Paper. 

IT WILL PAY, 

Write for our Lar^e 
illustrated Cata- 
logue showing fruits 
of 25 j'ears in the hay 
li' Id, how to build hay 
barns and sheds, and 
other valuable informa- 

tion. Also new Self- 

Comprestiliig:, Center-Trip Hay Sling, which 
takes half a load of any kind of hay or fodder at a time, 
leaving no Utterlngs whatever, and lays it on the 
mow or on the stack, jast as It lay on the load. 
Write Now before losing address. 

Louden Machinery Co., Fairfield, la. 




66 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS 



[Jan. 17, 1891 




Our Perfected "Safety" Engines Cost to Ban only 1-8 Gallon of Gasoline per Horsepower per Honr. 




Pumpinir PlaDt8,'Yacht8& Launches, I PI PPTRIP VAPOR PNRINP Pfl I Complete Plants of all kinds, Station- 
Sfmnk Oara. Pir« Rnirinea. Water 1 tLtU I niO WHrUll tHUIIlC UUi ary Or Mounted On Wheels 

I U. 8. 



Street Cars, Fire Engines, Water 
Works. Etc. 



ai8 Oallfomla St., Seui Pranolaoo. 



AND FOREIGN PATENTS. 




"Neponset" Waterproof Paper. 



NKPONSET MII.I.8. 



s ii^ijjimuiiiL 



THBSE PA 
pers 
guaranteed ^ 
be absolutelv 
water p 
air-tigbt and 
odorless. 

For sheath- 
ing and lining 
o( buildings; 
for roofing of 

actorles, I i 
storehouses / 
and farm 
buildings. 

They are 
entirely un- 
affected by 
heat, cold, 
snow or rain. 

"NEPONSET" SHEATHING (color black). 

NO. 1 "NEPONSET' ROPE ROOFING (color terracotta). 

NO. 2 "NKPONSET' ROPE ROOFING (color terra cotU). 




These papers are in rolls 36 inches wide, and they con- 
tain either 250 or too square feet per roll, and weigh 
about 20 or 40 pounds per roll, respectively. 

DIMMICK & LOW, Agents, 

221 Front Street, - - San Francisco, Oal. 

FRANCIS SMITH & CO. 

Manufacturers of 

Sheet Iron and Steel 



ALL SIZES. 

130 Beale Street, San Francisco, Cal 

Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe oc 
ground. All kinds of Tools supplied for making Pipe. 
Eatimatee given. Are prepared tor coating all sizes of 
Pipe with a composition of Coal Tar and Aspbaltum. 



o. 



H. EVANS & CO. 

(Successors to THOMSON & EVANS), 

110 and 118 Beale Street, 8. F. 

MACHINE WORKS, 
Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

and all kinds of MACHINERY. 




J. L. HEALD, Pres. 



C. R MORGAN, Seo'y. 



HEALD MFG. CO. 

Crockett, Co ntra C osta Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boiiers, 

TflACTION ENGINES, 

PortaWe Straw-Bnriiiflg Boilers k Eniiiies. 

IRON AND BRASS 0ASTINQ8. 

Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery. 

ncludlng Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators 
Wine Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used in 
Wine Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald't 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 




THE KRIEBEL ENGINE 

And Plahi Vertital Boiler. 
Mounted on a Combined Base. 
A very Cheap and Economical 
Engine. 

Made of the very best material. 
2 & S HOBSF.POWBB. 

Write for Prices. 

TRUMAN, HOOKER & CO., 

SAN FKANCI8CO. 



RUPTURE AND PiLES. 

We Positively Ccre all kinds of Rupture 
and Rectal Diseases, no matter of how long 
standing, in from 30 to 60 days, without the 

use of KNIFK, DKAWINQ hl.ooL', or I>ETEN 

TioN FROM lii siNEss. leriiis; Bfo Care, 
mo Payi sad bo Pay nntll Cared. 

If afflicted, come and see us or send atamp for 
pamphlet. Address: 

DRS. POBTEBPIELD Si LOBBY, 
888 Market Str««t. - . San DVanclaoo 




TOKOLOGY '^^r:;^:^^ 

■The very best lio„k t.T AGENTS. Siimple pafreRfree. 
rieittlclti.;^. A. B. S tockkua * Co. , 1 67 La Salle 81., Ckicaco. 



THE OlY TRUE FERTIKER 

Is the GENUINE Compound of the MEXICAN PHOSPHATE & SULPHUR 
COMPANY prepared from GUANO and rendered soluble by the application 
of acids. 

This manure is an ENRICHER of the soil and not, like others, a 
STIMULANT only; It will do for the land what no other can In rendering It 
PRODUCTIVE without IMPOVERISHMENT. 

Its analysis Is reliable; Its work Is immediate and effective, and for 
results we point with confidence to the ORCHARDS of RIVERSIDE, where 
It has been liberally used for the past three years. 

It can be prepared to suit any land, with or without potash, as occasion 
may require. It Is rich in PHOSPHORIC ACID, and can be made as rich In 
NITROGEN as the most deficient soil may exact. 



WE GUARANTEE ALL WE CLAIM FOR IT, 

Viz.: TO BE THE MOST COMPLETE FERTILIZER ON THIS COAST. 



For Sale In Lots to Suit by 



H. M. NEWHALL & CO., 

309 & 311 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANOISOO. OAL. 



N. B.— By courtesy of the Southern Pacific Company we have low rates 
on this Fertilizer to all parts of the State. 



'Planet Jr.' 



Improved Farm 
Tools for 



and 
1891 



Garden 




BETTKR, Both Horse & Hand,THAlV KVKR; 

better and more money 8a\ ing. Wo cannot describe them 
here, but our new anti nandsorae catalogue ih free and in- 
teresting. A goodly number of new to'tis will me»'t your eye 
thrre. Amoncthese. Garclener'*8 Harrow, Cult i va.- 
for ^Pulverlxer. combined. adjust able ti-eth: Market 
Garclener*» ^ Iteet tirower's Sperial f l<irHt> lioe 



ii Pulverix*'r; Special Fiirmwer, .^larker and RiiIjL;er, adjustable wings ; S\* <'*»t Polatoe Horse 
Hoe.f"urlo"t h Willi vine turner; Hea vyiirass Kd^er and PatliCleaner:new!Vine TootU Cultivator 
and IloDte Hoe combined ; Speeia 1 Steel L<<'veler arid Pulverixer combined; all interest j tig. nothing we have 
ever maiie so practiesl or x>erfe( t. iSf.me improved things too are grafted upon ourolderfav^»rites. A canital LEVER 
AVHEKL, inntantly adjustable for denth. is a great feature: put on all '91 goods unlei-s ordered otherwise. Nor 
have our Hand Seed Drills been forgotten in tiie march of improvement, norour Double and Single Wheel Hoes, Gar- 
den Plows. (irasH ledgers, Etc. Some of them are greatly altered for the better; yet do not forget that nonovUieg av 
adopUd by uj> -iri-hoidarUial and fxhnuxtii^e Uetx in thr fu h!. We therefore gu«r- Q T H T T Dill ft f A 1 1 07 Market St., 

autee everythiDg exactly as represented. Send for Catalogues now. Ui Li niiLDll U VUi ] IMiiladelphia, Fa. 



BEET SUGAR FACTORIES 



'9^ 



Um CheiistSjEnigneers anfl Dranghtsmfcii, anil Practical Mannfactnreis of Beet Sngar. 

The members of tiiis firm have Bpent maoy months in the lar^^est beet BU^r factories of Europe, 8tud>iD^ the 
details of Oerman and French methods of maaufacturin? sucar from beets, and also at worlis of the leading manu- 
factories of beet suflrar machinery. Having had many years' experience in manufacturint; sugar from beets in Cali- 
fornia, and having fully demonstrated the feasibiltty of producing sugar from beets in this country in almost unlim- 
ited <|Uantitie8, and in successful competition with cane sugar imported from foreign countries, we are prepared to 
furnieh designs for factories, plans and drawings of the latest improved machinery now in use in Europe and this 
country. Can also furnish skilled engineers to superintend the coustructioD of factories, and the necessary technical 
skill to operate the works successfully when completed. Will make personal examination of localities with regard 
to their fitness for the production of beet sugar, free of expense, except traveling expenses. Successful results 
guaranteed when the conditions are considered favorable. 



DO YOU WANT A 

Profitable Business? 

Do you wish to SIJCCEED 
where others fail f Then 

BORE 

WELLS 

with our famonn Well 
3I)t('liinery . The only 
P**rfp -t HPlf-cleaningand 
fast -dropping t«>"N in ueo. 

LOOMIS&NYMAN, 

TIFFIN. Ohio. 



THE GREAT 




C ata logue 
VKGR. 



c Xj. tt a laa 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer io 

H.4RNKSS, SADDLBS. BRIDLE<I, WHIPS, 
SPURS, BLANKKTS, 

No. 10 Bush Street, and Alarliet Street, one door b«low 
Battery Street, San Francisco. 



JAMES M. HAVEN. 



THOMAS E. HAVEN, 



Notary Public. 

HAVEN & HAVEN, 

ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT LAW, 

No. S30 CaUXornia Streat, j 
Tclepbooc No. 1746. SAN FBANCISOO, OAL. I 



Wainwright'sTree Sprayers 

AND WHITEWASHINGIMACHINES. 

SIX CASH PRIZES, SILVER MEDAL AND A DIPLOMA 
at the late State Fair for the best Spray Nuzzles and 
Spraying Apparatus. Complete outfits, prices from $3 
to 990. Send-for Circular and Price List. Wm. Waln- 
wright. No. 10 Hayea Street, San Francisco. 




Acme Spray Pump. 

This is a strong, light bucliet pumn, and is Just what 
has been needed by small Orchardtsts, Farmers, Stock 
and Poultry Raisers. This pump will stand a pressure of 
from 60 to 76 lbs. to the 8i|uare inch. When char,;ed it 
will keep up a continuous S|irsy from 6 to 16 minutes, 
without pumping, according to tlie amount of air in the 
reservoir. 

Sample pump sent complete tor Spraying, with Suction 
Bose. Strainer, Discharge Hose, Rod, one Lime and one 
Chemical Nozzle, for $13. All my pumps have brass and 
Rubber Valves. 

Spray Rods made to spray, from the ground, from 1 
font to 30 feet high and at any angle. 

For Orchards, Farms, Stockmen and Poultry Raisers 
there is nothing like them. 

CONTRACTS TAKEN FOR I.ARa£ JOBS 
OF WHITEWASHING * TREE-8PBATINO. 



VINE PRUNERS. ATTENTION ! 




TJso 13. 3VX. •X*. nil «fvr el's 

GRAPE BRUSH RAKE, 

With whlf^h one horse and a boy citu <lu tlie work of eight or 
ten men in gathering and itunchlng the prtmingK rt-ady for 
loading on wagon. Its coet will t>e saT*>d in one seaooD's 
work on 61 acres of Tines. Address TRUMAN, HOOKER 
k CO., 437 Market Street, San Krancisco. 



The Armstrong Automatic 

PORTA BLK 

ESOISE and BOILEE. 

The liest. Lightest, Cheapest 
Engine in the world. Can be 
arranged to Burn Wood, CosJ, 
Straw or Petroleum. 6or8H.P. 
Mounted on skids or on wheals. 
TRDHAN. HOOKER A CO.. San FranolM*. 




BEST TREE WASH. 

Oreenbank " K degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA (tests 99 8-10 per cent) recommended by 
(he highest authorities In the State. Also Commoa 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

T. W. JACKSON CO.. 

Manofaoturere' Asenta, 
410 UarkAt St. and 8 Oallfornla St.. 8. W 



DRIVING 1'''° ''i' ™*^e that can 
ULUTHiu jj^ugedon agentlehorb^or 
the mo*^t. vicious horw? with 
eaual and entire succei*«, 
.30,000 sold in IHHti. 
Tu.OUO HoUl in IHiHt. 

THEY ARE KING. 

Sample n ailed X C for tf« ■ r\r\ 

Sirli. l >il.i{0. * I 
><taliiuii ItilsFifl)' cents extrv 

RACINE MALLEABLE IRON GO. II^p?^::^'^^- 




SMEDBERG & MITCHELL, 

GEO. M. SHTCHELL, W. R. SMEDBERO— 314 CALI- 
fomia Street, ^an Francisco. Managers San Fran- 
Cisco Department New Zealand t. and M. Insurance Co., 
Auckland; Orient Insurance Co., Hartford City Agents 
Manchester Fire Assuran>:e Co., Manchester; Calcdoniao 
Instiranoa Co., Edinburgh; Americsa losunuice Co., 
Newark, N..J. 



Jan. 17, 1891.] 



f ACIFte f^URAto PRE88. 



Stahl's Excelsior Knapsack 
Sprayer. 

For applying insecticides or fungicides, spraying 
pumps with specially constructed nozzles are neces- 
sary. The Excelsior Sprayer, fitted with the im- 
proved vermoral nozzle, answers the purpose admir- 
ably. With this machine (of which the engraving 
below is an exact representation), which is carried on 
the back, knapsack fashion, a man can spray from 
five to six acres of vines per day, and the cost of 
treating an acre in an average season, using the 




Bordeaux mixture as indicated above, need not 
exceed $8. In all cases where the Bordeaux mixture 
is employed it will be best to use the Improved 
Vermoral Nozzles, for the reason they are especially 
constructed to prevent clogging. Heretofore we 
have had to rely mainly upon machines imported 
from France. The average fruit-grower cannot 
afford to send to France for a machine that will cost 
him from $i8 to $25, this price being entirely beyond 
the reach of the average farmer, gardener and fruit- 
grower. The Excelsior Knapsack Sprayer is guar- 
anteed to do the work satisfactorily and is sold with 
complete outfit for $14. See advertisement in this 
paper. 

A Barbed • Wire Combine. — It is tele- 
graphed from Chicago that the outlook for a 
oombinatlon of barbed-wire manafaotarerB in 
this oonntry is good. They met two weeks ago 
in Pittsburg, formed a plan of consolidation, 
and that session is now being continued in Chi- 
cago. The Colnmbia Wire Company has been 
inoorporated under the favorable laws of Ken- 
taoky, stock-books opened, and snbstantially 
all the manufacturers, except the Washbarn- 
Moen Company, are, or will be, enbsorlbers. 
The new company will control all patents, con- 
tracts, etc., issue new licenses and establish 
prices. 

Oar Agents. 

Otm FRniTDS oan do much In aid ot onr paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, oy assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
but worthy men. 

H. Kbllbt — Modoc and Lassen Cos. 

Gio. WiLSOil— Sacramento Co. 

J. P. QiriNSTTK— Sau Francisco. 

J. C. UoAO — San Francisco. 

J. H. Crossmak— San Bernardino Co. 

F. W. Knapp— Amador Co. 

Georqb Evans- Santa Clara Co. 

Mrs. M. E. Dctdlbt— Ventura Co 

W. V. Waosworth— Sutter and Yuba Cos. 

Wilson MoNickle— Fresno Co. 

Andrew Keid— Monterey Co. 

Frank S. Chapin— Colusa Co. 

Hblen B King— San Benito Co. 

Wm. M. HibLEARY— Oregon. 

Wm. Holdbr— Oregon. 

H. G. Parsons— Central California. 

Elmbb Jenkins- Del Norte Co. 

H. C. Henkle— Capay Valley. 



"The Great Water Problem." — Col. L. 
F, Moalton of Colusa has just published an im- 
portant pamphlet on the improvement of the 
Sacramento river, so as to avert floods and the 
great injariei and damages resultine therefrom. 
He has studied this subject since 1852 and has 
made many surveys, and has, in fact, been in 
constant observation and contemplation of the 
subject. His pamphlet is accompanied by a 
map showing the proposed West Side drainage 
canal. Parties interested should apply to Col. 
Moalton for a copy of his publication. 

Orange Selling. — There seems to be a gen- 
eral movement on the part of the Southern 
orange-growers to reject the terms on which 
the orange-buyers proposed to operate this 
year as described in last week'* Rural. Grow- 
ers do not propose to sign the contracts which 
provide for grading, so as to throw a lot of 
culls back upon their hands. It looks very 
much ai though the buyers' contracts would 
have to be modified or the growers will seek 
other means of disposing of their fruit. 

A Remarkahle. Case. — Mr. Walter Wheeler, of the 
Washington Mills, Lawrence, Mass., tor two years afflict- 
ed with varicose veins, accompanied by a troublesome 
eruption, was completely cured after taking only eight 
bottles of Ayer'g Sarsaparilla. 



Newspaper Agents Wanted. 



Extra inducements will be oflfered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 
agents. 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No. 220 Market St., S. F. 



Please Remit. 

The beginning of a new year is a good time to 
settle up the debts of the old ones. We are obliged 
to remind those who owe the Press on subscrip- 
tion account, that it will be a great convenience to 
us if they will soon remit what is due. Those who 
can also pay in advance will also do us timely and 
well-appreciate'i favor. We are doing our best to 
present a very valuable paper, representing carefully, 
earnestly and conscientiously the welfare of its in- 
telligent readers and the best interests of the arts, 
sciences and mining and mechanical ndustries of 
the Pacific States. 

To do this we deprive ourselves of some of the 
most lucrative lines of patronage available to the 
average newspaper. 

By paying as promptly as possible, friends, you 
will greatly encourage us in our sincere efiforts to fa- 
vor you and the best interests of your calling. 



List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

The following brief list by telegraph, for Jan.' 14 will 
appear more complete on receipt of mail advices: 
• California— Clarence V. Oreenamyer, bench clamp for 
pipe tongs and wrenches; also, adjustable pipe wrench; 
Lionel Heynemoll, cable street railway; Peter S. Jack- 
Bon, lengthening metallic beams; Jose Jardine, steering 
apparatus; Edward G. King, compass attachment for 
field glasses; Edward M. Knight, filter; Patrick Noble, 
cable! railway; George A. William, coffee-pot; all of San 
Francisco. Daniel B Baker, sadiron, San Jacinto; Dan- 
iel M. Baldwin, seeding machine, Florence; Loris P. 
Carl, tether pin, Perrie; Alfred Dudgen, knife sharpener, 
Santa Barbara; Willis D. Eitel, train tare punch, San 
•Jose; John J. Cocer, whiffletree coupler, Los Angeles; 
James Lyman, globe, San Jose; James R. Phelps, spread- 
er for gaiting horses, Sacramento. 

Oregon— Horace T. Curre, rail-cleaning and lubricat- 
ing attachment tor locomotive, Alblna; Albert M. Grubba, 
railway switch. Forest Grove. 

Washington — David H. McFall, carpet-stretcher, 
Ellensburg. 

Note. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacific Coast 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 



CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE Sf ST. PAUL 
RAILWAY. 

Electric- Lighted and Steam-Heated Vestibuled 
Trains between Omaha, Council Bluffs and Chi- 
cago. 

Steam-Heated and Electric-Lighted Vestibuled 
Trains between Chicago, St. Paul and Minneapolis. 

Finest Dining Cars in the World. 

Free Reclining Chair Cars between Omaha and 
Chicago. 

Fast Mail Line between Chicago, Milwaukee, St. 
Paul and Minneapolis. 

Transcontinental Route between Omaha, Council 
Bluffs and Chicago. 

5700 miles of road in Illinois, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Missouri, South and North Dakota. 

Everything First-Class. 

First-Class People patronize First-Class Lines. 
Ticket Agents everywhere sell Tickets over the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 
W, T. ALLEN, 

Pacific Coast Passenger Agent, 
San Francisco, Cal. 
O^ce, No. ijS Montgomery St., under Occident- 
al Hot£l. 

California Nctrsert Company. — Our nur- 
serymen are making more effort than usual to 
render their announcements attractive this 
year, and it is a very praiseworthy thing to 
do. The advertisement of the California Nur- 
sery Company is an illustration of this fact. 
The catalogues of this establishment, which we 
have received, show how wide their resources 
are, both in economic and ornamental lines. 
The catalogue of ornamental trees and plants 
last issued should be read by all horticulturists. 
If it does not contribute largely to the advance 
of tree-planting and garden work on this coast 
we shall be very much mistaken. The de- 
scriptions are excellent and prepared with 
great care. 

A Common Sense Calendar. 

The calendars that come in the fall are as numer- 
ous as the tlowers that bloom in the spring. Many 
further resemble the flowers in that they come with- 
out being sent for, and fade after a very brief exist- 
ence. 

The most sensible and business-like Calendar that 
we have seen comes to us from N. W. Ayer & Son, 
Newspaper Advertising Agents, Philadelphia, and 
bears their " Keeping everlasting at it" imprint. It 
is so large and clear that its dates can be easily dis- 
tinguished across an office, and is printed in a man- 
ner to reconcile the most fastidious to its company 
for a year. It is sent to any address, postpaid, on re- 
ceipt of'25 cents. 



Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or heyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) will suffice. We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish It, but If it is continued, through the failure of the 
enbsorlber to notify us to discontinue It, or some trre- 
aponstble party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time It is sent. Look carbfullv 

AT THB LABEL ON TOUR PAPRR. 



Irrigated Lands to Rent. 



A nice shaded homestead, with flowing arte- 
sian well, and 160 acres of improved land, to 
rent for a moderate share of the crops, or small 
cash rental. Over 20 acres of alfalfa and 7 of 
bearing orchard; also, 320 acres adjoining, 
without water; within seven minntea of Tulare 
City. Apply to E. M. Dewey, Porterville, or 
A. T. Dewey, 220 Market St., S. F, 




THE SAN JOSE ORCHARD AND VINEYARD 




Just the thing for the Orchard and Vineyard, built low, with Goose Neck in front, 
enabling a very short turn, low wheels, broad tire, with springs or without, built 
any size or capacity. 




Greatly Improved, made entirely of Iron and Steel, easily handled and adjusted; 
teeth extend outside of wheels, in fact the Most Perfect Cultivating Tool ever put on 
the market. 

Write for Otrculars. Address 

SAN JOSE AGRICULTURAL WORKS, San Jose, CaL 



"ASPINWALL" 

O PL 



AHTCR 



DISTRIBUTES , «^.„« 

FERTILIZERS i^^^S^ CORN, BEANS, 



The Triumph of 

Modern Inveniion. 

Ilhisti-atcd Ciicular sent Ircc. 




ENSILAGE, ETC. 



Mcntinn this paper. 



ASPINWALL MFG CO., 1^ Three Rivers, Michigan. 

TBIJMAN, HOOKKR & CO., AGENTS, SAN FKANCISCO, CM.. 




SPRAY YOUR FRUIT TREES AND VINES. 

Worinv Fruit and Leaf Ulight of Apples, I'ears, riicrries. Plum (lur- 
culia inevented by sprayiut; with the EXCEIiSIOR SPRAY 
PUMP. GRAPE and POTATO ROT prevented liy usint; EXCELSIOR 
KNAPSACK SPRAYER; also injurious insects which infest 
CUn-ianls (Jonsr hrrrics, Kasiil)('rries and Strawberries. PERFECT 
FRUIT ALWAYS SELLS AT GOOD PRICES, 

Catak)(;ue sliowing all injurious insects to (mils mailed free. Large 
Btocli of Fruit Trees, Vines and J5orry I'lants at Bottom Prices. 

Address, WM. STAHL, Qainoy, Illinoia. 



The German Savings and Loan Society, 

SZG California Street. 



DIVIDE N D N O T I C E. 

FOR THE HALF-YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 
1890, a dividend has been declared at the rate of five 
and forty-hundredths (5 40-100) per cent per annum on 
Term Depoeits, and four and opo-half (4J) per cent per 
annum on Ordinary Deposits. Payable on and after 
FRIDAY, January 2, 1891. 

OBO. TOURNEY, Secretary. 



COLTON DENTAL ASSOCIATION, 

Gr«,S JSl300l«. lists, 

rhelan Building:, Parlors 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. 
Entrance. 806 Market .Street. 

The only office in this city that makes and j;ive8 the 
celebrated "COLTON GAS," which has a world-wide 
reputation for its purity and efficacy in the lainless 
extraction of teeth. The large quantity dally used Insures 
the Gas to be always fresh and pure. Over 85,000 refer- 
ences. Recommended and Indorsed bj all the leading 
physlciaos, Burgeons and dentists ou the coast. 



6i 



f ACIFie I^URAlo f RE88. 



[Jan. 17, 1891 



breeders' birectory. 



six linae or leae In this Directory at 60c per line per month. 



HOffSES AND CATTLE. 



J. B. BOSS, Lakerille, Sonoma Ca, CaL, breeder ot 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 



P. PETERSEN, Sites, ColusaCo., Importer & Breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

WILD FliOWER STOCK FARM, Fresno Co. 
A. UeilbroD & Bro., Props., Sjc. Breeders of thoroueh- 
bred strains and Cruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine lot of young bulls in each herd for sale. 



CHABLBS B. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Recorded Holstein-Friesian 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 



BROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horses and 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, tor sale at 
my ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. New cata- 
logue now ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 



REGISTERED HOLSTEIN CATTLE. Also 

beet thorouitlibred Poultry And Kggs. Address Uibbard 
& Ellis, Santa Hosa Breeding Association, CaL 

P. H. MQRPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., CaL, Breeder of 
Recorded Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 



OOTATB BANOH BBEEDINQ FARM, Page's 
Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 



PUBB-BBED HOLSTEIN FR1R8IAN Cattle 
for Sale. Bonnie Brae Cattle Co., Bollister, CaL 



JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, Dreeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns. Young stock for sale. 



J. H. WHITB, Lakeville, Sonoma Ck>., OaL, breeder 

of Registered Holsteln Cattle. 



M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer In 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 



GEO. B. POLHEMUS, Coyote, Cal. Holstein-Fries- 
ian cattle, comprising males and females on advanced 
register. First premium in great milking test at 
State Fair, 1889, was won by a member of this herd. 

PBTBB SAXE St SON, Lick House, San Franolsco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 18 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

HENBY HAMILTON, Westley, Cal., breeder of 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
steln Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for sale. 



JBBSEY BULL No. 468 P. C. J. C. C. for sale 
cheap, A fine four-year-old animal. Address Dellwood 
Poultry Yards. Napa, Cal. 



POULTRY. 



QALT POULTBY YARDS. Oalt, Sac. Co., Cal. 
Breed moat popular varieties of thoroughbred fowls, 

T. D. MORRIS, Agua Caliente, Cal. Fine Poultry, 
Bronze Turkeys, Toulouse and Embden Oeese, etc. 



GEO. TREFZEB, 911 Est., Sacramento, CaL, breeder 
ot Boudans, Black and White Leghorns, Prize Winners 
at late State Fair. Eggs, »2.60 for 13; U for 28. 



DELLWOOD POULTRY YARDS, Napa. Light 
and Dark Brahmas, Bufl Cochins, Lan^shans, Plymouth 
Rocks, Silver and Gulden Wyandottes, Boudans, 
Mioorcas, Spanish, Brown, Black and White Leghorns, 
Pekin Ducks. Birds lor sale. Egtcs, $2 per 13. 



OALIFOBNIA POULTBY FABM, Stockton, 
Cal.; send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 



B. O. HEAD, Napa, Importer and Breeder of Land 
and Water Fowls. Send for New Catalogue. 



JOHN McFABLTNQ, 708 Twelfth St., Oakland. 
CaL, Importer and Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send 
tor Circular. Thoroughbred Berkshire Pigs- 



IP YOU KEEP ANY KIND OF FOWLS, 

Pet Stock, Dogs, &c, it will pay you to send your ad- 
dress at once to C. R. Barker,SantaClara,Cal, You can- 
not afford not to do it. It will cost you but one cent 
and you will receive something worth ten times that. 

E. F- MUSSON, San Leandro. Box 165. Fine stock. 



W. C. DAMON, Napa. Fowls and Eggs, 92.00. 



O. J. ALBEE, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 



IMPORTANT! 

That the public should know that for the past Eigrhtaen Tears our Sole Basineaa has been, and now Is 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock— Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires, 
and Jerseys (er Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terms. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMER P. SA.XE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1888. PETKK SAXK & SON, liick Hoase, 8. F. 



PURE 



TRUMBULL, STREAM & ALLEN 
SEED CO.. 
Grass, FIsId, Garden and Tr«« Saeds, Onion Seta, Eto. 

Saad tor OaUlafu. Hailed rraa. 
Maa-««aa ar. l*ms ««■.. RANBAS OITY, MO. 



SEEDS 



IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF THOROUGHBRED 

(liECOKDED 




DISHFACED BERKSHIRE PIGS, 

IMPROVED POLAND-CHINA PIGS. 

SHROPSHIRE DOWN SHEEP, 

Young Stock for sale at reasonable prices. Every animal guaranteed. 
OFFICE— 218 California St.. San FranclBCO. REDWOOD CITY. CAL. 




HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL VARIETIES OF FANCY FOWLS, 

Dncks, Turkeys, Geese, Peacocks, Etc, 

EGGS FOR HATCHING. 



Publisher of " Nilea' Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book,'' 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
the Pacific Coast Price 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for information. 

BREEDER AND RAISER OF THOROUGH DRED 

Jersey and Holsteln Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES. Los Angeles, Cal. 




SA-vT-es Ono-C^ix^n-tcx- of G-rAlxa. Feed. 



FRAUDULENT PARTIES 
have been selling an 
article, claiming theirs to be 
the same, and, in order to 
luialeid, liave added a prefix 
to " Manhattan." Our gen- 
uine food is called simple 
" Manhattan Food," with the 
Red Ball Brand. 

62 3 Howard St., San 
Francisco, Cal. 



PoUltiiy» Etc. 



Alameda CoDQty Fine Stock Farm. 

MOHR BROS., Proprietors. 




IMPORTED ANI' II' )M K - lil; i . 1 > ll K U I s T E R K D 
Clydesdale Stallions ard Maree, weij;hin^' from 1800 
to 2000 lbs each, from pri;:e- winning families. Holsteln 
Eriesian Bulls and Heifers of the most noted families 
All Registered. Also Registered Berkshire I'igs. Call 
on or address H. P. MOHR, MOUNT EDE.\", ALA- 
MEDA COUNTY, CAL., 20 miles southeast from San 
Francisco. Take train for Uaywards station, on broad 
gauge, or Mt. Eden on narroo' gauge railroad. Fare 60 
cents. Conveyance at deput if notice is given. Vlsitois 
wel.ome and inspection invited 



SHEEP AND QOATS. 



B. W. WOOLSBY & SON, Fulton, Oal., Importers 
fe breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams lor sale. 



B. H. OBANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for sale. 



KIBKPATBIOK tt WHITTAKBB, Knight's 
rerry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams tor sale. 



L. U. SHIPPBB, Stockton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
ol Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys fc Berkshire Swine high graded rams lor gale 

ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv'L 



SWNE. 



JOSBPH MBLVIN, DavisviUe, Cai.. Breeder ot 
PoUnd-Chlna Hogs. 



WILLIAM NILBS.Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars tree. 



TTLBB BEACH, San Jose, CaL, breeder of 
Ihorsnghbred Berkshire and Essex Bogs. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see adv't 



BEES. 



APIARIAN SUPPLIES for sale by Mrs. J. D. 
Rnas. Napa City, Cal. 



P.qpHc FREEi"i/;; 

UUI UO tof^tapli. KoreloM. b*relc<l£ds». CruT £<1» CarOa Ac, 
^ ^ tMfi« 41 Ul Irw. aSMA lad Kotmi, Cftdii. OtM. 



COLTS BROKEN. 



THE SOUTHER FARM, 

One and a half miles northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda Ooaoty, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable, 
Horses boarded at all times. 

THE SOUTHEB FARM, 

GILBERT TOMPKINS, Proprietor, 

p. O. Box 149. San Leandro. Oal 



HWIL8EY & CO.. PETALUMA STABLES, 
• Main Street, opposite Pl'za. 
We will sell all our Impurted French 
and English Draft .Stallions, ■ that 
have proven themselves good foal- 
getters, at a bartrain, as we desire to 
close a partnership business. Parties 
intending to purchase will please ex- 
amine our stocK. No reasonable 
offer refused. Address H. W1L3EY 
ti CO., Petaluma, Cal. 




BADEN FARM HERD. 
Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 
BOBEBT ASHBUBNEB, 
Bkaen station. Saa Mateo Oo.. OaL 



GoDSignmeDt of Six Clydesdale 
Stallions and Four Mares. 




JUST ARRIVED FROM AUSTRALIA. APPLY TO 
«. L. TATLOK, No. 428 California Street, or 
JOHN SCOTT, Park Louvre Stables, Bay District Race 
Track, San Francisco, Cal. 



DR. A. E. BUZARD, 

VETERINARY SURGEON, 

Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, England. 
Okaduatbd April 22, 1870. 
AdTioe by Mall, $8. 

OFFICE AND PHARMACY: 

No, 11 SeTenm SL, sear Market, Sai Francisco, CaL 

Onen Dav and Night. Telephone. Ha. SUA). 



FOI?. SAX.E. 



OnePercheronMare 

COLOR, BLACK; WEIGHT, 1650. IMPORTED BY 
Levi Dillon, Normal, Ills. Due to foal March 1, 1391. 
Address W. B. ELLEN WOOD, Atlanta, San Joaquin 
County, CaL 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Jor. 17th Si Castro Ste.. Oakland, CaL 

Maoolactory of the PACI- 
FIC INCUBATOR and 
BROODER. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Kabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances In great variety. 
Also every variety of land 
and water Fowl, which 
have won first prizes wherever exhibited. Eggs for 
.latching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Oulde, price, 40c. Send 4c. stamp for 80-page catalogue. 
Illustrated In colors, to the PACIFIO INCUBATOR CO., 
1S17 Castro St., Oakland, CaL 




DROP IT 



If you are in any business 
not paying you, drop it, 
and buy a Petaluma Incu- 
bator. PKICES RE- 
DUCED. A Urge 32- 
page Illustrated Catalogue 
describing Incubators, 
Brooders, BroodingUonses, 
How and What to Feed, 
How Long to keep them 
in the Brooder, Drinking 
Fountains, Diseases and 
their Cure, Egg Testers, 
Bone and Shell Mills, Wire 
Netting, Thermometers, 
Lath Fencing, Flood's 
Roup Cure, " Creosozone," 
the only thing that will 
exterminate vermin among 
chickens, in fact, more In- 
formation than is given in many 2D-cent books. Sent to 
any address on receipt of four cents in stamps. 

PETALUMA INCUBATOR C0„ PeUluma, Cal, 





HALSTED INCUBATOR 

cnMP.\NV, 
ISIS BIyrtle Ntrevt, Oahland, Cal. 

Send Stauiii for Circular. 



New Importation I 




THEO. SKILLMAN 

Ha^t just arrived iii Petalun.a with a new 
importation of 

CHOICE YOUNG STALLIONS 

Consisting of 

PERCHEKONS, SUFFOLKS. SHIRES AND 
FRENCH COACHKRS. 

Prices moderate and terms liberal to suit the times. 
Catalogues for 1891 on application. THEO. SKILLMAN. 



J. C. SMITH, IMPORTER. 

imported, Registered Percheron Stallions 

FRDM TWO TO FOUR YEARS OLD. 
suto, 

FIVE SELECT MARES. 

Having spent over one 
year In France selecting 
above stock, think I liave a 
better grade than has ever 
Iwforc l>een offered for sale 
in this State. Having been 
here one year, they are 
thoroughly acclimated. For 
fiurther particulars, address 

J. C. SMITH, 

1422 Eighth St., Oakland, or 
No 1 Howard St., S. K.,Cal. 




Will lie Som Very ReasoDaWe, 
TWO PERCHERON STALLIONS, 

One black and the other gray. Both seven ytars old 
last spring. Can show their colts. Weigh 1760 and 1840 
pounds. 

SACKRiDER & CHISHOLM, 

No. 870 Eleventh Street. «IAKL,AND, OAL. 



APIARIAN 8CFPI.IES. 

Italian Queens, ta.60 each; Black Queens, 91 each. 
Swarms from <2.60 each; Smoker, il. Comb Found* 
Hon, |1.2e per pound; V-groove Sections, >4 per 1000 
Comb Honey wholesale and retail; Hives, eto. W. 
iTYAN k SOU, Tba Homeetead Apiary, Sao Uaiec, (W. 



ilWPORTEDJTALLIONSI 

HOLBERT & CONGER, 

Los Angelee, CaL, 

Import Direct from Europe 
and sell Fall - Blooded 
Yorkshire Cleveland 
Bay, Oldenbnrg Ger- 
, man Coach and En- 
"Kllsh Shire Draft Stal- 
' lions. The beet Coach and 
Draft Horses in the world. 
Stables permanently located, 
l .ar 1^1 4 . L ^;ive Eastern prices and guar- 

antee our hutscd. Correspondence solicited. AddreM 

1008 OliTe St., Loa Angeles, Cal. 
Our Horses are full registered in Europe and America, 




H. E. CARPENTER, 
Veterinary Surgeon, 

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto, Canada. 
KESIDENOE AND VETERINARY INFIRMARY: 

881 Ooldeo Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 

Telephone 3069. 
tM" OPEN DA Y AND NIGHT. 
No risk in throwing Horses. Veterinary operating table 
on the premises. 



IJREEI'ER OK RF.<ilsTKItKD 

Staortborn. Aberdeen • Anarna I 
and Jeracy Ciaitle. i 

Young Stock for Sale. Correspondeuci- 1 

aoUclted. «. W. DIKICK. Habbard. Ur«S«a. 




Jan. 17, 1891.] 



f ACIFie I^URAId f RE88. 



63 



WHEN YOU BUY, 



BUY- 



THE BEST! 



THE 



lE^. DE^. DEBE- 

Horse Liniment 

Is certainly the best preparation of its 
kind in the market. Ranchers, Stock 
Raisers and Horse Owners of every 
description will tell you that It does 
good work every time. 



MssHKg. H. H. MoORB & S0N8, Stocktoo, Cal.— Gbiitlb- 
hkn: In answer to your inquiry, would etate that I used 
your H. H. H. Liniment on my Holland prize-winning 
cow, " Lena Menlo," for a wrenched shoulder, and it re- 
lieved her very much. She calved the next day, and while 
Btill suffering from the sprain gave the largest authen- 
ticated quantity of milk ever given on this coast (lOJ 
gallons per day), showing conclusively the great relief 
received from your remedy. I consider it a necessity in 
my stables, and when away from home feel perfectly 
sate, as inexperienced men can do no harm with it, as 
they can with the more powerful blisters. Respectfully 
yours, FRANK H. BURKE, 

Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berkshirea. 

Uenlo Park, Cal., January 22d, 1889. 



MANUFACTURED BY 

H. H. MOORE & SONS, 

THE DRUGGISTS, 

248 MAIN STREET, STOCKTON, CAL. 

CHOICE! PURELY BRED 




COOKER SPANIEL PUPPIES 

THE HANDSOMEST, MOST INTELLIGENT, MOST 
companionable, best house, watch and carriage dogs 
in existence, as well as the best ALL-AROUND sports- 
man's dog with the gun. Mention this paper, and for 
particulars address M. P. McKOON, El Cajon, San 
Diego County, California. 



The Perfection Horse Tail Tie. 





BETTER THAN CLEANING A MUDDY TAIL, ALL 
Polished Metal. Samples, 25 cents. DES MOINES 
NOVELTY CO., 127 Fourth St., Des Moices, Iowa. 
Mention this paper. 



PACIFIC COAST HORSE MARKET, 

1816 and 1618 Mission St., 

Telephone No. 6093. SAN FRANCISCO. 

WATKINS & DUHIG, Proprietors, 

I.ITE STOCK & OENBRAI. AUCTIONEERS 



Horses bought and sold. Auction Sales every Wednes- 
day and Saturday at 11 a. m. A full line of Draught, 
Driving, Saddle and Business Horses. Particular atten- 
tion paid to country sales. Special inducements to 
parties having sale horses. Stock sold on commission 
and boarded at low rates. 





FARM ENGINES 



Upright and TTorizontal. 
Simple, Effective, Durable. 

Write U9 i>eforo buying. 
For free Pamphlet address 

THE JAMES LEFFEL & CO. 

SPRENGFIELD, OHIO, 
or 110 LIbertT Bt.. New Torli. 



Postmasters 



are requested to be sure and notify us 
when this paper Ig not taken from 
their office. If not stopped promptly 
(through oversight oi other mishaps) do us the btTor to 
write again. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY. 



PATENT OWNEBa OF 



JUDSON POWDER. 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stnmp and Bank BUeting. From 6 to 20 
pounds blows any Stnmp, Tree or Root clear 
ont of groand at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As other makers IMITATE onr Giant Powder, so do they Jndson, by Manu&ctaring 
a second-grade, inferior to Jndson. 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN k CO, General Agents, San Francisco. 



NOBEL'S DYNAMITE, 

NOBEL'S EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, 

NOBEL'S GELATINE-DYNAMITE, 

Best and Strongest Eiplosives in tlie World. 




FRESNO CANAL, DITC HING AND LEVELING SCRAPERS. 

FiEEBAUGH, Cal. (Peso Farm), November 8, 1889. 
Me. Jas. Pokteods, Fresno, Cal.— Deae Sir: In answer to yours of 6th Inst., will say that I have found 
your new style lour-horse Scraper the best aU-round Scraper I have yet tried. Respectfully yours, 

J. W. SCHMITZ, Supt. Miller & Lux. 

SEND FOB CATALOGUE AND PRICE LIST. 

FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

SHIPPING ^COMMISSION HOUSE, 

OFFICE, 108 DAVIS STBEET, SAN FBANCISCO, CAL. 

Warehoase and Wharf at Port Ooata. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF GRAIN, WOOL, AND ALL KINDS OF PRODUCE SOLICITED. 

Money advanced on Oraln In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full OarKoes of Wbeat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDEBS FOR GRAIN BAQS, Agricaltnral Implement!, Wagons, Orooeriei 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

B. VAN EVEiBY, Manaser. A. M. BELT. Assistant Manaser 



SAN FRANCISCO TOOL CO, 

MANUFAOTUHBBS OF 

IRRIGATING PUMPS 

AND 

Machinery of all Kinds. 

PACIFIC COAST AGENTS 

BABOOOK & WILOOX 

Patent Water Tube Steam Boilers. 

Estimates Famished on Application. 




'Send for OataloKues. 



OBNTRIFUOAI. PUMP. 



FIRST and STEVENSON STS.. S. F. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

49'Free Coaoh to and fl-om the Hotise. J. 'W'. BECKEIR. Proprietor. 



Coinini$3iop flerchapt^, 

MOORE. FERGUSON & CO.. 

WOOL, GRAIN, FLOUR 

—AMD— 

Generil Commission Merchants, 

810 California St., S. F. 



Ifembers o( the San Francisco Prodnce Exchange 
iVPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad* 
vanceo made on Consignments at low rates of interest. 



DALTON BROS.. 

Commission Mercltants 

AID DIALUIS IN 

CALIFORNIA AND OREGON PRODUCE, 

Qreen and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignmeots. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1986.) 
SVConsignments Solicited. 



ALLISON, GRAY & CO. 

SDOOSSSORS TO 

LITTLBFIBLD, ALLISON & CO., 

601, 508, 605, 607 and 609 Front Street 
and 800 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 

GREEN and DRIED FRUITS. 

Pooltry, Eggs, Game, Qrain, Prodnce and 
Wool. 



[■BTABLI8HRD 1864.] 

6E0RGE MORROW A CO., 

HAY and GRAIN 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

89 Olay Street and 28 Oommerolal Street 
Sin Fbanoisoo, Cai,. 
mt SHIPPING ORDERS A SPECULLTT.-Wl 

EnoRini J. Grkoort. [Established 1852.] Frakk Giusory. 

GREGORY BROTHERS CO., 

Commission Merchants, 

PACKERS AND SHIPPERS OF 

CALIFORNIA FRUIT AND PRODUCE. 

126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco Office, 313 DavU St. 



W£TMOBE BSOTHEBS. 

Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fmlt, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Consignments solicited. 118, 416 * 417 WMhIngton 81., 
Ssn Francisco. 



EYELETH & NASH, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs, 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, SSt 
226 and 227 Washington St., San Francisco. 



WITTLAJfTD & PBEDBICKSOH, 

Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Orean and Dried Frnlts. 
Consignments Solicited. 324 DavlS St., S. F. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

OF CALIFORNIA, 
SAN FBANOISOO. OAL. 
iNOORPORArao April, 1871, 



DEWEY & CO. {^''\}^t^t^^1^?roli^-\ PATENT AGENTS. 




Aathoriced Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid ap and Reserve Fond 800,000 
DiTldends paid to Stockholders.. 637,000 

OFFICERS. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

L C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPKLLIER Cashlerand Manager 

FRANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Silver. 
Bills of Ezohange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

July 1, 1889. A. MONTPELLIER. Manager. 



DBWBT A OO.. PATENT AOBNTS, 280 
Market St., San Francig«o. Elevator, 13 Front St 



60 



f ACIFI0 I^URAb pRESa 



[Jan. 17, 1891 



Market Review. 

DOMBSTI O^PBODO OB. BTO. 

San Francisco. Jan. 14, 1891. 

General trade in farm products is quiet, partly 
due to fewer lines to be dealt in, but largely due to 
the uncertain feeling of operators. The unsettled 
condition of the Behring sea question, and fears en- 
tertained that the situation may become more 
strained, cause farm products to suffer, owing 
to England being our largest customer. The 
silver question is another disturbing factor which 
will not be settled until we have free coinage, which 
will be in the interest of wheat-growers. The money 
market is still easing. The foreign wheat markets 
have held strong throughout the week. The follow- 
ing is to-day's cablegram; 

Liverpool, Jan. 14.— Wheat— Steady. Cahfor- 
nia spot lots, 73 6d to 7s 9'Ad: cargoes off coast, 38s 
qd; just shipped, 38s 6d; nearly due, 38s gd; cargoes 
off coast, firmer; on passage, improving; Mark Lane 
wheat firmer; English country markets very firm; 
wheat'and flour in Paris, firm; weather in England, 

colder. porelgn Grain Review. 

London. Jan. 12.— The A-fari Lane Express, 
in its review of the British grain trade, says: Eng- 
lish wheat is held at is. advance; 6d. is obtained. 
Foreign wheat is firm. Oats are dull. At to-day s 
market full prices were paid for spot corn, and the 
inquiry for forward delivery improved. 

LiiverDOOi Wbeat MarRet. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 

options per ctl. for the past week: 

apuuuo V j.,^^ j, j,jy June 

TSv 7.8M 7s9id 7e9»d 7.9Jd 798Jd 788id 

<!»tu?dav ■ .7'83d 74 1 7.9id 7,9Jd 7.-8}d 7»7}d 
Monday ■ ..7.9ld 7^1 7 9td 7^9,1 7.SM 7,8d 
T^?eiSly...'...7991d 789id 769Jd 789a 7»8»d 788d 

The following are the prices for California cargoes 
'or off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
,he past week:^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^ 

Thursday . 33>9d SSftiJ 3839d Finn. 
Jrld^ 33 9J 38S6J SSsfld Strouff. 

Saturday ". 38.91 38s6J 3889a Strotir. 
Monday 3Ss9d SSsOd SSsSd Firm, 
TuiSSay 388'JJ 38s6d 3S»9d tiuiet. 

Baetern Grain MarReta. 
The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
at New Vork for the past week, per bushel: 

nav Jan. Feb. Mar. April. May. July. 

Thursday 1033 IMJ }05i •••• 1«* •• 

Friday ....lOSJ 10*1 H5| .... 1U4| 
Ltu^L: ...IO3I 104} 105| .... IMI ... 

Mnndav 1033 1041 104^ .... 104i 

"°JS^y:.::.::io43 104? 105* .... io48 ... 

The closing prices for wheat have been as follows 
at Chicago for the past week, per bushel: 
Day. J*"- 

Thursaay ^\ 

Friday ?'» 

Saturday ^« 

Monday 

Tuesday ""'l 

New York, Jan. 14.— Wheat-$i.o55i for Jan- 
uary Si.os for February, $i.o6K for March, $1.05 
for May, $1.03 for June, and 98^0 for July 

Chicago, Jan. i4.-Wheat-97!< for May. 
Visible. 

New York, Jan. 12.— The visible supply of grain 
on' Saturday, Jan. loth, as compiled by the New 
York Produce Exchange, was as follows: Wheat, 
21; 518 000 bushels, a decrease of 328,000; corn, 
2 815 000 bushels, an increase of 57.000; oats, 3,- 
771,000 bushels, a decrease of 25,000; barley, 3,- 
8n!iii bushels, a decrease of 248,000. 

Bastern Wool Marfeeta. 

New York, Jan. 12.— There is a good run of 
trade in wool here; combing grades are all cleared 
out All holders speak hopefully of the spring mar- 
ket and are not disputed by any of the mill firms of 
weight Desirable fleeces have been certainly strong- 
er in the last 10 days, and a large movement in Tex- 
as wools leaves them stiffly quoted. It is expect- 
ed that the favorable winter will work off the surplus 
of old woolen goods and that manufacturers will 
promptly produce attractive styles, so there is no 
giving way in lines that must come into play. 

Boston reports show a continued activity, with 
strong prices for fleeces and Territory in grease. 
Sales 376,000 lbs foreign, 2,147,000 lbs domestic. 
California spring and fall show the full last figures. 

The Philadelphia market is waking up with a fair 
volume of business, and the strong tone of pnces 
has been responded to. The supply is moderate. 
Ulacellaneous. 

New York, Jan. 12.— Hops quiet and brewers' 
wants moderate. No foreign orders are noted. 
Sellers oppose all attempts to materially break down 
the nominal rates of last week. Exports the past 
week aggregate 752 bales. 

Hides have had a good trading in common early 
in the week, with liberal sales of better grades at the 
close, chiefly at private terms. Tanners bid 12^0 
for best, with offerings free at 13c. 

The easy prices of raisins tend to call out more 
trade. The qualities are now comprehensively sort- 
ed, which gives buyers confidence, particularly in 
the grocery grades. Fine layers in boxes range as 
before Three Crown sell at $i.6o@i.75; bagged, 
6i^47<: per lb. T he stock is heavy, but flooding 
arrivals have ceased. A recent Western assertion 
that grapes have been packed here in cartons as 
raisins meets only ridicule. 

Apricots steady, with sales at 18c in bags and 19c 
ID boxes. Grapes and pears from cold storage show 
a moderate trade. 

Honey is stiff' at 7@7Kc for amber and white. All 
that is here will be wanted. 

Dried grapes, spot, sell at 4^0 and are slow 
Common raisins are too cheap for their promised 
introduction. 

Prunes, four sizes, lie; divided continue un- 
changed. _ 

Local Markets. 

B1KI.IT 

Buyer Season. Seller 1891. Buyer 1891. 

H L. H. L tt L. 

TouTSday... ir.5 IMJ tlOJi IMJ 166 166 

Friday . 156 mi US 1^8 

laCrSay.... * tlOSl 107* 15*i 154J 

Ifondftv ■'^« 

TOesdav IMi 1M| *115 '115 156 154 

♦After Augtwl. fFor the year. 



WHIAT. 

Seller Buyer Buyer Seller 

Season. 1891. Season. 1891. 

. I h 160 144i 

Thursday.... j, 1^9, j^j^ 

-'""•y {?.•;;:; IJS! 1^4 :::: 

s-turday }«| }«f 

iiooday._..{t;;;; 

1l .... 148i 143 

BAGS —The market is heavy for standard-size at 
6>4@6Jic. The farmers in Washington are agitat- 
ng for a jute-mill by the State at the penitentiary. 

BARLEY— The market is fairly stroug under 
moderate supplies and a good demand. In futures, 
trading on Call has been light. The following are 
to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer season — 400 tons, $1.53; 
100, $i.52ji. No. I Brewing, buyer season — 100 
tons, $1.58 ^ ctl. Afternoon Session: Buyer sea- 
son— 400 tons, $1.51 K ^ ctl. 

BUTTER— The market is easy, under freer re- 
ceipts and local supplies increasing which lessens the 
buying demand. From up north there is only a fair 
inquiry, as the shipments from the Central States 
are quite large. 

CHEESE — Receipts show a slight increase, but 
as stocks are exhausted all coming in is readily ab- 
sorbed. 

EGGS— The market is easy. The supply of Cali- 
fornian is increasing. The trade confines purchases 
as much as possible. 

FLOUR— The market is fairly steady for leading 
brands. The offerings of outside brands are quite 
free. 

WHEAT— The sample market is firm. Consider- 
able Oregon and Washington from east of the Cas- 
cades is coming to hand. This wheat, or at least 
the bulk, is preferred by exporters to France, but 
with English exporters it is not in much favor. 
Puget Sound advices report about 35,000 tons in the 
warehouses. This was put out for bear purposes up 
north, so as to get holders to sacrifice their grain. 
In futures, trading on Call has been light. The fol- 
lowing are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1891 — 100 tons, $1.47^1 
300, $i.47>^. Buyer season — 1900 tons, $1.42}^; 
500, $i.42ji ; 900, \$ ctl. Afternoon Session: 

Buyer 1891—600 tons, $1.47. Buyer season — 1000 
tons, $1.41^; 100, $i.4iK 1^ ctl. 



Market Int'ormation. 

Produce Becelpta. 
Receipts of produce at this port for the week end 
ing Jan. 13th, were as follows: 

Flour, qr. sks 98,194; Middlings, sks... 3,521 

Wheat, ctls 165 ,547, Alfalfa, 



Barley, 
Rye ■• .. 
Oats " .. 
Corn " . . 
•Butter " . . 

do bxs . . 

do bbis . . 

do kegs . . 

do tubs . . 

do % bxs . . 
tCheese, ctls. 

do bxs . . 



24,5i7iChicory, bbls.. 110 
8,416 Broomcorn bdls.. 274 

2,737 Hops, bis 

3.944 Wool, " 81 

383 Hay, tons 1,333 

112 Straw " 10 

IWine, gals 100,790 

.... Brandy, " 34,860 

I Raisins, bxs 2,312 



421 Honey, cs. 
384I Walnuts, sks. 
ID Flaxseed, " . 



Eggs, doz 22,330 Mustard, 

do " Eastern. 20,400 Almonds, 



B^ans, ctls 

Potatoes, sks 

Onions, " 

Bran, " 

Buckwheat " 

'Overland. . . .ctls. 



819 Peanuts, 
28,117 Popcorn, " . . . 
1,156 Beet sugar, bbls. 
i3,220| do do sks, . . . 

tOverland ctls. 

Cereals. 



212 

29 
1,629 

110 



Tne Mark Lane Express of Dec. 22 reports as 
follows: The fall of snow which has occurred dur- 
ing the past week has been very welcome, forming a 
proteclive covering to the autumn sowings, and re- 
moving fears of injury from the penetrative effects of 
continued frosts. Live-stock are doing well, the 
air being healthy for them so long as they are well 
fed. To barn and byre, stockyard and stackyard 
the farmers' attention is now restricted. Nothing is 
doing beyond the steading, and the labor bill is re- 
duced to a minimum. Market deliveries remained 
fairly liberal up to Wednesday, but since that date 
the fresh fall of snow has made road transit difticult, 
while the dark days, often foggy as well, have de- 
layed railway traffic very considerably. On the 
Thames, and other rivers, navigation is already 
difficult, owing to floating masses of ice. The same 
wintry impediments are announced from France, 
and most of the Dutch rivers and canals are given 
over, for the time being, to the skaters. Thaw, how- 
ever, is reported from parts of the lower Danube. The 
London average shows threepence improvement. 
To the (iovernment estimates of this year's harvest 
it may be briefly mentioned that the influence of the 
report is encouraging to wheat holders, who are as- 
sured that the crop does not exceed 73,354,484 bushels 
against 73,202,773 bushels last year. This is a yield 
of 30.74 bushels to the acre, and effectively combats 
the undue optimism against which we have ourselves 
contended. With respect to barley, which is reck- 
oned a yield of 73,933,801 bushels, the deliveries 
since harvest will hardly be proved to indorse so lib- 
eral a view. 

The local wheat market has held to fairly strong 
prices. The strength of the market is due to strong 
holding, prospective silver legislation and a freer 
supply of tonnage in the near future. Buyers state 
that the strength of the market is largely based on 
higher prices abroad, which ate due to lessened ship- 
ments from Russia, and as soon as the ice embargo 
is raised in the Black Sea, free shipments will follow. 
While the laiter may result, yet the fact is ignored 
that English farmers are small holders, having been 
free sellers, and with smaller available home supplier 
the wheat market will not break, but, on the con- 
trary, may advance slightly. Receipts from up north 
are lessening. The money market is growing easier. 

Advices from the agricultural districts continue 
favorable. The cold weather is generally accet)ted 
to be of advantage to the seeded lands. Where the 
plant has made a start, the cold checks its upward 
growth and causes its growth to go into the roots, 
which is calculated not only to make the plant 
stronger but to cause it to stool out. 

The Tacoma Ledger, January 11, gives the list of 



wheat vessels as follows at the following ports: 
Tacoma — ship Marion, ship Senator, ship Honolulu, 
ship Milverton, ship Constance. Portland — British 
ship Cornuvia, American ship Solitaire, ship City of 
Philadelphia for charter, British ship Annesley. 

Barley is strong at full figures. Brewers have been 
taking fair quantities. One sale of nearly 3000 sacks 
was made the past week at $1.55. The grade is 
nearly gilt-edge. This parcel goes into immediate 
consumption. There is a good demand for seed. 
From all obtainable information we feel justified in 
stating that the acreage to be seeded will be up to 
if not exceeding the largest recorded. 

Oats are strong at a slight advance. The de- 
mand is chiefly for immediate use. Cold, frosty 
weaiher causes more feeding of grain. The available 
supply up north is said to be light. There is a good 
demand lor seed. 

Corn shows more strength. It is claimed that the 
supply in this Stale will barely meet the requirements 
of feeders and others before the new-crop season. 

Rye is steady with a firm tone. 

Feedstuff 

Ground feed is firm with a good demand ruling. 
Continued cold weather compels feeding in many 
localities where it would not be necessary with warm 
growing weather. 

Hay is strong with $19 obtainable in a small way 
for the more choice grades. The feeding 
is large in this State and also up north. Continued 
cold weather keeps gross back and also points to a 
later season for new-crop hay. 

Uve-atoctt. 

Bullocks are steady. Mutton sheep are higher 
under a growing scarcity. Hogs are fetching a 
slight advance. Small calves are lower owing to 
more offering. Milch cows and horses are essentially 
unchanged. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off firom the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per cent]: 

HOGS — On foot, light grain fed, 4}i@4Kc^P !b 
dressed. 7@i%c ^ lb.; heavy, 4@4J^c lb.; 
dressed. b'A®7^c^Xb. Stock hogs, 3 K@4C V ft- 

BEEF— Stall fed, 7@—c ^ lb. ; grass fed, extra, 
6M@— c (? lb.; first quality, 5J<@6c \f lb.: second 
quality 4)i@5C )? lb.; third quality, 354c@4M V 
lb. ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3c lb. 

VEAL— Small, 6@7c ^ lb. ; large, s@6c. 

MUTTON— Wethers, 8@9c^lb.: ewes, 7K@ 
8J^c ^ tt>.; lamb, 9@ioc ^ lb; spring lamb, 15c. 

Frulta. 

Apples are still in liberal supply; only the more 
choice gilt-edge fetch top prices. Oregon, Wash- 
ington and the northern counties of this State are 
sending in liberal supplies. Any selling pressure 
is met by lower bids from buyers. 

Los Angeles is still sending in strawberries. The 
last consignment had to be closed out at prices 
barely covering freight charges. 

Oranges are in good supply and as the weather is 
cold, sellers find some difficulty in placing consign- 
ments. Concessions are necessary to close out a 
large consignment. The East continues to draw 
freely. Up north the demand is only fair. 

Dried fruits are fairly firm. Holders evince more 
confidence in the future. The stock is not large, 
and as it is fairly concentrated, many look for an 
improvement. 

Raisins are slightly more inquired after. The low 
prices at the East brought in large buyers who ap- 
pear to be concentrating, and as the market cleans 
up a stronger tone is noticeable. 

Tne Oraage Crop. 

The Sacramento Bee, Jan. 12, says: E. Piatt has 
returned from Southern California where he has been 
for some time. He reports a heavy increase in the 
yield of California oranges. The Cahfornia crop 
this season will reach 4000 carloads or 1,200,000 
boxes of the average weight of 65 pounds net. The 
enormous gain over last year, when the crop was 
about 750,000 boxes, is 450,000. The crop is only 
beginning to be moved in Southern California, 
where the shipments so far have not been much 
over so carloads. A great many new orange groves 
are being planted this year, and the demand lor 
trees compelled the importation of great numbers 
from Florida. These figures make an interesting 
comparison with the returns from Florida and show 
that California is increasing her yield of oranges 
much more rapidly than the land of the everglades. 
Last year P'lorida produced about 2,000,000 boxes 
while this year the product aggregated half a million 
boxes more. These figures show that California is 
making far greater progress proportionately in this 
direction than F'lorida. About 2000 carloads of 
the Florida crop has been moved already. 

Vesetablea. 

Heavy frosts the past week caused considerable 
damage to the more tender spring vegetation. The 
southern counties continue to send us early vege- 
tables. 

Onions are barely steady. Free receipts are against 
holders. There is a better .«upply of table onions. 

Heavy receipts of potatoes with large supplies 
stored handy for shipping, cause a weak market 
Buyers do not appear disposed to anticipate their 
wants. New while in fair supply, do not come in 
freely enough to warrant quoting. Sweet potatoes 
are in light receipt. 

Mlacellaneoua. 

The market is about bare of Eastern poultry, 
which causes a better feeling for California stock. 
Broilers, friers and turkeys are higher. 

Beans show a fair degree of strength. The receipts 
are light while the demand is fair. 

Honey is strong under light obtainable supplies 
and a good demand. 

Hops are scarce and hard to get even at top prices. 
Contracting for this year's crop is reported in this 
State, Oregon and Washington, but the prices we 
are unable to get. 

Wool is still dull, but it is claimed that the situa- 
tion is favorable to growers. 

For seeds the quotations are unchanged. The 
demand is fair. 

Exports by sea the past week aggregate as follows: 
Wheat ctls, Havre, 64,199, Cork, 48,027; Central 
America, 1000. Flour bbls, China, 14,402; Japan, 
776, Guayquil, 100; Panama, 610; Central America, 
3011, Corn ctls, Central America, 1569. Wine 



gals. New York, 321,921 ;'Japan, 1562; Mexico, 1579; 
Philadelphia, 553; Washington, 206; Brooklyn, 558. 
Raisins boxes, Auckland, 210. Dried fruits lbs, 
Japan, 1220. Beans lbs, Panama, 1000; New York, 
18,363. Barley ctls. New York, 4908. 

From the Commercial News of Jan. 14th the fol- 
lowing summary of tonnage movement is compiled: 
On the way to iSgt. 1890. 

San Francisco 283,171 181,443 

San Diego 15. 475 11. 121 

San Pedro 7 478 3,840 

Oregon 36615 26,157 

Puget Sound 12.247 17,170 

Totals 354.986 2J9 731 

In port at 

San Francisco, disengaged 3 382 21,196 

" " engaged lor VI heat 44 653 73,870 

San Diego "I 

.San Pedro ]. 3,816 

Columbia River 16.982 j 

Puget Sound 

Totals 64,717 98 862 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From July i, 1890, to Dec. 31, 1890, the following 
are the exports from this port: 1890. 1889. 

Wheat, ctls S.859 269 6,233.523 

Flour, bbls 567,116 546302 

Barley 176,369 815865 

Domestic Produce. 



Sxtra choloe In Kood packages fetch an advance on top 

ijaotatlouB, while very poor gradee sell lesa tbao the lower 

QUOtatlouS. WEU.NE.tDAT, Jau. 14. 1891. 



BEAJfS AND PEAS. I SoftaheU .... 

Bayo, ctl 3 50 (S 3 90 I Paper shell.. 

Butter 2 <a ^ 2 '.15 Brazil, . 

Pea 2 50 ftc 2 90 Pecaiu ntnall.. 

Red 2 50 @ 2 90 ' do large. 

Pink 2 20 a 2 40 - 

BmeU White .. 2 60 @ 2 80 
Llwa... .. 3 10 @ 3 40 
Fid Peao.hlkeye 1 65 @ 1 86 

do grCHD 2 60 @ 2 90 

do NI.B8 1 60 # 1 60 

SpUt 4J@ 64 

BROOM CORN. 
OtaojcetoEztra70 00 (3 90 00 
Fair to Good. .52 SO 66 00 

Poor 42 50 47 50 

CHIOORY. 

OalUorula 5i@ 6 

Glemiao 6 @ 6J 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. 

IIUTTEK 



35 



275 



26} 



' 4 25 
4 25 

3 50 



CaL Poor to fair.It 15 @ 

do good to choice 30 @ 
do Giltediiwl... 36 @ 
du Creamery rolls 37 (s 
do Eastern tul» 30 ^ 
do do dairy ... 20 @ 

I'H EB8B. 

Oal. choice mild 12i@ 
do fair to good 10 l<t 
do gilt edged.. 14 Ift 
YouDg America 13 @ 
N. York Cream. 13 W 

Western 11 % 

■008. 

Oal. ranch, doz. 25 @ 
do do sel'cted 271,® — 

do. store 24 (» — 

Ea^m. fresh.. 2'.'i@ 25 
do selected.. 27i@ — 
FEED. 

Bran, ton 22 00 @23 00 

Feedmeal 27 00 @29 00 

Or'd Barley 32 50 333 50 

Middlings 24 00 S26 00 

Oil Cake M<'al..26 00 «28 CO 
.MatiliattanFood 1:1100 ttis 7 50 
HAY. 

Compressed ....13 00 ®18 00 
Wheat, per ton. 12 00 v^l7 OO 

do choice 18 OJ ^ — 

Wheat and Uatsl! U] ;<tl6 50 

Wild Oat« 11 50 @14 SO 

Tame do II OO @14 00 

Barley 10 50 f 14 00 

Barley and Oats 10 CO $14 00 

Alfalfa 12 00 @13 SO 

Straw bale 7U @ 80 

FLOUR. 
Rxtra,CityMiUs 4 10 
do Ou'try Mills 4 OU 

Superline 3 CO 1 

GRAIN. ETC 
Barley, feed, ctl. 1 4619 1 62i 
do Choice I 633«at - 
do Brewing... 1 55 @ — 
do do Choice. . 1 57S® - 
dodogiltedg'd 1 62S$ - 
OberaUer chce 1 57i@ 1 621 
docomtottood 1 40 d 1 &2i 
Buckwheat. ... 1 40 @ 1 65 
f!om. White.... 1 33ll - 
YeUow, large... 1 3243 - 

do, small 1 325@ - 

Oato, milling.... 2 00 (U 2 10 

Surprise 2 00 S 2 10 

ahoioe feed,ch'c 1 95 @ - 

do good. 1 90 @ - 

do Fair 1 75 S - 

do Gray I 80 $ 1 92S 

do Black 1 70 «* 1 90 

do do for seed 2 25 2 60 

Rye 1 30 M 1 35 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... I 433(8 - 

do Choice 1 4l}@ - 

do fair to good 1 38{@ - 
Shipping, cBo'oe 1 38]@ 

do good. 1 35 ^ 

do fair 1 30 f 

Sonera 1 Slim 

HIDES. 
Dry Ight to hVy 9 « 

Salted 5 @ 

HOPb. 

Oregon, 1890 30 M 

Cal 1890 Choice 37i@ 
do Fair to G'd 30 (tt 

NUTS- JOBBINO. 

Walnuta. OaL lb 8 @ 

do Ob'ce 10 @ 

do paper uliell 11 @ 

do Cliill 9 @ 

Almonda, hd >bl. 6 <g 



14 & 

15 m 
19 S 
12 f 
15 @ 

5 (.a 



Peanuts 

Filberts 12 

Hickory 7 

Chestnuts 12 @ 

Pine nuta 1 

ONIONS. 
Silver Skiu .... 2 EO (tt 3 20 

POTATOEh. 
Early Bode, sks. 80 @ 95 

Tomales 1 10 $ 1 30 

River Reds.... 1 10 @ 1 3i 
Burbanks, river. 75 (i 1 95 
do SalinaA... 1 30 (tt I 60 
do Pulaluma. 93 (tt 1 20 
do Oregon ... 1 30 (tt 1 05 
Jersey Blues... 1 00 (£ I 25 
FOULTBY AND GAMli. 

Bens, dot 6 00 @ 6 SO 

Rooetera.old.... 4 SO 3 6 00 

do young 6 50 (at 8 OO 

Bruilen, small 3 60 (3 6 00 
do large 5 60 ^ 6 75 

Fryers 5 60 @ (i 76 

13i Ducks. Ume 4 00 @ S .50 

13 I do large 6 00 p 7 50 

14.1 Qeeae. pair 1 60 (^ 2 00 

15 Turkoys, Qobl-r. IS @ 17 
15 Turkeys, Heoa. . \i 
13 do dreased.... 18 ic( 20 

Pigeons 1 75 W 2 50 

Rabbits, doz.... 1 25 @ 1 SO 

Hare 1 60 (3 2 CO 

Quail — «r 1 25 

Snipe, English. 2 00 (<ir 3 CO 

do Jack 75 (tt 

Ducks, Mallard 3 50 (tt 3 50 
do Canv'sback 3 1 (tt C 00 

do Sprigs 1 00 (tt - 

do Teal 75 (<f — 

do Widgeon... 75 (rf — 

do Small 75 (tt — 

Geese, Gray.... S 50 (tt — 

do white I 25 (tt 1 SO 

Kraut 1 50 (tt — 

.Sea Brant - # — 

Uouliera 4 00(ie600 

EGG F0Ol> 
Manhattan, i9 lb Mm - 

PROVISIONS 
Oal.BaaOD,he'Ty,I> 101^ 11 

Heditun 12 @ 

Light 13 m - 

Lard 9 & lOi 

Cal. Sm'k'dBeet II @ II 

Hams, Cal I2i9 13 

do Eastern... 13|@ 14 
SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 9 9 9) 

Canary 3'@ 4 

Olover, Bed.... »|3 lOi 

White I7|@ 10 

Cotton 10 @ - 

Flaxseed I a 3 

Hemp 4 @ 5 

ItallanRyeOrasi 10 @ II 
Perennial 1 & 9 
Millet, German. i® 61 
do Common.. R ^ t 
Mustard, yellow 1 90 @ 2 25 

do Brown 2}!^ 5 

Rape \im 'I 

Ky. Blue Grass. 2^ (g 27 
Sweet V. Grass. 75 (9 

Orchard 14 (^ 16 

Hungarian.. . 74@ 8 



Lawn. . 

Mesquit 7 @ 8 

Timothy 6 @ 7 

TALLOW. 

— Crude, lb. Z m i 

- IReflned 6 

WOOL -Sprino, 1890 

_ IHumb't£Meo'cino 19 (g 14 
1 37i|Sac'to valley.... 15 S 23 
I 321 Free Mouutain. 18 S 24 
1 36| SJoa<iuiD valley 12i@ 17 
do mouutalD. 17 ^ S2 

- Cala'v k F'thTl. 16 1 24 
81 Oregon Eastern. 13 @ fi 

do valley 30 @ 25 

40 Bo'n Coast, def . . 10 @ 14 
40 So'n Coast, free. \Um 19 
36} KALL— 1890. 

North'n, choice 16 (tt 
9 do defective 

— Mountain Free 
121 S.Jonquin, def.. 
10 Southern do... 

7 



14 & 

13 & 

9 (tt 
9 Ift 



Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected. In good packages, fetch an advance ou t<>i 
quotations, while vary poor grades sell lees than the lower 
quotations. Wedkcsdat, Jan. II, 1891 

Bananas, bunch 1 60 @ 2 75 Apples, com boi 50 (tt — 

Oanberries ....10 60 W14 00 do good 75 (a 1 00 

Limes, Mez .... 4 50 ffl 5 50 do choice.. .. 1 UO (tt 1 
do tOaliforuia 1 60 © 1 75 do Giltedged I 50 ci 1 75 
do • do 60 (g 76 VEOETABLEb 
Lemons,Cal.,bz. 1 00 @ 3 00 Okra. dry. lb.... 10 m 171 
do Sicily, bx. . 6 00 @ 6 50 Parmlps, ctl. ... 1 25 (^ 
do Malaga.... 7 00 @ 8 SO Peppen, dry, lb Mm 20 

Oranges. Turnips, ctl 76 OT — 

do 'Winters. . 76 (» - Beets, sk - @ 1 00 

do 'Vacaville.. 76 M — Cabbage, 100 Bm SO @ 61 

do IRiverside . 1 76 (3 2 50 Carrots, sk 30 « 45 

Seedling Oranges Marrowfat,ton 13 00 (flli 00 

do tRiverside.. 2 00 O 2 76 Hubbard 15 00 tu'X 00 

dotLosAngeles 1 60 @ 2 00 Oarliclb 8 (tt 10 

Navel Oranges. Asparagus, lb . . — (tt — 

do tRiverside.. 3 00 @ < 26 Mushrooms, 
do tLos Angeles 2 60 3 26 I Common, lb 15 @ 17 

do tUuarte 3 25 (« 4 00 1 Choice , *• (8 SS 

Pineapples, doz 4 00 @ 6 00 • Small box. t Lw|e >>oz. 



Jan. 17, 1891.] 



f AciFie f^uraid press. 



61 



Dried Fruits, Eto. 



7i@ - 
8 @ - 
8i@ 

8 @ 

in o 



The quotations given below are for average prices paid. 
Something very faDcy fetch an advance on the highest quo- 
tations while poor sells slightly below the lowest quotations. 

Prices named, unless otherwise nriecifi d, are for fruit in 

sacks. Add for 50-tb. boxes ^c per tb., ajd fpr 25-Ib boxee 
Jo to Ic per lb. 

Apples, sun-dried, quarters, common 6l@ — 

" *' " prime 7 (tf — 

'* '* '* choice 

" " sb'ced, common 

*' " prime 

" " " choice . 

Kwap. hlearhod, rin^ fiO-!b hoieB 
Apricots. Bun-dried, unblea^^hed, common. 
*' " " prime... 

'* " •* choice 12 

" *' bleached, prime IH @ —f 

*' " " choice 17 @ — 

" '* " fancy 18 # — 

' Evap. choice, in boxes ^8 @ — 

" *' fancy, " 19 O — 

Klgs, Buu-dried. black 3 @ 4 

" " white — @ — 

" " " washed (ot 

" " fancy ^ § 

" " " pressed 9@ li 

" Smyrna boxes V2 <ct 14 

" do sack? 10 @ 12* 

(^rapee, sun-dried, stemless ... 3 <3 3^ 

" *' nn.atHmmed 2(3 3 

Nectarines. Red. sun-dried 'd @ 13 

" evaporated, in boxes 13i(w 14 

*' white, sun-dried 12 IS 

" evaporated 17 ® 19 

Peaches, sun-dried, unpeeled, common, bleached 8 @ — 

" •* prime, " 10 @ — 

" " " choice, " 13 @ — 

" " fancy 14 @ — 

" evaporated " choice 15 @ — 

" " " fancy. 16 @ — 

*• sun-dried, peeled, prime, bleached 19 @ — 

" " choice 22 @ — 

'* " fancy 24 @ — 

" evaporated, " in boxes, choice 25 @ — 

" " " fancy 27 (d - 

Pears, sun-dried, quarters 7 9 

" " sliced 9 @ 10 

*' evaporated, '* in boxes 10 @ Hi 

" ring " 12 @ 13 

Plums, pitted, sun-dried 9.i@ 11 

" '* evap. in baxos, i ^olce 11 @ 12 

*' *' " -vucy 13 @ 14 

" unpitted 2h t 5 

Prunes, Cal. French, ungraded sb. 8 @ 1) 

graded " 90 to 100 8 @ - 

*' 80 to 90 9 fd - 

' " *' 70 to 80 9^@ - 

" " Goto 70 10 @ - 

" " *' 5n to r.fl. ... u fnr - 

'* " 10 to 50 12 @ 

Kancy sell for more money. 

RAI.SINS. 

Halves, quarters and eighths, 25, 50 and 75 cents higher 
respectively than whole box prices. 

London Layers, choice ^ bx $1 75 (ft 2 00 

fancy, " 2 10 ^ 

Layers, IP bx 1 25 - 

Loose Muscatels, common, ^ Ux 1 uO @ 1 25 

** choice, •■ 1 SO @ — 

fancy, *' 1 80 @ — 

in HackH, ?f lb 4 @ 6 

" 4 (a 7 

" 6 @ 7 

" ^ 20-tt. bx 1 15 @ I 25 

" Sultanas, unbleached, in bxs 1 15 ^ 1 25 

" '* bleached " 1 25 I 3D 

CALIFORNIA HONEY. 

Comb, dark, 2-tb. frames, tiO-lh. cases, ^ lb b @ B 

amber, " *' cs. new " 7 (ot 8 



Unstemmed 

Stemmed 

Seedless 



white 



lit) 



Extracted, dark, 5-gal. cans, 2 cans to case, ^ 
" amber, " " " 
" white, " " ' 

Comb, 2-tins, 2 doz. to case, ^ doz , 

Extracted, " " 

*' 4-lb. tins, 1 doz. '* 

Beeswax, per pound 



11 ^ 

13.V"^ 

6A(a 

- (a 

- @ 

- @ 

22m 



Rope. 



Baling, Duplex, lb 10 

'* Manilla, tb 13 

Twine, for hops, balls, tarred, lb, Manilla 15 

" " grape vine, balls, lb '* 144 

'* ** *' coila, lb " Hi 

" spring, lb 16 

" binder (650 ft. to tb), lb 14 

Duplex twine 3c per )b leas. 



Complimentary Samples. 

PerBons reoeiring this paper marked are re 
quested to examine its contents, terms of sub- 
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as far as practicable aid in circulating the 
journal, and making its value more widely 
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Cocker Spaniels. — Dog fanciers (and who 
does not fancy a good dog ?^ should not ovrr 
look the advertisement of M. P. McKoon of El 
CijoD, San Diego county, of some excellent 
young Cooker spaniels for sale. The advertise- 
ment enumerates some of the excellent quali- 
ties of the breed. Full information can be had 
by addressing Mr. M(Koon as above. 



;alifornia iruits 



HOW TO GROW THEM. 

A MANUAL OF METHODS WHICH HAVE YIELDED 
GREATEST SUCCESS; WITH LISTS OF VARIETIES 
BEST ADAPTED TO THE DIFFERENT 
DISTRICTS OF THE STATE. 

BY EDWARD J. WICKSON, A. M. 

LARGE OOTAVO-675 PAGES. 
PRICE $3. POSTPAID. 

PUBLI8UBD BY 

DEWEY & CO.. 
PcBLiSHEBa Pacific Rural Press, 

220 Uarket Street, Elevator 12 Front Street, 

8AN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



PAOIPIO COAST WEATHER FOR THE WEEK. 

[Furnished for publication In this paper by officer in charge ot branch Signal office, Division of the Paci6c ] 



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of rainfall in the precediDg 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. P C, partly cloudy. Rn., rain. 



tdlicatiopal. 



Bowens Academy, 

University Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 

PREPARATORY, COMMERCIAL AND ACADEMIC 
Classes. References to parents of pupils who have 
entered the University from this School. Send for Cir- 
cular. T. S. BOWMNS, B. A., H.:ad Master. 



CHESNUTWOOD^S 
SANTA CRUZ. CAL. 



BEST EliUIPPED ON THE COAST. INDIVIDUAL 
instruction. No classes. Ladies admitted to all 
departments. Board and room In private families, 816 
per month. Tuition, six months, $12. 

J. A. CHE8TNUTW00D, Box 43, Santa Cruz, Cal. 



HEALDS 



BUSINESS OOLLEQE, 

24 POST ST.. 8. F. 

FOB SETKNTT-FIVB DOLLARS THIS 
College Instructs in Shorthand, Type Wrltinj;, Book- 
keeping, Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the Kn- 
gUsn branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
tor six (nil months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
individual instruction to all our pupils. Oar school has 
Its graduates In every part of tha State, 
ttfamo FOB ClBOULAB. 

K. P. HE&LD, Fiesldenl. 

a. 8. HALRT. Secretary. 



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IF YOU WANT 



OLIVE TREES, 

YOU C.iNNOT DO BETTER THAN EN- 
GAGE THEM AT ONCE OF THE 





OF SANTA BARBARA, 

Who have an extensive stock of large and small- 
sized trees, very vigorous and healthy. 



L. A. MITCHELL, 422 Twelfth St., Oakland, 

OR, 

C. F. BATON, Santa Barbara, Box 474. 



SANTA ROSA NURSERIES, 

R. W. BELL, Proprietor, 

(Successor to L. Burbank), 

Still a Fair Qaantlty of PRUNES, though 
Selling Fast. 

A Superb Lot of Bartletts and Apples 

(on Whole Roots), 
Oberriea, Olives, Walnuts, Shade Trees, 
Table and Raisin Orapea, &c., Sic. 



FRANK KUNZ. 

Proprietor of the Union Nnrgery, iil29 Tenth 
Street, Sacramento, 

HAS FOR SALE A FINE LOT OF OLIVES, 

Grown in the open ground, namely: Manzanillo or 
Queen's Olive, Nevadillo Blanco, Picholine, and a fine lot 
of Chamrope Excelsior, which he offers at very low rates. 



TRUE SMYRNA FIG. 

White Adriatic Trees and Outtlnes, Etc., 

Malaga and Muscat Roots. 
M. DENICKE, Fresno, Cal. 



HERB'S TfODR PRUNES I — A FEW 
thousands clean healthy stock of the following vari- 
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Address, at once, McKEVlTT & WOOD, Vacaville. 



Seeds, Wants, ttc. 



ORDERS WILL BE RECEIVED FOR A VERY 
limited number of choice Italian Olive Trees. 
Varieties: 

FRANTOIO, CORREGGIOLO, 7 p 
MORINELLO, MORCHIAIO, f 

CUCCO, ) „ „ ., 

PALAZZUOLO, 

These trees are original Importations from Italy, all 
thrifty, from five to eight feet in hight. 

Single trees. Five Dollars each. Larger orders at re- 
duced price. ALSO young trees (one and two years old) 
propagated from the above. ALSO a few trees of the 
Rubra and Mission varieties. Address 
F. S. GOULD, 

Santa Barbara, California. 



PALM AND CITRUS NURSERY. 

I OFFER THIS SEASON A LARGE AND SELECT 
stock in PALMS (50 varieties), in CITRUS— Eureka, 
Lemon, Washington Navel, Indian River, etc • in 
OLIVES— Mission (100,000), Italian (Frantoio, Morinello, 
etc.) from imported trees; also the French and Spanish 
varieties. Large selections in PINEIAPPLE and 
BANANAS. Also the largest collection of Tropical 
Fruit-Bearing Trees in the State, a few of which are: 
Alligator Pear, Cherimoya, Mango, Sour Sop, Sugar 
Apple, Star Apple, Cashew Nut, Rose Apple, Cocoa 
Plum, Elephant Apple, and others too numerous to 
name. Send for Descriptive Catalogue. KINTON 
STEVENS, Santa Barbara, California. 



BLUE AND RED GUM TREES, PROPERLY 
transplanted in boxes. Blue Gums, 6 to 10, 8 to 12, 

or 12 to 18 incliea hiph at .$10 per 1000. Red Gums, same 
sizes, at from .$15 to $20 per 1000. Monterey Cypress, 6 to 
10 inches, $15 per 1000; 8 to 12 inches at $20 per lUOO; 12 to 18 
mches at $25 per 1000; or 18 to 24 inches at $30 per 1000. 
All trees can be cut out from boxes with a square block of 
earth attached to roots in proportion to size of trees. Sam 
lile boxes, of any number wanted, mil be shipped to any 
address at same rates. .Stamps taken in payment for small 
orders. The best trees, for the least money, in the State 
Orders for 10,000 lots, at special rates. GEO. R BAILEY' 
Park Nursery, Berkeley. Cal. 



ALFALFA, GRASSES, Every Kind, CLOVER, VEGE- 
TABLE, and SEEDS of Every Variety. 

Seeds and Improved Egg Food, 
425 WASHINGTON STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



CARL PURDY, 

Collector and Dealer In 

CALIFORNIA NATIVE BULBS. 

Calochortus, Lilies and Brodelaes 

A Specialty. 

Price List on application. UKIAH, OAL. 



For Sale-Peach Pits 



ONE DOLLAR PER SACK, FOR NURSERY PLANT- 
ing. Address OAKDALE CANNERY COMPANY 
Oakdale, California, Box 210 



IF" O H. Si A. ILi E : 

100 SACKS FRESH 
Call on or address 

0. J. BERRY, Tulare. Oal. 



250 SACKS PEACH PITS, 

50 SACKS APRICOT PITS. 

Address FANCHBR CREEK NURSERY. 
FRESNO, OAL. 



A CHOICE LOT OF TWO AND THREE- YEAR-OLD 
Picholine Olive Trees in open ground. Low prices 
MRS. C. W. CRANE, 1117 Nineteenth St., Oakland, Ala- 
meda Co., Cal., or O. J. BACKUS, 611 Battery St, 8. F- 

CITRUS AND DECIDUOUS TrTeS, 

PLANTS AND PALMS IN VARIETY AT ALOIIA 
NURSERIES, Ponryn, Placer Co ,Cal. 
FHED C. MILES, Manager. 



THE JUDSON RABBIT-PROOF WIRE & PICKET FENCE 

feaca colored RED by bolllne in a chemical solution that preserves the wood. 



CHBAPBR and BETTER than Ever. Their 2-ft. high 3-cab,e 
fence has lakeo the tra^-e. Farmers put barbed wl'eabov« 
it and hav« the CHBAPESI good Fence mat cau be made 
* in ANV WAY. RabbitB cannot ge tnrough. Hogs cannot 
breaK it and Horses or Cattle cannot get over It. All onr 
Address JUDSON MANOFAOTURINQ COMPANY, 14 and le Fremont Stree^ San FranclMa 



66 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



[Jan. 17, 1891 



$ee(l3, l^lapts, tic. 



FRUIT TREES 

FOR SALE. 



a&OOO BARTLBTT PEARS, 

lO.OCX) FRENCH PRUNES, 

5,000 OREGON SILVER PRUNES, 

12,000 ROYAL APRICOTS, 

2,000 MOORPARK APRICOTS 

And Various Other Varieties. 

All (Tuaranteed in good condition, free from Scale, 
S to 7 feet high. For sale in lots to suit. For particu- 
lars, inquire of 

M. A. MARCUSE, 

MarysTlIle, Oal. 



Established 1853. 



J. p. Sweeney & Co. 



DEALERS IN • 



GARDEN. FARM AND TREE 

ALFALFA AND ALL KINDS OF OTHER 
GRASSES AND CLOVER, 

TOP ONIONS, SEED POTATOES, ETC. 



409-411 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal, 

(Send for Catalogue.) 

JOHN S. CALKINS' 

NURSERIES, 

POMONA, LOS ANGELES CO., 

CALIFORNIA. 



OLIVE TREES, 4 to 5i FEET HIGH, 

SOFT-SHELL WALNUT, 

QUAVA, 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUB?, Etc. 

Write for General Price List. 



NAPA VALLEY NURSERIES. 



ESTABLISHED 1878. 



GENERAL NURSERY STOCK. 



Special attention to magnificent stock of 



LEONARD COATES, 

NAPA, OAL. 
(Proprietor Sansal Fruit Farm.) 



. O LIVES. 

400,000 OLIVES, 18 VARIETIES. 

20,000 

Bodded Orange and Lemon Trees. 

FOR SALE BY 

POMONA NURSBRT, 

Pomona, Los Angeles County, Cal. 

Write and get Prices. 



JAPANESE TREE OO. 

(Formerly Japanese Tree Importing Co.) 

MAKE A SPECIALTY OF THE HARDY, SEEDLESS 
Oonshiu Orange Trees bo hiihly recommended by 
all the leading horticultural papers. N. B —Our Man. 
ager, Mr. H. E. Amoure, who lias lived 2S years In China 
and Japan, is now traveling there in search of new fruits. 
Address hi u at Yokohama, Japan. All kinds of Japanese 
and Domestic Fruit Trees. Order at once for winter and 
spring delivery. 



OLIVES! 

26 000 FOR SALE. 

MANZANILLO, NEVADILLO BLANCO, PICHOLINE. 
Also other choice varieties in limited numbers, 
ranging from 1 to 4 feet in hight. Price according to 
size and variety, JOHN COOKE, Narserj'man, Berkeley, 
Aluneda Couaty, California. 



BARREN HILL 

NURSERY, 



SPECIALTIES: 



NUTS. PRUNES & GRAPES. 



Tlie largest and finest collection of "NUT- BEARING " 
TREES to be found io the United States and excelled 
nowhere in Europe- 
Headquarters of the 

Proeparturlens, or Fertile Walnut, 

lotrodifted into California in 1871 by Felix Gillet; and 
also of the great market walnuts of the world, 

Mayette, Franquette and 
Parislenne, 

The " HARDIEST" walnut varieties known, and which 
render walnut culture possible as far north as the State 
of Washington. 



19 VARIETIES OF WALNUTS, 

1 1 VARIETIES OF CHESTNUTS, 

9 VARIETIES OF PRUNES, 

241 VARIETIES OF GRAPES. 



APRIL CHERRIES, four varieties, the earliest kinds 
ever introduced in California. 
PEARS, APPLES, PLUMS, APRICOTS, etc., etc. 
ORANGES and LEMONS. 



GRAFTING THE WALNUT, 

By KELIX GILLET of Nevada City, Cal., an Essay on the 
Different Modes of Budding and Grafting the Walnut; 
illustrated with eight cuts made after nature. 

Win be sent with descriptive catalogue to any address 
on the receipt of 25 cents in postage etamps. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE AND PRICE 
LIST, illustrated with 26 cuts, sent free on application. 

FELIX GILLET, 

NEVADA CITY, . - CALIPOBNIA. 



• CCAUSe THCV ARE 

THE BEST. 

D. M. I"EKKY & Go's 

Illustrated, Descriptive and Priced 

SEED ANNUAL] 

For 1891 will be mailed FREEf 
Ito all applicants, and to last season'sl 
^customers. It is better than ever. 
Every person using Garden, 

Flcni'er or Field Seeds, 
should send for it. Address 
D. M. FERRY A. CO. 
DETROIT, MICH. 
\ Largest Seedsmen in the world J 



Arizona Everbearing Strawberry. 

BY PLANTING QUITE A NUMBER OF THE LEAD 
ing varieties of Strawberry toge'her for five years, I 
have produced a variety unlike any of the former. 
I have picked the fruit daily since April 20th to the 
present time, October 18th, and the vines are still full 
of bloom and berries. Roots arc long and stand the 
drouth well. The berries are large, fine flavor and high 
color, and resemble the Jessie In shape somewhat. I am 
prepared to furnish them in small lots at $1.G0 per doz., 
postpaid. R. E. FARRINGTON, General Nurseryman, 
Phoenix, Arizona. 



TREES! TREES 



-AT- 



VENTURA NURSERIES. 

300,000 Soft Shell English Walnuts and White Adriatic 
Figs a specialty. Price on application. 

O. P. COOK. 
Nurseries, tour miles east of Ventura. 

20,000 Olive Trees 

FOXl fitATiE. 

MISSION, MANZANILLO, NEVADILLO & PICHOLINE. 
Write for prices. 

GEO. H. KUNZ, 

Third and K Streets, SACRAMKNTU^OAL. 




IlPiADEHABw y 

circulars KiviitK lunui r Ir.for 
Address STEPHKN UOYT'S 



six aays cnrller than 
any varlciv teetod atihe 
Agrlcuiii Ex. Grounds 
at ii»ueva, .N. Y. Color 
Mreeni.'^h white ; pulp 
ii'iHltT, swt'et and de- 
ilclous. The only crape 
ihat ranks first boib 
ciirllne>s anil quality, 
haoh vine sealed wlih 
<»iir rcKlstererl tradr- 
niark label. yeiuJ for 
niailon. Agents wanted 
bUNS, New Canaan, Cx. 




^.WINE, RAISIN and TABLE 

SEMI-TROPICAL FRUITS, OLIVES, 
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES, 

Shade Trees, Evergreens, Shrubs, Roses, Climbing Plants, Etc. 
CALIFORNITNOBSERY CO,. — 



Seud for Our New 
Catalogue. 



J John Rock. M'g'r. 



TRUMBULL & BEEBE'S NURSERIES, 



THE ATIENTION OF PLANTERS IS INVITED TO OUR COMPLETE STOCK OF 

Almonds, Apples, Apricots, Cherries, Figs, Peaches, Pears, Plums, Prunes, Quinces, 
Chestnuts, Walnuts. Persimmons, Pomegranates, Olives, Oranges, Lemons, 
Limes, in Full Assortment; Berry Bushes and Plants; Ornamental 
Trees and Shrubbery, Roses, in Large Assortment, &c., &c. 

Our Stock has been carefully and well grown, WITHOUT IRRIGATION, FREE FROM INSECTS, and Is UNSUR- 
PASSED IN QUALITY. PRICES MODERATE. CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. CaUlogues on application. 



NURSERY AND SEEDSMEN, 



419 & 421 SANSOME STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 





Seeds, Plants, Shrubs, Vines, 
Fruit & Ornamental Trees, Etc. 

CATALOGUE FREE. 

Over 150 pagt^ illustrating and describing one of the largest 
and best assoited stocks of Seeds, Trees and Plants In the li. S. 
Best value for tiie money in our Tested Novelties and Special 
Low Priced Collections. 

37 YEARS. 25 GREENHOUSES. 700 ACRES. 

THE STORRS & HARRISON CO., 

Painesville, OhiOb 




IPOMEA PANDURATA^iJ^r 



Ill 



.1 h. 



Llri-sout all 



KKI» KlUiXU-IIOOUl 

It ihiH pupnlur tl" 



iKlil anil *l^v : t1i'«i 6 in 

•AJKSVl Mn-ib.uullliil 
[.anre ^'it.<^. di'vp red ' "1' ; 
«iil,shiniuBK..l-l. Z.II.\A»;»;.V.\A / 
. 1,1. (<:olden 4'lolhi: A biuotirul shrubl v phii 
I: hiKh. Ma...(iri.ri|;l)t snl.l. ti ll..»in! .IiiTiotii Di-^ 
IWIl.tSON'K hEKl> * I'LAXT CATALOGUE 

and I,IVEHT«< K ANXI AL FOK 1X91. 
1 1 1 pair- SiOO Iliie ink-ruvinp',, bandsonie entered 
IlilaU-a. full nf anefill information. t'Dtluei^UuDabl^ 
ist rt lialjli) o^ialocue puttlished. All the above 
|84.rit l>y l'o>iai.*c sL^mp^i or monor. Tl.e 
IniJil ( r ^U*" IIK*Tund< IIK VI'KstCOL. 
I.Kt TU>> of III I.IWaiid M;FI>S oviroffered. 

Address saMxte:!. Wir.SON. BaECII.AJariCSVXI.I.E. PA.. 




AUGHAN'S 

Seeds ^plants 

SEEDS for your C«ardeii, and how to plant them. I 
PIj.\NTS for your I^awn nnd Window. I 
Where to get the BEST SEEDS and frcmh ones? I 
Where to get the NEW PLuVNTS and sood ones? I 



These quest inns must l)e df*rl(io<l. "Which rif thene^ 
and fariHUis ure worthy, and \\ hicli oftlie old arp Jxfl* 
ter. you slioiild know. We print an IHus. f 'ntnU>(njt. 
witli Photo. Fnsravinie^*, ('ulor«><l I'liiteH, and 
n-asonaliU-desi-riptiuns. As to ils<-onii»Ifli'n*'ss. we 
8«y Jt t' llx the wholt ^/or.i/for tli('(iarden, Ijiwnand 
Farm. FK KK. Before you buy. plea.'^e writel'orthls 

VAUGWAN'S SEED STORE 

r. <». IJox fiSS, Sisilr Strrpt, 

CHICAGO. 

P.S.— We makeonrCatalnt^MU* on the theory that 
the public doi-s not want to tw^ humbugged. 



FIELD AND GARDEN SEEDS. 

OUK ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SENT FREE. 



Send 4c in stamps and we will send a paoket of the great novelty 
MUSKDilBijON, the finest flavored melon (trown. 
Box B. 



THB PERSIAN MONARCH 



BOUK & HUPERT, Greenwood, Neb. 



(Mention this papt^r.) 



T. V. MUNSON, 

DENISON. TEXAS, 

Introducer of the Great PARKER EARUE 
STR-IWBERRT, now begins the introduction of a 
few of his thousands of wonderful Grape Hybrlde. 
This season he offers four varieties, tiz: 

BRILLIANT, early red; CAMPBELL, early 
Kolden- ROMMEL, early white (promisiiig for North 
and South), and HERMANN JAKGER, late purple; 
larger cluster and berry than Berbemont. suitable for 
south of Cincinnati and St. Louis, all equal to bett for- 
eign in quality. Descriptive circular and terms on ap- 
plication. 



FRUIT TREES^FOR SALE. 

rRAGEDY PRUNES, YEAKLINaS; EARLY CRAW- 
ford Peaches, \earlinge; French Prunes, June buds. 
Call or iu.iuire at 910 Filth Street, SACRAMENTO, CAL. 
INGLESIOE NUU8B&Y COMPANY. 



MISSOURI NURSERY CO., Louisiana, Mo. 

Salesmen w.nitfd; Hpecial aids; niae"'fi'**"* out tit free. 



STARK NURSERIES, Sri^uTia^a 

Founded |s3 >. OliU'Mt in the West. l.nricrNti 



Stark Bnm, Nunnery 
liistaiia. Mo. 

_ 'KTNt in the 

World. Hi'IST of evorj ihing. Nearly 6"0Balef men sell our 
etock in almo-t every State and Territory ;v<.luine of annnai 
sales now exceeds that of any other Nursery. We sell direct 
throngh our own palesmen, without tlm aid of tree dealers or 
middlemen, and deiirer stock, freight and all chargea paid. 



NO TREES 

^■^^^^^■■■■^^^■■HBHHB LixHt and bear 
like wbole ro€>t trwen ; or like plum. prune una "/■rf. .-rtrcf 3 
on Jtfariat.u. tliH iM^-t pliiij Ktock (rrown. Idiilin and other 
NewArOhl Kriii(ft(l»> ma.j>; ornHmentnls. nHitKnifi-*— 
eotryihiny, larger block in G. S. I<io better. Nociieayor. 



OLIVES, VINES, PALMS & ROSES. 

Address WM. SIGKERT. 

cvSada nursery, 

Redwood City, Sfto Mateo County, Ckl. 



Jan. 17, 1891.] 



f ACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 



67 



PACIFIC NURSERY, 

Established 1871, 
OFFERS FOR SALE TmS SEASON 

100.000 OLIVE TREES. 

Mission Olives, two years old, $15 to $18 per 100. 
Nevadillo BlaDCO Olives, two years, $15 to $18 per 100. 
Lavayino (from Genoa) Olives, two years, $20 per 100. 
Picholina Olives, two years, $6 to $10 per 100, $50 to $80 
per 1000. 

Rlparia Grapes, two years, rooted, $15 per 1000. 
Blackberries, Lawson and Kittatinny, $10 per 1000. 
Guavas, ready to fruit this season, $16 per 100. 
French Prunes, a tew thousand on band. Price on 
application. 

Monterey Cypress, in boxes, transplanted, S12.B0 per 
1000. MoLterey Cj press, balled, from $10 to $20 per 100. 

Address F. LUDEMANN, 

Baker & Lombard Ste., San Francisco, Cal. 



E. J. BOWEN, 

SEED MERCHANT 



Onion Sets, Grass, Clover, Vegetable, 
and Flower Seeds. 



LARGEST STOCK AND MOST COMPLETE ASSORT- 
MENT. Illustrated descriptive and priced seed cat- 
alogue, the most ^lalorate and valuable of its kind of 
any Pacific Coast publication, mailed free to all appli- 
cants. Address, E. J. BOWEN, 815 and 817 Sansome St., 
San Francisco, or 65 Front St., Portland, Oregon. 



SEEDLESS GRAPE ROOTS. 

These Orapea make the finest seedless raisins known. 
For sale by J. P. ONSTOTT. Yuba Olty. Oal. 



vjTREES! TREES! 



SEEDS,' 

SEEDS 



NURSERY STOCK 



PRUNES. PEAOHES. APRICOTS, APPLES, 
ALMONDS, OHERRY, PLUMS, PEARS, 
NECTARINES, ETC. 




HERB, FTEJulD SEE3DS 



BULBS & PLANTS. 



xss,ooo 

ORANGE AND LEMON 

530 ACRES OP NUESERY 
GROUNDS. 

CATALOGUE 



IwIOST COaVEFLETE IjHSTE OE 
SEEDS -A-lSriD BTJOLBS OlST THE 



1890 
NOW READT. 

E O 

» E ]Nru ar* o n oa-TAIjO oxt:e. nx \\ it. 

CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. r x\FfiEE 

All Orders will Receive Prompt Attention. 



SEE OUR STOCK OF TREES, PLANTS, SEEDS, ETC AND GET OUR 
PRICES BEFORE PURCHASING ELSEWHERE. 



S-A-TISE-A-CTIOKT a-XJ.A.I?,-A.3S3-TEEID, 



W. R. STRONG CO., SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



FANCHER CREEK NURSERY, 

FRESNO. CAL. 

OFFERS A LARGE ASSORTMENT OP 

FRUIT AND O RNAM ENTAL TREES. 

SPECIALTIES: 

WHITE ADRIATIC FIGS. OLIVES. PLUMS AND PRUNES ON MYROBOLAN 
ROOT. GRAPES, PALMS. ROSES AND OLEANDERS. 



THE TRUE SMYRNA FIG, ALSO THE WILD OR CAPRI FIG. 



New Descriptive Catalogue mailed free on application. Correspondence 

Solicited. Address 

GEO. O. ROEDING. MANAGER, FRESNO. OAL. 

Red Top. Timothy, Red Clover, Kentucky Blue Grass, 
ALFALFA SEED, Etc. 

W. H. WOOD^dE CO., 117 to 125 J Street, SACRAMENTO, 



TREES, PLANTS AND VINES 

Fox* -tlJLO J5oa.soxx of X890<-91. 

Having decided to re-establish the GENERAL NURSERY BUSINESS at Oakland, Cal., I have purchased the 
ENTIRE NURSERY STOCK grown by Mr. James Shinn at Niles, Cal., embracing a most complete assortment o 
unusually fine slock, grown without irrigation, that I am ofifering at reasonable prices. 

All the Leading Varieties of APPLE, PEAR, CHEKRT, PLUM, PRUNE, APRICOT 
NECTARINK and ALMOND. 

Fine Stock of ORANGES, LEMONS, OLIVES, NUT TREES and FIGS. 

The Only Stock of PERSIAN WALNUTS (Kaghazl) on the Paciflc Coast. 

300,000 GRAPE VINES (Strong Roots). Small Frnits, Berry Busheb, Etc., Etc., in 
Large Quantities. 

ORNAMENTAL and SH \I>E TREES, Roses, Standard Roses, Clematis, Trailing Vines. 
Plants, Etc., Etc., in Great Variety. 

Packing Grounds at Niles, Cal., Unsurpassed Facilities for Shipping. Correspondence solicited. 



Business OfiBce, 960 Broadway, 



OAKLAND, CAL. 



MOUNTAIN NURSERY. 



Fine Budded Orange and Lemon Trees. 



First Class, 4} to 6 feet; Second Class, 3} to 4J feet. 



SEEDLING TREES, 

SEED BED ORANGE PLANTS, 

LISBON LEMONS, 



WASHINGTON NAVEI S, 
MEDITERRANEAN SWEETS, 
EUREKA LEMONS, 



AND A FULL LINE OF OTHER NURSERY STOCK FOR SALE. 



FOR PRICES AND TERMS ADDRESS THE PROPRIETOR, 



ESTABLISHED 1863. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 

AGENT FOR THE CALIFORN IA NURSERY CO. 

Largest Stock M Most Complete Assortment of Frnit, SHaie aid Omamital Trees oi tie Paciflc Coast. 

Apple, Almonds, Pear, Plum, Prune, Apricot and Cherry. 
Also Fine Stock Olives. Oranges, Lemons, Nat Trees and !3mall Fraits; Magnolias, 
Camellias, Palms; Large Stock of Koses, Clematis. Etc., Etc. 



GRASS, CLOVER, VEGETABLE, FLOWER AND TREE SEEDS, TOP ONIONS, Etc., Etc. 

CataloBues Mailed Free. Address 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



mm 



COX'S SEED CATALOGUE MAILED FREE. 

It contaius description and prioe of Grass, Clover and Field SEEDS, Australian 
Tree and Shnib >*EE!>S, Native California Tree, Shrub and Flower SEE1>S (tlio 
lavi?est assortment of V(",'et:iiiii-:ind Flower SEEDS, oll'ered in the United States). new 
varieties of Foninc I'lants, i :rn-s ^ and Clovers especially recommeudcd for the I'acilic 
Coast. Holland, Jiijiau aiiu ( alifornia Bulbs. Lariie Assortment of Palm SEEDS,, 
new and rare Plants, new I'rnit. ciur stoclc of Frnit Trees consists of the best varieties 
of Prune, Plum, Apricot. Apple, Peach, Cherry, Olive, I'ig and Nut Trees, Grape Vines 
and small Fruits. Address 

THOSe A. COX & CO. 



411, 413 & 415 Sansome St. 



San Francisco, CaL 




SALZER'S "™ 



SEEDS 



ARE THE BEST 
rOR ALL SOILS 
AND CLIMES. 

Tlicv will yield for vou. OATS Lir, lju.. WHEAT 40 bll.. 
BAKLHY 60 bll., CORN 100 bu. POTATOES 600 bu. per a. 
t^Serid 8 cents for sample farm seeds and cataloprne. 
rF°Send 6c. for pkg. "Acme Kadish" and elegant catlfj. 
Our Cataloa is the finest ever published in America. 
On Trl.ll :— y5 pkfrs. Earliest Vegetable Seeds. post iKl.81. 

ir, pkps. Eletrant Flower Seeds, post paid, 60 cents. 
r'P'Low' Freight to Pacific Coast States. 




' ACMh ' ilie new 11 day Radish 



JOHN A. SALZER, LA CROSSE^ WISCONSIN. 



1891. 




Home Grown, Honest, Reliable. 

I offer you my Vegetable and Flower Seed Catalogue for 
I FR.£E. Note the immense variety of seed it con- 
tains, and that all the best novelties are there. Not 
much mere show about it (you don't plant pictures) 
|but fine engravings from photographs of scores of the 
choice vegetables I have introduced. Would it not 
be well to get the seed of these from first hands? To be the 
oldest firm in the United States making mail and express 
business a specialty proves reliability. Honest and hon- 
orable dealing is the only foundation this can rest on. My Cata- 
logue is FREE as usual. A matter on second page of cover will 
interest my customers. J. J. H. GREGORV & SON, Marblohead, Mass. 



THE DIN6EE & CONARD GO'S 

Rosesmiseeds 



FOR 

SPRING 

PLANTING. 

If you plant Roses, Hardy Plants, Bulbs or Seeds, we would like to send you our NEW GUIDE, 
124 pages, beautifully illustrated, FREE on application. You will find it interesting and useful. 
We offer all the Choicest Novelties and best things in NEW ROSES, HARDY PLANTS, BULBS 
and SEEDS, postpaid to ^our door, satisfaction guaranteed. Our business is one of the largest 
in the Country and we will be pleased to serve you no difference whether your orders are large 
or small. Write to-day for our New Guide, FREE. THE DINGEE & CONARD CO. WEST GROWE. PA. 



64 



JpACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 



[Jan. 17, 1891 



STEAM VERSUS MULES-MAMMOTH AND PRACTICAL HAULING. 




THE ACCOMPANYING CUT 

l8 from a photograph taken while at 
work. 



It is Cheaper and More 
Exneditious. 



One Traction Entjinc will do the 
work of 60 mules. 

Best'n Traction Engines have been 
in practical uso for over two years, 
hauling coal, lumber, gravel and 
grain, one of which is now hauling 
cane In the Sandwich Islands. 



It will do the work of 
100 Hones. 



Plowing reduced to a minimum 
cost, and from 35 to iS acres plowed 
each diy at an expense of 60 cents 
to 60 cents an acre. 

Three sizes built, 30, 40 and GO- 
horse power, and 

24 Beat Traction Engines 
at Work Now. 



It hauls the Oang Plow and Har- 
row, propels the Best Combined 
.Steam Harvester and moves along 
majestically with a train of wagons 
loaded vvitli grain for the warehouse. 



GOLD MEDAL 

Awarded the Best Traction Engine 
by the State Agricultural Society at 
Sacramento, 1890. 



BEST'S TBACTION ENOINB HADLING OBAVEL IN SACRAMENTO. 



BEST'S TRACTION ENGINE 

IS "THE BOSS OF THE ROAD" AND "THE MONARCH OF THE FIELD." 



Sexxcl fox- dx-o-U-lAXTS. .£k.<3.<3lrr&mtsn 



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Vol. XLI.-No. 4. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 24. 1891. 



DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
Office, 220 Market St. 



Death of the Hawaiian Sovereign. 

On the afternoon of Thursday, Dec. 4th, the 
U. S. warship Charleston arrived in the Bay 
of San Francisco bearing David Kalakaua, 
King of Hawaii, as a visitor to California, and 
on Thursday afternoon, Jan. 22d, the same ves- 
sel will depart, bearing his body to Honolulu. 
He came an invalid seeking recreation and 
hoping to find also restoration. He was re- 
ceived with marked hospitality, and, so far as 
his strength allowed, accepted and enjoyed the 
welcome extended to him as the representa- 
tive of our neighbor nation in the Pacific. But 
his malady was evidently too deep-seated for 
core; he beoame worse instead of better, and 
died on Tuesday afternoon, Jan. 20th. 

The portrait upon this page gives a repre- 
sentation of this distinguished personage. He 
was the seventh ruler of what is now known 
as the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was a little 
over fifty-five years of age, having been born 
November 16, 1836. He was a son of Kapaakea 



and Keobokatole. February 12, 1874, he was 
elected king. 

King Kalakaua was brought more promi- 
nently before the people of the United States 
by his visit to this country in 1876, when he 
was well received by President Grant and by 
citizens generally. The object of this visit was 
to promote friendly relations with the United 
States and to secure the ratification of a Treaty 
of Keclprocity by the United States Senate, in 
which he was successful. In 1881 King Kala- 
kaua nndertook a tour of the world, for the 
purpose of establishing pleasant relations with 
foreign Governments and to secure their con- 
sent to the emigration of their subjects to the 
Hawaiian Islands, This aim was also accom- 
plished, the result being that a great immigra- 
tion of Asiatic peoples occurred, and many sub- 
jects of Portugal were also introduced. During 
some years the Hawaiian kingdom developed 
under King Kalakaua's administration. The 
latter years of his reign were less peaceful than 
the earlier. 




THE LATE DAVID KALAKAUA, KING OF HAWAII. 




MAJOB-QBNEBAL NELSON A. MILES, U. S. A. 



Major-General Miles. 

Many readers of the Kural will be pleased 
to look upon the noble countenance of Gen. 
Miles, which we reproduce upon this page 
from a recent photograph by Taber. The 
Western country has had many reasons to 
think well of Gen. Miles, and his recent achieve- 
ment, the almost bloodless extinction of what 
it was feared would be one of the most for- 
midable Indian uprisings of recent years, will 
add greatly to his credit as a soldier and as 
a man. 

General Nehon A. Miles was born at West- 
minster, Mass., on the 8th of August, 1839. 
Receiving a common-school training, he became 
a clerk in a store, and was engaged in business 
when the Civil War began. He joined the 22d 
Massachusetts volunteers as a second lieu- 
tenant in September, 1861, He was promoted 
to a captaincy, and in May, 1862, was made 
Lieutenant-Oolonel of the eist New York 
Volunteers for gallantry on the field, and or- 
dered to the front at Riohmond. He played a 
ooiispionoua part all throngh the Civil War, 



and at its close was brevet Major-General in 
the regular army and Major-General of Vol- 
unteers. 

In 1875 he subjugatBd the Comanches and 
Kiowas in their memorable outbreak in the 
Staked Plains country, and in 1876 drove Sit- 
ting Bull and his warriors from Montana and 
quelled the rebellious Sioux. In the same year 
he captured the hostile Nez Peroes, under Chief 
Joseph, and two years later subdued the Ban- 
nacks in the National Park. 

At the close of 1880 he received the rank of 
Brigadier-General, and for five years command- 
ed the Department of the Columbia. In 1886, 
after a year's command of the Department of 
the Missouri, he relieved Orook in Arizona, and 
his campaign against the Apaches was crowned 
with the same success that attended his previ- 
ous expeditions against the hostiles of the 
Northwest. After the thorongh suppression of 
the troubles and the imprisonment of the lead- 
ing chiefs, the General was appointed to the 
command of the Division of the Pacific, which 
position he retained after his promotion to be 
Major-General, April 5th, last year. 



66 



f ACIFie l^URAlo f RE88. 



LJan. 24, 1891 



J^ORTICULTURE. 

In Favor of the Redding Picholine 
Olive 

Editoks- Press:— There probably never was 
a valaable frait tree so much abated 
has been oar so-called Redding Pioholine 
olive. It commenced when Mr. Lalong de- 
tected that the variety of Redding'a introduc- 
tion was not the French Picholine, and stated 
farther: "The tops of the imported trees, 
sappoeed to be the Picholine, died down below 
the graft, and they put forth many shoots from 
which this little olive originated. It is no 
doubt • wild species." W. G. Klee gave then 
careful and exact meaeurements that looked 
quite disastrous for the Picholioe, the pit of 
which was credited with a third of its whole 
weight. At that time only one pressing was 
known, that of L. A. Gould, who from 2500 
pounds of olives made 24 gallons of oil. With 
regard to these facts, a third, one of our most 
prominent agrioultarlsts, said to me two years 
ago: " I would not take a Picholine orchard if 
it was given to me." If our Coryphees spoke 
thus it was not to be wondered at when the 
in/eriorei gentea cried about the " Humbug 
olive," and sighed: "Maya similar mistake 
to that committed in introducing the Picholine 
olive, be spared to California !" 

A few years ago I claimed in the Rural that 
the Picholine is a more equal and prolific bearer 
than the Mission, and ripens more than five 
weeks earlier than that one. Bat when it was 
said that the I'icholine yields only half as much 
oil as any other variety, I had no facts to 
contradict this and oonsrquently had to keep 
quiet. This year, however, I am able to give 
some facts. 

On my own ranch, for the first time, I made 
a little oil from six-year-old trees; the berries 
had about the aame meaeures given by Mr. 
Klee, and from .^SO pounds I did not get much 
more' than five gallons. Entirely different it 
was on another Auburn ranch, formerly owned 
by the above-mentioned L. A. Gould, and now 
by Mrs. E. Robereon. There the trees are 
ten years old and a mere elance at the berries 
shows that they are considerably larger than 
they are represented in any picture so far 
issued in California. I regret that I omitted 
weighing and measuring them; but layine them 
beside berries of the highly praised Kibra, 
one could hardly see the difference. 

Mrs. Roberson gathered in 1800, .3800 pounds 
of Picholine olives which yielded 66 gallons of 
oil, or one gallon to .57 pounds, a better result 
than ¥j Iwood Cooper ever reported from Mis- 
sion olives. One special pressing yielded even 
aa much as one gallon to 49 pounds, which fa- 
vorable result could not be accounted for. I, 
however, think that it is proved beyond doubt 
that the berries of the I'icholine olive will 
grow larger when the trees grow larger, and 
that the larger berries yield a better percentage 
of oil. That favorable result probably was 
received from specially large trees. 

Speaking now of the quality of the oil, no- 
body ever doubted that the Redding Picholine 
yielded a good oil. W. G. Klee says it pro- 
duced oil of good quality; Mr. Lelong says it 
makes very good oil. We, here in Auburn, 
compared Mission and Picholine oil and niaim 
that the latter has a more transparent greenish 
color, and is decidedly lighter and has not the 
fat, greasy taste of the Mission oil. From San 
Francisco dealers, Lebenbaum Bros., I heard 
that the greatest fault with California olive oil 
is, that it will not keep. Mr. Cooper, and es- 
pecially Mr. Kimball, could tell a good deal 
about that. Those dealers of course referred 
to Mission oil, having no experience with 
Pioholine. Two days before I met Mr. E A. 
Pearson, a prominent lumberman of Sacra- 
mento, who told me that three or four years 
ago he got a bottle of oil from Mr. Goald, when 
that gentleman made his first oil; he used a 
part of the bottle and put the rest away to see 
how it would keep, and he assured me that 
DOW this oil looks as clear, smells as sweet and 
tastes as fine as ever. 

One of the greatest a'^vantages of the Picho- 
line is its early and even ripening. It ripens 
in the first part of November, and how much 
value is in that, Mrs. Roberson experienced 
last year, her first year in the olive business. 
She commenced picking in November and gath- 
ered from one niue-year-old tree 163 pounds of 
olives. But in December an uncommonly 
heavy snow fell and brought in its suite myriads 
of robins, which have an equal relish for 
Picholine and other olives and got away with 
most of the crop. If, however, they will call 
again in another year, they will be disappointed 
not to find any Picholine left, but mast be sat 
isfied with the later-ripening varieties. Snow 
or rain alone will shake off and spoil many 
berries. 

Still the Picholine is a small olive and there- 
fore one might be afraid the gathering would 
cost considerably more. The berries here are 
gathered with a comb, and one man conld pick 
this year (1890), which was an off year, 190 
pounds, while Mr. Cooper says a man gathers 
300 pounds of Mission per day. This raises 
the cost of a gallon of oil for the Picholine 
12-13 cents, which I am confident will be oon- 
siderably diminished when a tree bears like 
last year four or even more times aa much. 

Considering these facts, we all in Auburn 
who have any interest and experience in olives 
know that of the 16 varieties now bearing on 
the Roberson ranch, so far, nope has proved 



(though it may be) better than the Picholine: 
and consequently we, whenever and wherever 
we can, plant out the Rsdding Picholine olive, 
because, to sum up its advantages, it is a fast- 
growing olive tree of good shape, bears equally 
and prolifically, ripens aa early or earlier than 
any other variety and yields much oil of a 
good and keeping quality. F. Clo.'^s. 

Quisiana, A ubum, Col. 



Tlie Kieffer Pear and Its Originator. 

There is much difference of opinion in this 
State concerning the Kieffer pear, and really 
much difference in quality in the variety as 
grown in different parts of the State; still the 
following article, which Thomaa Meehan of 
Philadelphia writes for the London Oardenert' 
Chronicle, will be read with much interest: 

Peter Kieffer was the originator of the Kief- 
fer pear. All over the world of gardening 
probably the Kieffer pear is known. Certainly 
in the United States, hundreds of thousands 
have been planted and hundreds of thousands 
of dollars realized from its sale. The owner of 
the tree, a near neighbor of mine, received 
probably bnt a few hundred, if that much. It 
seems that the great circle that has derived so 
much pleasure and profit from his work should 
at least know something of the man, who died 
on Nov. 7th, at his home in the suburbs of 
Philadelphia. He was a Frenchman, born in 
Alsace June 29, 1^12, He arrived in New 
York December, 1834. Failing in employment 
there, he walked through anow two feet deep 
to Philadelphia, 100 miles, and obtained a situ- 
ation as gardener to the famous agricultariat 
Jamea Gowen, of Mount Airy, near here, where 
be married and finally bought a few acres and 
started a little market garden and amall 
nursery. * * * All around Philadelphia 
are numerous rare trees and plants, the history 
of which no one knows, and the mystery ia 
usually finally settled by the remark. " prob- 
ably something introduced by Peter Kieffer." 
The Sand pear of Japan, so far as relates to the 
older trees growing in this aeotion of America, 
if not in other parts, he certainly introduced. 
Numerous trees were fruiting here between 30 
and 40 years ago— the fruit regarded aa of no 
or little culinary value, but much esteemed for 
its delightful perfume. Mr. Kieffer raised 
seedlings from his tree, which were sold yearly 
from his little nursery. His tree grew close to 
a Bartlett (yoar Williama' Bon Chretien), and 
the branches of the two interlaced. Some 
slight difference in one seedling was noted, and 
it was preserved from sale. This proved what 
is, from the above facts, reasonably believed to 
be a true hybrid, the Kieffer pear. The fine 
red cheek, and some general appearance to 
the Fiemiah Beauty, has caused the statement 
to appear in our pomological works that it is a 
hybrid with the Flemish Beauty. Mr. K. 
grafted and sold a few here and there for five 
dollars each; but though he distributed among 
his few horticultural friends annually fruit that 
would make the moat cold-sonled epicure leap 
with joy, no eff jrt was made by any one to 
place it properly on the market. At length the 
great Centeonial Exhibition came. Mr. Kieffer 
had some on exhibition; these excelled in size, 
beauty, flavor — everything, indeed, for which 
any pear could possibly be esteemed. The 
writer, who was secretary to the jury, can truly 
aay that he remembers eating no pear like 
them. They had a medal and a atrong report 
in their favor; and Mr. Wm. Parry, a well- 
known introducer of new fruits, made an ar- 
rangement with Mr. Kieffer for grafts. In this 
way the variety got regularly into commerce. 
It may be said that gardening is no longer an 
art here as it was in Mr. Kicffar's day. A fruit 
has to be "hardy " and " first-class," just as 
Nature gives it to you. You plant the tree, 
but, to a very great extent, it must forever 
after be able to take oare of itself. Mr. Kieffer 
knew how to gather and how to cure his pears; 
year by year, since 1868, when the Kieffer pear 
first frnited, you could go to his house, and out 
of bia cellar he would bring you fruits the like 
of which you might not find elsewhere. Few, 
if any, oan get Kieffer pears aa Kieffer had 
them, and the art has died with him. In our 
fruit lists it is simply classed as " valuable for 
market purposes," and the fruit chapters tell us 
it is "a very variable kind." Philadelphia is 
being fast covered with buildings over its vast 
area of 120 square miles. The original Kitrffer 
pear tree is still standing in Mr. KieSer's 
grounds, but it will probably not be many yeara 
before the maroh of improvement will bid it 
begone. 

California Figs. 

W. 0. Eoamett, United States Consul at 
Smyrna, has furnished the following report 
concerning the cultivation of the fig at Smyr- 
na. It will be read with intereat by the fig- 
growers of California. He aaya: 

In 1886 a party from California, apparently 
well posted, came here in the summer, went to 
the fig district and inspected the different vari- 
eties. He made his selection and marked the 
trees from which he desired cuttings. When 
the crop was gathered he obtained 30,000 fe- 
male and 3000 cuttings from male trees and 
packed and shipped the same about the end of 
October. I have been informed that great 
success rewarded his enterprise. A box of 
tigs grown and packed in California reached 
here this autumn (1889) and was inspected and 
nniveraally praised by many dealers. In some 
inatancea it waa impoasible to persuade the 



parties that said figs were grown outside the 
Aldin district; in fact some went so far as to 
designate the orchard. Those who grasped the 
fall importance of this American enterprise 
predicted that Turkey'a supremacy in the fig 
trade was waning. Some console themselves 
with the opinion that the American fig will 
not continue to be good. As the trees (grown 
from Smyrna cuttings) grow older, the fruit 
will have thick skins and become tough — in 
fact become native American figs. This dete- 
rioration of the fruit is very common here an'' 
hat been well known for a long time. The 
transplanting of trees from their own orchards, 
even for a short distance, makes them give 
fruit of an entirely different flavor and nature. 
It has been suggested to me that if some grower 
will grow seedlings from the fruit of young 
trees grown from Smyrna cuttings, the chances 
of American fig-growers will be greatly en- 
hanced and perhapa in time eclipse one of the 
staple articles of this country. 



The Los Angeles Poultry Show. 

Editors Pres.s : — I send you a copy of the 
Orange News, giving the awards at the Los 
Angeles County Poultry Show, with perhaps a 
better account of it than I could write from the 
fact it is written up by Mr. Fallerton, the 
judge at the show, who is also a newspaper man 
and ponltryman of long standing. 

I will give you a few breeding-pen scores, 
that you may see that we had lome good birds 
at the show : 

IVeed. Owned by. Score. 

B. Leghorns, W. W. Thurston, I.. A 187U 

W. F. B. -Spinish, K. Rowan, Pasadenx 186)^ 

G. Wyandoties, S. Tyler, Pasadena 183 

S. Wvandottes, S. Tyler, P.isadena 182)4 

W. Wyandoties. E. C. Clapp. Pasadena 182 

R. C. B. Leghorns, W. H. Dwight. Pasadena. . 179 5^ 

H. P:ym. Rocks. C. T. P.^ul, L. A 177 

Redcaps, E. C. Thurber, Alhambra 177 

Houdans, Geo. Bacon, I^. A ijbj'i 

Black Minorcas, I. S. Myers, L. A 

L. Brahmas, T. Keen, Pasadena 168^ 

We indeed had a fine show of fine birds. We 

are not ashamed of it. E. C. Clapf. 

Pasadena. 

Mr. Fullerton'8 Report. 

From the report sent ua we take the follow- 
ing notes of the representation of the different 
breeds : 

The Wyandottes, silver, golden and white, 
were good classes, nd the improvement over 
last year's exhibit was very marked. The 
Wyandotte is a good general-purpose fowl, pro- 
ducing eggs freely and dressing well for the 
market. It is an American variety and has 
many admirers. 

The Plymouth Rock class waa one of the 
atrongest in the show, and prizes fell to ex- 
cellent birds. The competition for first place 
in cockerels waa close, and the result of scoring 
waa watched with intereat. Tbia ia a well- 
known general-purpose variety. A fair pen of 
White I'lymouth Rocks was shown, but 
the barred seemed to have the call in public 
estimation. 

The display of Light Brahinas was not very 
large, but there were several very finely marked 
specimens in competition. The weight clause 
waa particularly hard on this variety, lowering 
the scores so that the birds did not attain to 
the value their symmetry and markings seemed 
to warrant. The application of the weight 
clanae, which takes effect in the case of 
chickena after December 1st, was nearly fatal 
to the success of the whole exhibit in this class. 
The Dark Brahma olass was represented by 
a beautiful cock and hen only. The hen was 
very fine in color and penciling, bnt being un- 
der weight had to be disqualified. 

A well-built but rather unevenly colored 
cockerel had the honor of representing the 
Buff Cochin class alone. Partridge Cochin and 
Langsbao classes did not show up aa well aa 
we expected they would. 

The display of Brown Leghorns was large 
and good. The first-prize cock, hen and 
cockerel were striking birds and were much 
admired. This variety is well bred here, and 
if an effort is made to secure greater size and 
better color in wings, no odds need be asked 
in strongest competition anywhere. The 
Whites made a fair display, but were not up to 
the Browns in quality. The first prize-cock 
bird was very fine in style, color and quality of 
feather, and had fine lobes, but they were 
marred from fighting probably. Size can be 
given these with advantage also. The rose- 
combed Browns were fair. There were several 
Black Leghorns shown, good in oomb, ear- 
lobes, etc., bnt deficiency in leg color was fatal 
to their success. 

White-faced Black Spanish was a good 
class. The tirst-prlze cockerel was excel- 
lent in shape and showed up well in faoe 
among a claaa that waa very good in tbia par- 
ticular. 

The Poliah clais waa repreaented by two lit- 
tle silver hens of good marking. 

The Hamburg claaa waa also weak in num- 
bers, but the specimens shown were good. 
Two silver-spangled hens and a black hen and 
cockerel were all that appeared. The cockerel 
was a very stylish little fellow and would 
not fail to attract attention at any exhibi- 
tion. I 

A breeding pen of Redcaps, a variety very 
popalar in England and gaining in popu- 



larity on this side of the pond on account of 
their great laying qualities, attracted a great 
deal of attention. Their immense rose combs 
seemed to citch the eye and their beautifully 
spangled plumage seemed to hold it. 

The entry of black red Games waa small, but 
of good quality. 

There was a large and fine display of that 
new, popalar and beautiful variety, Cornish 
Indian Games. They are not yet admitted to 
the American Standard, but are well worthy of 
a place in it. No variety on exhibition showed 
such distinctive form, and few greater beauty 
of plumage. We have never seen fowls show 
greater solidity of body and hardness of feather. 

Pit (iames were out in force. As the merits 
of this variety are judged by its ability to give 
and take punishment in battle, we do not un- 
derstand why it should be placed in competi- 
tion in the peaceful exhibition pen. The birds 
here shown were rather pretty, but their mer- 
its were not tested. 

In the bantam olaases, a pair of Dackwings 
were the only birds worthy of particular mention. 
A nice pen of Golden Sebrights disappeared be- 
fore the judge had a chance to examine them. 

The exhibit of turkeys, geese and ducks waa 
amall. The markings were generally good, but 
the weight penalty was very hard on them. 

The pigeon display was very small. There 
was a nice display of pets, bat a brooder, 
placed in one of the windowa, filled with lively 
chicka about a week old, was one of the great- 
est drawing cards. 

JudglDK by Staodard. 

Aa many of the readcra interested in poultry 
may not be aware of what is meant by judging 
by scoring, a brief explanation may be in place 
here. "The American Standard of Perfec- 
tion," a book issued by the American Poultry 
Association, is the recognized authority in judg- 
ing in the United States and Canada. It de- 
scribes a perfect specimen of every variety of 
fowls and gives the valae of each part in points, 
perfection being rated at 100 points — so much 
for beak, comb, wattle*, etc., following down 
to the toes. Each part ia considered separate- 
ly, and such per centum for defects as may be 
apparent from the full value of a perfect bird 
deducted, and the same is marked upon a card, 
called the score-card, which corresponds with 
the scale of points a% given in the Standard. 
Symmetry, or a harmony of the several parts 
and proportions, is first considered before the 
bird is handled, so that it may not be marred 
by exciting the subject or rufBing its plumage. 
Weight bears an important part in the larger 
breeds and is determined by the scales. Fowls 
under standard weights are punished at the 
rate of two points for each pound lacking; tur- 
keys, geese and ducks, three pointa. In the 
smaller varieties, where smalluess is desired, 
the rale is reversed, with difference in the pen- 
alty. The penaltiea for defects are added to- 
gether, and when deducted from the value of 
the perfect specimen, give the value of the bird 
In points. Size in some of the medinm vari- 
eties is decided by comparison. The Standard 
fixes a disqualifying weight, and when the 
specimen falls below or goes above this weight, 
as the case may be, it is said to be disqualified 
and is thrown out of competition. Tiaere are 
also several other defects in each variety which 
disqualify. The score-card is placed upon the 
coop of the specimen it represents, and when 
comoared should plainly show the reason for 
the judge's award. When judging ia done by 
comparison, the novice frequently cannot see 
why one specimen is preferred to another — and 
frequently experienced fanciers are in the same 
poottion. The score-card puts the judge's work 
on record and calls the exhibitor's attention to 
serious faults that he may before have thought 
trivial. 



Hens for Profit. 

Madison Avenue writea for the Paaadena 
Star as follows: In the opinion of the writer, 
hens may be made to pay. Starting about 
two years ago — a novice in the business — 
with a dozen fowls for the purpose of secnrioga 
few fresh eggs for home use, to day my flock 
numbers 24, Including two roosters, and while 
my neighbors and friends are complaining very 
generally of their hens not laying scarcely any 
eggs, mine are averaging nearly ten a day right 
along. For curiosity, a record was kept for the 
month of November just passed, the product of 
which amounted to 280 eggs, and still the good 
work goes on. It is undoubtedly more profit- 
able for a family to keep a few hens and take 
good care of them than to have a large number 
and allow them to shift for themselves. The 
matter of feed is of the greatest importance and 
after experimenting with the various kinds, I 
have settled down to the following combination 
as possessing a large amnant of egg-producing 
elements, all of which the dealer thorxiugbly 
mixes when purchased, viz.: Rolled barley 25 
pounds, cracked oorn 20 pounds, bran 25 
pounds, whole wheat 10 pounds, shorts 15 
pounds, oilmeal 5 pounds, making 100 pounds 
in all. Of the above mixtnre I give my number 
of hens two quarts, wet up with scalding hot 
water in the morning, and toward night they 
get a full pint of wheat. They are abut up un- 
til middle of afternoon, when they have acceas 
to green grass, clover, etc., while before them 
in their corral is always a supply of cracked 
bone, fine gravel and fresh water. I would 
here state that for variety of fowl, I have a 
mixture of Wyandotte, Plymouth Rook and 
Light Brahma, and the eggs for size are not 
excelled, 



Jan. 24, 1891.1 



f ACIFie I^URAb PRESS. 



67 



Work of the State Floral Society. 

[Report of Emoky E. Smith, Secretary of tlie State Floral 
Society.] 

The State Floral Society was organized two 
years and three months ago. Since that time 
the qaestlon has often been asked : " What has 
the society done to advance floriculture on the 
Pacifia Coast ? ' To get at the facts, we will 
go back a little. This is the pioneer floral 
society on the Pacific Coast, and had, like other 
pioneer societies of this kind, to fight against 
factional and personal jealousy, narrow-minded 
policy, inexperience, indifference and other 
vicissitudes with which such ventures are 
always attended; but through all of this the so- 
ciety has stood unshaken and has steadily 
grown in numbers, interest and power, having 
drawn to itself more than 150 ladies and gen- 
tlemen, whose names stand high on California's 
roll of honor, and of whom any society could 
feel proud. No appeal for financial aid has been 
made either to the State or to the public, and, 
after having made all just settlements, there is 
now over $200 in the treasury to the society's 
credit. 

Four flower shows have been held and many 
thousands of people have gazed in admiration 
upon California's floral glory and wondered at 
the perfection of the gardener's skill. The 
public taste has been gradually molded under 
the fostering influence of these exhibitions, and 
the increasing superiority in quality of the 
floral exhibits has been remarkable. There are 
many more beautiful gardens in California than 
there ever were before; the public demands 
more perfect and choicer cut flowers, more 
beautiful shrubbery and a larger and choicer 
variety of blooming and ornamental plants. To 
the liberality of the press we owe much of the 
success attained. The leading papers have 
uniformly published full reports of the monthly 
meetings of the society and of the semi-annual 
flower shows. Through this way alone vast 
numbers of people have experienced an awak- 
ened interest in floriculture. Many strangers 
have visited our monthly meetings. 'Ihe 
papers read at these monthly meetings have 
been of great merit and have been widely dis- 
seminated by the press, conveying accurate and 
valuable information to the remotest parts of 
the State. 

Two communities have been encouraged to 
organize floral societies, which have held sev- 
eral successful exhibitions, and other communi- 
ties are contemplating similar organizations. 
The members of the society have contributed 
both time and money to the National Plant 
Registration and Protection to Plantsmen 
scheme, which bids fair to place horticulture in 
the United States on a firmer basis and higher 
plane than it can possibly otherwise attain. 
Correct floral statistics of California have been 
compiled and forwarded to the Census Bureau 
at Washington. One of our most beautiful 
native flowers has been added to the emblems 
of our State. Much other valuable work has 
been accomplished of which time forbids men- 
tion. There remains much for the California 
State Floral Society to accomplish, for floricul- 
ture is a progressive science and California is a 
great Skate, embracing many diversified cli- 
mates. The society having passed the experi- 
mental point, it now devolves upon it to pursue 
its work in a systematic manner. The indi- 
vidual members should take a much greater in- 
terest in the work; each one ahould contribute 
something, either ideas or exhibits, or should 
influence others to contribute. 

Perhaps the most important committee is 
that of Subjects and Papers. In the future 
this committee must do its work more perfectly 
and efficiently, or the interest of the society 
will suffer. It will require earnest work to 
make our society an exemplary and lasting suc- 
cess, and every member should, in the interest 
of floricultnre, be willing to share the burden. 
All of the papers read should be published in 
pamphlet form at the end of the year. Adver- 
tisements could be secured sufficient to at least 
partially cover the expense. This would give 
those in search of practical knowledge a ready 
source from which to draw. An effort should 
be made to elevate the standard of our shows, 
thus encouraging the production ot that which 
is truly meritorious. A systematic effort should 
be made to organize local floral societies 
throughout the State to work as auxiliaries to 
or independent of the State Society. The ex- 
pense of sending a member or officer of the 
State Society to organize these auxiliaries at 
near-by points would not be great, and the 
floral people at more distant points would no 
doubt contribute part or all of the attending 
expense. 

A Press Committee should be appointed, 
whose duty it should be to furnish the daily 
papers with accurate information regarding the 
proceedings of the society, A Labeling Com- 
mittee should be appointed, whose duty it 
should be to see that all exhibits, at both 
monthly meetings and shows, are accurately 
and plainly labeled. The leading papers 
throughout the State should from time to time 
be informed of any important action taken by 
the society. A popular love for wild flowers 
■honld be in every potsible way fostered. A 
register might be established in which coald be 
entered, under the head of counties, all of the 
desirable varieties of flowers and ornamental 
plants which thrive in the various localities in 
open air with or without irrigation, A 



library should be started at once, the books to 
be loaned for limited periods to the members 
of the society. There might be suggested 
many other things that the society can do to 
foster love for floriculture in California, but 
sufficient has been said to give us food for re- 
flection. Now, at the beginning of the New 
Year, let us resolve to be more zealous in the 
cause of our loved flowers, God's beautiful gift ! 
Let us live nearer to the possibilities of nature 
and endeavor to woo the gaze and thought of 
the heedless world, for at least a time, from 
the sordid things of life to the pure, the good 
and the sweet, whioh is ever to be found at 
Flora's shrine ! 



Fern Exhibit in Edinburgh, 

[By Lorenzo G. Yatbb, F. L. S., before the State Floral 
Society.! 

In a communication to the Northern Gar- 
dener, Mr. J. Birkenhead writes of the ferns 
exhibited at the Royal Caledonian Society's 
Show : 

Whatever may be thought about ferns in 
some parts of the kingdom, it is very evident 
that in Edinburgh they are highly esteemed. 
At the large show just held in the Waverly 
Market they formed a very conspicuous feature 
of the exhibition. "Oh, what lovely ferns I 
" How beautiful the ferns are ! " were the re- 
marks heard in relation to them. One lady re- 
marked : "Flowers last only a short time, 
but ferns are always pretty." The society 
offered prizes for 13 different classes of ferns, 
which brought out 53 lots in competition, com- 
prising 253 plants, of which some 60 or 70 were 
not less than three feet and many were six 
feet, while some were eight feet or more in di- 
ameter. 

Mr. P. Neill Fraser, who by the way re- 
ceived four first prizes, exhibited a remarkable 
plant of Trichomanes trichoideum, a mass of 
18 inches across. The fronds of this species 
are cut so fine as to appear like hair, the whole 
presenting the appearance of a mass of green 
seaweed from every frond of which hung drops 
of moisture like innumerable diamonds. The 
Killarny fern (Trichomanes radicane) and 
Hymenophyllum demissum were in 12-inch 
pans. The next most remarkable fern by the 
same exhibitor was a Polypodium subauricu- 
latum with fronds 9 feet in length and 15 or 16 
inches wide, a perfect mass of foliage five feet 
through, hanging from a basket. In the same 
lot a Microlepia hirta cristata and Polypodium 
aureum eight feet across, with Davaliia dissecta 
and Polypodium glaucophyllum five feet in di. 
ameter. In the class of adiantums, 24 of the 
plants exhibited were four feet or more across. 
There were also fine exhibitn of British ferns. 
For the exhibition of 1891 $6000 in prizes will 
be offered by the society, which will doubt- 
less result in a still finer exhibition of plants 
and fruits. 



Hair of the Common Goat and Camel 
and th^ Tariif, 

Editors Press:— The many tariff changes 
which have taken place recently, and the num- 
erous interpretations of the same law by differ- 
ent authoritiea, have led to some very amusing 
and ridiculous decisions, especially on goat hair. 
For instance, the law of 1883 made common 
goat hair imported into this country free of 
duty under Section 1132 of the revised statute. 
Since that year the vexed question has been 
" see-sawing " first on one side, then on the 
other. 

One recently appointed Secretary of the 
Treasury has decided that in his opinion all 
goat hair, regardless of its character, quality 
and the uses to which it is to be put, should 
pay a duty of 12 cents per pound. This is 
his interpretation of it as framed in the recent 
tariff bill. 

The law intended to make a distinction 
between the hair on the common goat (as a 
late Secretary of the Treasury said, " those 
that feed on tin cans, brown paper and posted 
bills ") and the blooded animals like the 
Angora, Vicuna, Alpaca or Cashmere and 
Llama. There is as much difference between 
the above as between a " blooded horse and a 
burro." 

Some grades of the common goat hair are 
only suitable for plastering purj^oses, and can 
be imported for 1^ pence or 3 cents a pound. 
With this duty ot 12 cents added, you will, 
see that the percentage is enormous. It is 
our opinion that the former tariff making 
common goat hair free, was wise and proper, 
as this particular class does not interfere with 
our wool interest, as it is only used for building 
purposes and very cheap blankets. We have 
no doubt that this decision will be reversed at 
an early day. 

The recent tariff has also added camels hair 
to the list of dutiable articles entered in two 
classes; that from Russia being coarse, is placed 
under Class 3 with carpet wools, and that 
from China under Class 2 with coml>ing wools. 

Heretofore, camels-hair has been imported 
under the free list. We raise none except 
occasional specimens in our Zoological Gardens, 
yet the amount mixed with wool is from 15 to 
25% and is used in manufacturing underwear 
ana ladies' dress goods, and this percentage 
takes the place of so much wool, and it is wise 
and proper that both classes should pay tribute 
to Uncle Sam's revenue, 



The feasibility of combining camels-hair 
with silk and velvet is more and more seen, 
and it is quite fashionable this season, Osmels- 
hair by itself is slippery, and has not the barb 
on its fiber that wool has, and authority says 
" it requires a percentage of the latter mixed 
with it in order to spin satisfactorily." We 
are sure that all these protections thrown 
around our American growerr, must work to 
advantage for all concerned. 

New York, Wm Macnacghtan's Sons 



0Jhe Vetef^inari^vn. 



Flukes in Cattle and Sheep. 

Editors Pre.ss;— A disease has appeared among 
the dairy cows hereabout. * * • The cows 
appear well and in good order, but lie down and 
become too weak to rise again, and after a few 
hours — sometimes a day or two — they die. Upon 
opening one of them recently, the gall was enlarged 
to nearly three times its proper size; the insides 
seemed to be in a high state of inflammation, and 
from the outside of the intestines the inclosed para- 
sites were detached. The specimens were origin- 
ally an inch long and resembled diminutive flatfish. 
'1 hey were the color of the animal's flesh, and each 
one was attached to it by a little sucker end. When 
detached from the intestine, they curled up and 
struggled. In its body could be distinctly seen 
globules of blood, and there were thousands of 
parasites in the animal. There is no doubt that 
they were the cause of death. Can you give any 
information that may lead to the prevention of 
the spread of this malignant disease ? — Reader, 
Mariti county. 

Response by Dr. Cooper Curtice, Veteri- 
narian, Dept. or Agriculture. 

Editors Press: — The writer quite clearly 
describes a disease and its cause which has 
hitherto attracted but little attention in this 
country. Previous notices of it have been con- 
fined to the statements of veterinarians, who 
have found the flukes — the cause — either in 
the liver or in the lungs. The animals in which 
the flukes have been found have been either 
Texan or Californian cattle. 

The writer, an employe of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry, was, during the last summer, 
directed by the Secretary of Agriculture, Hon. 
J. M. Rusk, to investigate the diseases of 
cattle caused by animal parasites on the Pacific 
Ooast and in Texas, and, while pursuing these 
duties, found the flukes in various localities, 
but not in sufficient force at that season to 
cause serious disease. He also learned that 
Dr. M. Francis of College Station, Texas, had 
investigated, during the previous winter, an 
outbreak of the disease in Southern Texas, in 
which the loss ran up into hundreds of cattle. 

The disease is caused by a flat (solelike) 
worm, which is swallowed by the cattle when 
eating or drinking, is a small, round, micro- 
scopic body, usually attached to the grass in 
the vicinity of ponds, swales or marshy ranges. 
I could not say without investigation whether 
cattle grazing on the tule lands were more 
affected with the disease than others or not, 
but a priori should think that they would be. 
The parasites are not usually all taken in at 
once but through days and weeks. After they 
reach the stomach, tbey usually find their way 
into the liver, and sometimes into the abdomen 
where your correspondent found them. When 
in the liver, their presence may be detected by 
cutting into the enlarged and thickened white 
gall-ducts or into the black, rotten-looking 
masses which they sometimes make there or in 
the enlarged gall-bladder. 

The flukes which your correspondent found 
had invaded the animal from two to three 
months earlier, for it is said that it takes about 
this time for them to reach such a size. Dur- 
ing this time, the suckers'had been constantly 
removing blood from the cow and causing her 
to be more and more bloodless. In addition to 
the aruemia thus produced, an intense inflam- 
mation ot the lining membrane of the inside 
cavity of the cow was set up by the irritation 
they produced, which was really the cause of 
the animal's death. This peritonitis has, I be- 
lieve, been noticed earlier in Europe but not In 
this country. 

For the disease taken at the stage when your 
correspondent wrote, no medicinal remedy will 
serve to cure the patients. Tonics, as gentian, 
sulphate of iron and ginger, and the best posiii- 
ble nutritive feeding, may serve to carry 
the cattle through the disease if they are 
not too badly invaded. The remedial treat- 
ment should have been begun about three 
months earlier, as in August or September. 
This would consist in removing the cattle from 
the marsh lands to the drier pastures, espe- 
cially if the season happens to be a wet one. 
I realize the difficulty of carrying out this pre- 
caution by the majority of cattlemen. It is 
given as a practical precaution for a few who 
can carry it out and a necessary precaution for 
all who would avoid the disease. Provide, if 
possible, drinking water from running water or 
from tanks or troughs, The disease usually 
lasts from five to six months, but this depends 
upon the removal from or continued exposure 
to the invading hosts. 

The loss falls upon the producer, for not 
only is the disease fatal, but when not fatal it 
reduces the flesh and the milk of those affect- 
ed. If the meat is sold, it is not dangerous to 
the consumer unless the animal is slaughtered 
when in an acute fever, but it is leas nutritious 
and worth less per pound as an article of food. 

If the cattle are kept in fenced lands, the 
land may be treated by scattering lime and 



salt on it to kill the snails and fluke embrj 
that there may be on it. The snail is a bearer 
of the flake embryos in its young stages. It 
must be borne in mind that cattle diseased by 
flukes constantly drop eggs with their 
manure and scatter them broadcast. It 
is not best, therefore, to pasture invaded 
cattle with the healthy ones at any time. The 
disease is not a contagious one in any sense the 
word is usually used. Cattle which do not 
feed or drink alongside the sick will not be dis- 
eased unless they feed in another lot nnder 
similar conditions. 

In Europe, sheep-owners are seriously affect- 
ed by the fluke disease. I have found less in 
this country than could be expected. If any of 
the flock- masters are interested in the disease, 
they are referred to the late publication of the 
Department of Agriculture on "The Animal 
Parasites of Sheep," which treats of this para- 
site and many others at length and gives quite 
full illustrations of each. This work is of use 
also to cattlemen, for the methods of prevention 
to be pursued in warding off the cattle para- 
sites are those that are given for sheep. The 
doses of remedies prescribed are of course too 
small for cattle, but they can easily be en- 
larged. The book is distributed free by the 
Secretary of Agriculture. 

Cooper Curtice, 
Veterinarian, Dept. of Agr. 

Washington, D. C. 



<ShE ^IEIsD. 



Esparcet in Colorado. 

Editors Press:— Noticing inquiry about espar- 
cet in your edition of Jan. 3d, we mail one of our 
catalogues to your address. On page 76 we give a 
little of our experience in Colorado, if of any inter- 
est to you.— Barteldes & Co., Seedsmen, Denver. 

The following is the description of sainfoin 
or esparcet to which our correspondents allude. 
It seems more favorable than the plant has 
earned in this State — at least so far as reported 
up Cb this time: 

This is a leguminous plant, with many stems 
from two to three feet long, straggling, taper- 
ing, smooth; leaves in pairs of pointed oblong 
leaflets, slightly hairy on the underside; flower 
stalks higher than the leaves, ending in a spike 
of crimson of variegated leaves, succeeded by 
flat, hard pods, toothed on the edges and 
prickly on the sides; roots perennial, and hard 
and woody; flowers in July. It belongs to the 
same family as the alfalfa, well known to all 
our Western people. It is adapted for light, 
chalky soil, sands, gravels and barren regions, 
where the rainfall is not plenty and irrigation 
not obtainable. It is not as long-lived a plant 
as alfalfa, but will last from 10 to 12 years, 
according to nature of the soil; by judicious 
top dressing of manure in the fall, the duration 
may be extended a few years. It is an excel- 
lent forage plant, and improves the quality and 
increases the quantity of milk when fed to 
milk cows. Sow 40 to 45 pounds per acre. 
Report from the State Agricultural Col- 
lege, Ft. Collins, Colo. 
Messrs. Barteldes .0 Go.: — The seed you sent 
us in the spring ot 1889 was sown May 20th in 
two separate plats. One plat was sown two 
inches deep, the other about one-half inch, or 
merely covered; the former plat gave us a good 
stand, the plants soon taking possession of the 
soil, making a vigorous growth about 18 inches 
that season without irrigation, while the latter 
was almost a total failure. We would advise 
early and heavy seeding, and the firming of the 
soil after planting with a roller. It is our 
candid opinion that esparcet is the coming for- 
age plant for our region, and should be given a 
thorough trial by every intelligent farmer or 
stockman. 

Mr. Chas. T. Limberg, general manager of 
the Arkansas Valley Smelting Company of 
Lead ville, says: Two years ago I sowed some 
esparcet above our ditches, and the same has 
done nicely. 

Mixing Phosphorus for Squirrels. 

Editors Press : — A farmer of experience 
sends the following recipe for mixing phos- 
phorus to poison squirrels. We have found it 
to be a very safe and sure means of ridding the 
farm of the above-mentioned pest : 

First, put a gallon of wheat into a bake-pan 
and place it in the oven until well warmed 
through; then put a half a pint of syrup into an 
old milkpan and place it on the stove; now 
take half a stick of phosphorus and put into 
the syrup; stir constantly with an old spoon 
(being careful to keep the phosphorus under 
the syrup as much as possible to keep it from 
blazing). When all is dissolved, place it over a 
tub of boiling water, then stir in the warmed 
wheat. When it is well mixed, sift over it 
flour and mix nntil each kernel of wheat con- 
tained in the mass separates and each grain is 
thoroughly coated with the flour. After allow- 
ing it to cool, put into tight cans nntil neeeded 
for use. 

Some farmers like to flavor the wheat with 
a few drops of oil of rhodium or anise seed. 
Twenty drops of either will be enough for this 
amount of poison. 

Phosphorus, if mixed carefully according to 
directions given above, will keep good for a 
long time and may be put out in the heat of 
summer without danger of setting fire, as it 
will not blaze if a burning match be held to It. 

Farmer, 



68 



f ACIFie l^URAb PRESS. 



Jan. 24, 1891 



JpATROJ^S Of ^USBAJMDf^Y, 

In our Rural Press Official Grange Edition, Issued 
erery week, will be found additional matter from 
this and other Jurisdictions, ol interest and import- 
ance to Patrons. Any subscriber who wishes cau 
change free to that edition. 



Wanamaker's Wickedness. 

Editors Presh: — In the issue of your paper 
under date of the 10th inst., I get a round 
BooldiDK from one " Kate L Squire." 

Had you published the resolutions adonted 
at the recent meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee, as indicated in your foot-note, I might 
have been saved the trouble of this oommn- 
nication. 

If I really thought this correspondent was a 
genuine vcoman, as indicated io the subscrip- 
tion, I should feel disposed to let the matter 
pass without comment; but there are some 
strictures and presumptive assertions in the 
oommunioation that smack so strongly of 
Beard and Asinine Omniscience 
That I feel constrained to answer, as if John 
Smith were the oracle of so much wisdom. 

Your correspondent starts out with the 
sweeping expression: 

I hope the Press does not indorse the communi- 
cation of J. V. Web>;ter in your issue of Nov. 29th, 
wherein he extols the merits of Mr. Wanamaker's 
postal-telegraph scheme. It seems strange that a 
gentleman of his seeming clear-sightedness does 
not see that government control without government 
ownership will simply mean to subsidize the already 
bloated corporations. 

As to indorsement, I presume the editors of 
the RcRAL jadge of a communication by its 
merits, without regard to the advice or protest 
of any one; so I am content on that score. 

It may "seem strange " to the writer be- 
cause I " do not see that government control 
without government ownership will simply 
mean to subsidize the already bloated corpo- 
rations." In answer to this sage conclusioo, I 
will simply say that if we were all omniscient, 
as your correspondent assumes to be, we w^uld 
have no excuse for making further mistakes 
during our natural lives; but unfortunately 

I Am Not or that Class, 
Cinsf qnently, have to plod along in this dnll, 
cold world, goidfd by the very few rays of 
light which are given me. If Secretary Wan- 
amaker or myself ever conceived " the idea of 
our Government paying a rental upon a valua- 
tion of 80 millions of dollars for existing lines 
which could be replaced hy government con- 
struction for from 20 to 25 millions," as sug- 
gested by K. L. S., we ought to be imprisoned, 
without the aid of judge or jury, for the re- 
mainder of our natural lives, and never be al- 
lowed to read anything but the learned dis- 
quisitions from the pen of your S»n Jose cor- 
respondent. 

What Mr. Wanamaker did propose was, sim- 
ply that the Government shonld lease, for a 
period not to exceed ten years, a suflScient 
number of existing telegraph lines to comma- 
nicate with all the free deUoery poKtoffiees in 
the Uoited States, which include only towns 
of 3000 inhabitants or over. To do this would 
not take more than 

Ten Per Cent of Existing Lines. 

Moreover, it will require an Act of Ooogress 
to grant this authori'.y to Mr. Wanamaker, 
wherein safeguards and restrictions will mani- 
festly be imposed, to the end that the interest 
of the Government may be guarded and pro- 
tected. 

I think time will prove the Wanamaker scheme to 
be thoroughly in the interests of the money power, 
and that it is an attempt to longer perpetuate the 
power which they are fearful will slip from their 
grasp; and if they can blind the people, they may 
well laugh in their sleeves at the docility of the 
farmer. I hope the Grange as a body will protest 
against such a measure, either that compromise or 
any half-way measures with the railroads. 

Here is expressed a belief that Mr. Wana- 
maker is deceitful and dishonest in his advo- 
cacy of postal telegraphy; that the President of 
the United States, who has Indorsed Mr. Wana- 
maker's proposition, is fraudulently endeavoring 
to sell out the honor and prosperity of the na 
tion, that greedy corporations may glut their 
thirst for gold. The legislative branches of the 
nation are, by inference, placed under the same 
ban of contempt and suspicion. When this 
point is reached in the mind of any one, what 
amount of patriotism is left in the heart ? 

To distrust and censure those in high places 
who have never intentionally violated any 
trust imposed, Is to 

Weaken and Discourage Well-Dolng. 

We have manifestly a great sniHciency of 
knoion thieves and robbers, without Indiscrim 
inately charging that every department of the 
Government is corrupt and nnreliable. 

As a finishing stroke to a bundle of inoon 
graities, K. L. S. says: 

Senator Chas. A. Sumner's bill for postal tele- 
graph is the only system that has been proposed in 
the interest of the people, and the monopolists put 
that out of sight as they would this (Wanamaker's) 
if it were not in their favor. 

From this statement, incoDjunction with the 
language previously quoted, it would appear 
that your San Jose oorrespondent has read 
neither Mr. Waoamaker's proposition nor the 
"Sumner bill," as introduced in the House of 
Representatives; for while Section 1 of said 
proposed Act declares in favor of authorizing 
the Postmaster- General to constroct or oaase to 



be constructed such lines as the system pro- 
posed would require, this section is so modified 
by Section 14 that the material difference be- 
tween the Wanamaker scheme and that of the 
Sumner bill is between the 

Purchase and the Leasing of Existing 
Lines. 

The latter portion of said section declares : 

The Postmaster- General is hereby authorized and 
empowered to accept as a part of the postal tele- 
graph of the people of the United States, any sec- 
tion of 50 miles or more along the lines of the routes 
designated by him, constructed subsequent to the 
passage and approval of this Act : Provided, that 
the material used in said construction, and the char- 
acter of the work performed in the building and 
maintenance, shall be in conformity to the terms 
prescribed in Section 4 of this Act: And pnn'idi-d 
further, that the amount asked and paid for a 
perfect and complete title to such sections of tele- 
graph construction shall not exceed the lowest price 
at which the Postmaster-General could procure ma- 
terial and construction of a precisely similar or 
equally excellent .section of telegraph lines on this 
prescribed route of the postal telegraph. 

As to the security and protection of the in- 
terests of the Government, they are in either 
case about equal. If the " bloated monopolies " 
could manipulate the leaiing of the proposed 
lines under the Wanamaker plan, they wonld 
with equal facility manipulate and control the 
price to be paid for such lines, as provided in 
the Sumner bill. There is no escaping this 
conclusion. But I am,not so ancharitable and 
suspicious as to believe that the whole machin- 
ery of the Government is disposed or could be 
induced to enter into a 

Qigantic Scheme to Rob Itself I 

If the lines should be bought as provided In 
the Samner bill, they would first be appraised 
by trusted servants of the Government. If 
leased, as proposed by Mr. Wanamaker, the 
present actual valuation of the needed lines 
would be first ascertained, and then a rental 
allowed which would yield the owners a fair 
rate of interest on that valuation. In the 
event of not being able to lease such lines by 
paying interest on a fair valuation thereof, the 
Oongressional enactment wonld certainly pro- 
vide for the purchase, condemnation or con- 
struction of the plants. Anything short of 
such provisions being incorporated in the bill 
would be unparliamentary and fnttle; hence 
the explicit points contained in the resolutions 
recently adopted by the Executive Committee 
of California State Grange, which I had the 
honor of introdnoing, [Published in the Rural 
(Grange Edition) of Jan. 10 ;h. — Eds ] 

K. L. 8. 's infatuation with the Sumner bill, 
which is stated to be " the only system that 
has been proposed in the interest of the people," 
has manifestly prevented a close 

Examination of Its Provisions. 

In order to pay for the proposed purchase or 
construction of the lines. Sec. 10 of said bill 
provides " That the Secretary of the Treasury 
is authorized and instructed to issue bonds of 
the United States, in amounts not exceeding 
fifty dollars each, and not exceeding in the 
aggregate valne twenty-five million dollars, re- 
deemable in Uwful money of the United States, 
within twenty years, and payable within thirty 
years from the day of issue, bearing interest at 
the rate of three per oentnm per annum, pay- 
able in lawful money of the United States." 

Now it has been the cry of the country for 
the last ten years, and of the Alliance people 
ever since the organization had an existence, 
that onr circulating melium 

Is Altogether too Small; 
That instead of twenty dollars per capita, we 
should have at least thirty-five. Bond issuing 
does not increase the circulation, and further 
isEue is against the protest of every taxpayer, 
and unnecessarily adds to the expenses of the 
Government to at least the amount of interest 
paid on such bonds. Why burden the people 
with this useless expenditure ? Instead, why 
not issue legal-tender notes which will pay the 
cost of such telegraph lines, and at the same 
time increase our ciroulating medium to the ex- 
tent of twenty-five or thirty millions of dol- 
lars, as proposed in the late Executive Com- 
mittee resolutions ? 

Taking these great questions all together, 
and after a full and fair investigation of all the 
facts and circumstances connected therewith, 
I think it possible to convince K. L, S. that 
there may be something of fact or logical con- 
clusions relating to the business and fioanoial 
world yet unknown in San Jose. 

J V. Webster. 

Sacramento County Exhibit. — Bro, E. 
Greer and A. A. Krnll pleased us with a oall 
on Tuesday. They had just completed their 
task of setting up the new Sacramento county 
exhibit at the State Board of Trade, and were 
returning home. The new exhibit is a fine one 
and a great credit to the county. Of its feat- 
ures we will speak at another time. It was 
provided by the County Supervisors, of whom 
Bro.Greer is one, and acted as the repreientative 
of the board in this enterprise, Bro. Krnll, as 
Secretary of the County Pomona Grange, as- 
sisted in the work. Some of the material was 
donated by the Pomona Grange and the bal- 
ance by other enterprising people. It has the 
reputation already of being the best county 
exhibit ever set up at the State Board of 
Trade. 

Picsics.— Bro. Shoemaker, W. M., Tulare 
Grange, writes that their last meeting was well 
attended. He is In favor of looal as well as 
interstate pionics; thinks we can and should 
bold a State picnic. 



The Master's Desk. 

K. VV DAVIS, W M. 8 O OK CAOIPOKNIi. 

Two and one-half dollars will get yon a 
splendid Grange, Home and Farm paper for 
one year. Every thoughtful farmer needs just 
such a visitor once a week. Then send for the 
Pacific Rural Press, and send the money 
withont delay. 



It is said of Ben Franklin, when he had at- 
tained his 21st birthday, that he organized the 
society known as the " Leather Apron Club." 
To this club no one was admitted who did not 
place his hand on his heart and solemnly say : 
"I love mankind: I think no man should be, 
harmed because of his opinions; I love truth, 
will seek It diligently, and, when found, make 
it known to others." 



Let duty be your twin brother; then pay 
strict attention to your brother's advice and 
you will not be far from safety at any time. 



Strive to be prompt at your Grange. Don't 
yon know how unpleasant it is to have some 
one come in late, and thus interrupt the 
proceedings ? Let other* be late, you be on 
time. 



The farmers of California ask for practical 
legislation and reduced taxation in the interests 
of Agriculture, which is now so sorely de- 
pressed. Make the agricultural community 
thrive and prosper, and all lines of business 
will soon feel an impetus. Give us this aid 
now. Next year may be too late. Nourish- 
ment after death does no good. Nourishment 
in one's lifetime is of service. 



In lSr)0 the farmers of the United States 
owned about 70 per cent of the wealth of the 
Republic. In 1890 they owned about 25 per 
cent of the wealth of the nation. If their 
mortgages were paid, they might now own 
about 20 per cent of the wealth. What's the 
cause? Has the farmer been indolent, or is 
there something wrong in another direction ? 
How about legislation ? 



" The birds always pick the best cherries." 
There are enemies everywhere. Even the 
cherry has its enemy. The Grange, like the 
cherry tree, is useful and ornamental, and like 
the cherry tree, the Grange has an open enemy 
in the person of the politician. As the fruit 
grower, with gun in band, watches the cherry 
tree, so the Patron, with vigilance, roust watch 
the politician. 



The Grange will celebrate its Silver Anniver- 
sary during the year 1S91 , We hope to see the 
Free Coinage Act passed before the year is 
much farther advanced. Perhaps that will as- 
sist the farmers to buy a suitable present, or 
perchance it will enable soma on the farm to 
join the Grange. 

Having been asked many times if a subordi- 
nate Grange could not elect a maa to full mem- 
bership on the payment of one dollar, and a 
woman on the payment of fifty cents, it may be 
well to say, once again, that such action Is not 
yet legal in California. Ton fee for member- 
ship still remains, for men, $.'i; for women, $1, 
Here is the law. R^ad carefully and cut out 
and paste it in your copy of the Constitution 
of the National Grange : 

Article VII, Constitution National Grange. — 
" The minimum fee for membership in a subor- 
dinate Grange shall be, for men three dollars, and 
for women one dollar for the four degr?cs." 

To which this amendment is added: 

" Provided, That Stale Granges shall have the 
power to reduce the fees within their respective 
jurifdictions to any sum not less than one dollar for 
men and fifty cents lor women." 

The Stats Grange of California has not yet 
reduced the fees; hence it is $3 for men and $1 
for women. 



Who is the man in the Legislature to take the 
lead in doing away with a whole lot of orna- 
mental " boards and oommissioas "? Some 
Constitutional amendments may be required — 
submit them to the people. The people of this 
State will abolish several " boards " if they 
can have the opportunity. Legislators, do 
your constituents the favor of abolishing a 
score of useless, extravagant offices ! 

The Journal of Proceedings of the 24th An- 
nual Session of the National Grange, Patrons 
of Husbandry, held at Atlanta, Ga, , November, 
1890, is at hand. While the writer had heard 
every word therein recorded when it was 
spoken, yet it afiords new and pleasant thought 
and instruction to read the Journal, Each 
Grange in California will, in ,dae time, receive 
a copy of the Proceedings, Keep the book. 
Let the Lecturer read from it from time to 
time. There is instruction on many pages, and 
it costs yon nothing. Come to your Grange 
and purchase thought without money and with- 
out price. 

The pupils of the Orange schools vary in age 
from 14 to 90 years. They are apt and indus- 
trious students. It is a pleasure to see how 
much some of them have learned in the Grange 
school during the past decade. Do you know 
that many of the best parliamentarians in the 
United States have been drilled and skilled in 
the school-room of the Grange? Do yon know 
that some of the best speakers of the day are 



scholars of the Grange class in oratory ? If yon 
are a farmer, or a farmer's wife, son, or 
daughter, and not a Patron of Husbandry, it 
seems to me you had better join the Grange, 
else you will get behind in the race for power; 
for knowledge is power, and the Grange is dis- 
pensing plenty of knowledge. 

That cool, oarefnl, honest man and brother, 
J. H. Brigham, the Worthy Master of the Na- 
tional Grange, has sent a most timely and 
proper letter under date of December 20, 1890. 
It is addressed to every Patron in the United 
States, He cautions us to keep out of partisan 
alliances, and to work for the Grange. Read 
the letter. 



Farmers, as a class, are Independent in ac- 
tion, honest of thought, fearless of public sen- 
timent and opposed to all sorts of extravagance. 
The farmers of California must be on the alert, 
or the Legislature will (if i